In recent years, HIV and AIDS is being recognized as a growing problem among people with disabilities. Research indicates that people with disabilities are at equal or higher risk to HIV infection compared to non-disabled people, are highly vulnerable to sexual violence, and lack access to information, prevention, and treatment and care services. Women with disabilities, disabled members of ethnic and minority communities, disabled adolescents, and people with disabilities who live in institutions are particularly at a greater risk of contracting HIV.
Additionally, people living with HIV are likely to experience temporary and/or chronic impairments at different phases due to acquired infections and side effects from taking antiretroviral drugs which can prevent their full and equal participation in society.
Despite increasing awareness, the field of HIV and AIDS and Disability remains largely overlooked. It is essential that further research is completed for evidence-based policy and programming, and that policy and programmatic responses are integrated to promote inclusive practice and the mainstreaming of disability in HIV and AIDS development initiatives. This relates closely to article 25 of the Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities.
This keylist aims to raise awareness on the issue of HIV and AIDS for people with disabilities, providing access to key documents, tools and resources to support development practitioners, service providers, policy makers and people with disabilities.
We welcome your suggestions: please send comments or suggested additions to email@example.com.
Policies, briefs and rights
This policy brief discusses the actions needed to increase the participation of persons with disabilities in the response to HIV and to ensure that they have access to HIV services which are both tailored to their diverse needs and equal to the services available to others in the community. Recommendations of actions for governments, civil society and aid agencies are provided, having been defined in consultation with a broad range of stakeholders including people living with HIV and persons with disabilities. An example from South Africa is highlighted. This document is beneficial for anyone working in disability and development with HIV and AIDS
This paper briefly outlines the need for collaboration between those advocating the rights of people with disabilities, and those active in the field of HIV and AIDS prevention. It gives an overview of recent studies in the field, and provides information on initiatives which address the issues of disability and HIV and AIDS in Africa and Asia. This document would be useful for people looking for an initial introduction to the cross-cutting issue of HIV and disability with examples from existing programmes in the field
This article looks at the links between HIV and AIDS and disability; gives a brief overview of how both are treated in international human rights law; and looks at some of the ways in which national anti-discrimination laws reflect the links between HIV and AIDS and disability, with representative examples from various countries. The conclusions and recommendations suggest how future collaborations between HIV and disability rights activists might advance human rights at the international level, for example by making use of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
This policy brief presents information highlighting that persons with disabilities are at equal or higher risk of HIV infection than the rest of the community for the following reasons: poor access to information on sexual and reproductive health and HIV&AIDS; poor access to health care, including HIV&AIDS services; poverty and marginalisation; and high rates of sexual abuse and exploitation. Recommended actions are provided to increase the participation of persons with disabilities in the HIV response and ensure they have access to HIV services
"This policy paper describes Handicap International’s mandate and values in operational terms as applied to the theme of inclusive and integrated HIV and AIDS programming. It presents the approaches and references for Handicap International’s actions, choices and commitments. It aims to ensure coherence in terms of practices whilst taking into account different contexts. Essentially this is a guidance document for programme staff which defines the topic and outlines the target populations, methods of intervention (expected results, activities) and indicators for monitoring and evaluation. This policy aims to ensure that all projects carried out by Handicap International programmes are consistent with the methods of intervention presented"
This document is a call by the participants of the second meeting of the Africa Campaign on Disability and HIV&AIDS in March 2008, to all African governments to include disability in its diversity as a crosscutting issue in all poverty reduction strategies. A list of signatories is included
This resource highlights that children and adolescents with disabilities are critical to achieving an AIDS-free generation. It provides information about family- and community-based responses for a disability-sensitive AIDS-free generation, and specific recommendations for working with children, adolescents and young people with disabilities in HIV programmes. Opportunities and entry points for implementation are given, as well as examples of materials developed by adolescents with disabilities and community-based organizations
The purpose of this report is to "increases awareness of the structural barriers that people with disabilities experience in accessing good-quality services. The strategy promotes broad action to achieve universal access to HIV prevention for people with disabilities through full integration into all aspects of the HIV response"
Issues brief JC2362
HIV, disability and rehabilitation
This issue brief considers the links between HIV and disability - that people with disabilities are among the key populations at high risk to exposure to HIV, and that people living with HIV may develop impairments and disabilities as a result of the disease. It anticipates an increased demand for rehabilitation services in Eastern and Southern Africa, given the improved access to HIV treatments and high prevalence of people living with HIV in the region, and warns that many in areas services are already stretched and resource-poor, so may struggle to cope with greater demand. The brief focuses on: issues regarding the definition of disability; implications for rehabilitation services; and considerations for disability grants
This paper describes how organisations take into account, or mainstream, disability and/or HIV and AIDS in their work. In the introduction, guest writer Nora Groce discusses the link between disability and HIV/AIDS and the similarities between the issues. The next chapters examine different forms of mainstreaming, and then discuss the arguments for and against mainstreaming disability and/or HIV/AIDS. Chapter 3 deals with the basic principles of the mainstreaming process. Chapter 4 discusses the integration of the disability and/or HIV/AIDS factor in development activities. This includes activities of and with partners in the South, ie socio-economic projects, awareness raising and training activities in the South. It discusses how mainstreaming implicates the representation and participation of persons with a disability and/or living with HIV or AIDS, and the relevant interest organisations representing both groups, in the initial phases of the project as well in implementation. Chapter 5 deals with mainstreaming in organisational policy. There is a need for Northern NGOs as well as Southern partners to actively adapt their policy to take into account disability and/or HIV/AIDS. Both themes should be integrated into the whole organisational structure, and taken into account when setting up activities and in workplace policy
"An increasing number of individuals may be living with the health-related consequences of HIV and its associated treatments, a concept we term disability. However, the context in which disability is experienced from the HIV perspective is not well understood. The purpose of this paper is to describe the contextual factors that influence the experiences of disability from the perspective of adults living with HIV"
"Provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not an end in itself but a means to achieving improved wellness for people living with HIV. Rehabilitation, broadly defined, is another key contributor to wellness within this context. Understanding the potential for rehabilitation requires that one is able to consider HIV not only within a biomedical model that focuses on body systems, diagnoses and symptoms, but also within a rehabilitation framework that focuses on how these diagnoses and symptoms affect people’s lives more broadly. Furthermore, rehabilitation is a human rights imperative, which deserves the energetic attention enjoyed by other aspects of HIV treatment and care. In particular, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) is shining a long-overdue spotlight on the human rights imperatives associated with disability. For South Africa and other countries, proactively and meaningfully engaging rehabilitation in the HIV response will require major shifts on several fronts, including practice, education, policy and research. We argue that in settings where ART delivery is now widespread, HIV should be understood not only as a medical issue, but as a rehabilitation and disability concern. Whereas medicine adds years to life, it is rehabilitation that aims to add life to years"
Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine, Vol 12, No 2
This article gives a historic overview of the two fields of disability and of HIV. The first field involves people living with HIV and their experiences of disability brought on by the disease. The second field involves people with disabilities and their experiences of vulnerability to, and life with, HIV. The authors argue that although these two fields have evolved relatively independently over time, the divide between them is collapsing, with the result that new understanding about shared concerns and the mutual benefits that may be gained from integrating policies. This resource would useful for people interested in the field of disability and HIV in general
Community-Based Rehabilitation (CBR) is the method of choice for delivering services for people living with disabilities in many countries. HIV/AIDS is changing the daily lives of many women by adding to their responsibilities. How realistically can such women participate actively in community development activities like CBR? This paper examines the impact of HIV/AIDS on CBR in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Observational sessions and individual interviews were conducted with caregivers of children with disabilities, CBR workers and managers over a three month period. Among the findings was a significant decrease in CBR activities in families affected by HIV/AIDS. This change in family priorities was due to better knowledge of acute diseases and increased stigma of HIV/AIDS in comparison to disability. Older CBR workers were more likely to incorporate elements of HIV/AIDS care with CBR, while younger CBR workers were more likely to avoid HIV/AIDS support. The ability of CBR workers to adapt their working habits to an environment with high HIV/AIDS prevalence is linked to their sense of skill competence and their knowledge/beliefs about risk of infection. Further integration of CBR work with general health development initiatives may improve this situation.
Manuals, training tools, guidelines and good practices
This report assesses seven capacities of organisations of people living with HIV and other HIV network organisations to see what makes a well-functioning network. These capacities are: involvement and accountability; partnership alliances; leadership; knowledge and skills; internal communication; impact, outputs and external communication; and management and finance. The report looks at four network organisations in Eastern and Southern Africa, with secondary research drawn from networks in Bangladesh, Nepal and India. The findings and recommendations cannot be applied universally to capacity strengthening in all network organisations, but need to be adapted to the context of each particular group
The strategies for interventions proposed here can provide a framework upon which disability advocates and HIV and AIDS advocates, educators and policy makers can begin to build interventions and support mechanisms for ‘at-risk’ disabled populations. To date, there have been few HIV and AIDS interventions that have directly targeted (or indirectly included) individuals with disability and almost none of these interventions have been systematically monitored or evaluated. The framework proposed here therefore, is intended only as a ‘first step’ in a series of publications on various aspects of disability-inclusive HIV and AIDS interventions and tool kits
"This manual is for use by Trainers of Trainers. i.e. trainers of visually impaired Peer Educators. It has been developed to provide awareness and training on HIV&AIDS prevention, treatment, care and support and to equip blind and partially sighted participants with Peer Educations skills. It is hoped that blind and partially sighted participants will become effective Peer Educators in training other visually impaired persons in their communities"
The user has given permission for the uploaded document to be reproduced and made publicly available on the Source website
This guide provides practical advice to chief executives, board members and senior managers of public bodies in the UK, who are developing or reviewing their disability equality scheme. It also offers important information relating to HIV, to enable public bodies to meet their general duty of promoting disability equality under the UK Disability Discrimination Act 2005
This handbook highlights the factors responsible for the spread of HIV, methods of preventing it within persons with disabilities and how they can be reached and integrated into HIV and AIDS programmes and activities, so as to cause a reduction within its communities and in the general population. It is premised on the fact that many programmes and activities on HIV and AIDS in developing countries especially Sub-Saharan Africa have not realised the need to include persons with disabilities
The purpose of this manual is to provide deaf youth and adults, teachers, parents and guardians with a tool for addressing basic health awareness within an independent framework utilising optimal communication. The activities are participatory and interactive, and are designed with and by deaf Kenyans fluent in Sign Language (SL), and acknowledge the use of other SL variations within the various deaf groups. The three main issues addressed cover sexual education, relationships and hygiene. The manual is designed to blend with the school curriculums/co-curriculum activities, plus other issues that affect students while in school. It also befits other settings such as seminars and workshops, and can be used to tackle a specific subject. It is appropriate for varied ages, communities, cultures, religions, and literacy levels
This brochure uncovers the myths about people with disabilities and provides facts about the risks they face. Specifically, this resource focuses on their exposure to HIV and AIDS education and access to health. This resource would be useful for anyone with an interest in disability and HIV and AIDS
Online libraries and clearing houses
The Canadian working group on HIV and rehabilitation (CWGHR) is a national, charitable organization that responds to the rehabilitation needs of people living with HIV/AIDS. This website presents general information about the working group, featuring their members, publications, research and newsletters. It also provides detailed education information and resources for people living with HIV, health and social care providers and employers. This resource is useful for anyone interested in HIV and rehabilitation
This section of IDDC’s website highlights HIV and AIDS and disability information. It presents general HIV and AIDS and disability information, the HIV and AIDS and disability task group’s focus and related activities, as well as other key resources and partner activities
This dissertation in clinical psychology explores the extent to which South African schools and organisations that work with persons with disabilities deal with issues of HIV and AIDS. The study indicates that although HIV education takes place, issues relating to HIV and AIDS are handled with much anxiety. The results reveal that in some cases HIV education is used to control and oppress disabled people’s sexual expression, instead of empowering them to have fulfilling sexual lives. Issues regarding sexual abuse and rape are also discussed. The dissertation ends with recommendations regarding further research on disabled people’s experiences and the need to address the silence around issues such as rape and abuse. This resource would be useful for people looking for in-depth information on disability and HIV in general (chapters 2 and 3), and with a focus on South Africa in particular (chapters 5 to 7). Moreover, it would be useful to people interested in the psychological aspects of working in the field of HIV (chapter 4)
Studies, reports and case studies
This report documents the obstacles faced by people with disabilities in both the community and healthcare settings. These include pervasive stigma and discrimination, lack of access to inclusive HIV prevention education, obstacles to accessing voluntary testing and HIV treatment, and lack of appropriate support for adherence to antiretroviral treatment. The report also describes the sexual and intimate partner violence women and girls with disabilities face, and the need for the government and international donors to do more to ensure inclusive and accessible HIV services
Note : Accessible and easy read versions are available from the link above
"This article presents the findings of a study on access to HIV prevention and sexual violence protection services among persons with disabilities in Cambodia, based on a gender and cross-impairment analysis. The results show obvious discrepancies between women and men of different impairments in regards to their level of HIV knowledge and risks to sexual violence, in particular among women with disabilities. Furthermore, local services providers revealed their lack of awareness on disability issues and capacity in providing accessible services to them. Ways forward in addressing the rights of women and men with disabilities, as well as gaps in services delivery will have to be addressed in concerted manners at political, societal and community levels"
"This study sought to compare the HIV knowledge and sexual practices of learners with mild/moderate intellectual disabilities and non-disabled learners (NDL) in Nigeria. Findings could help in the development of HIV interventions that are accessible to Nigerian learners with intellectual impairments"
Journal of the International AIDS Society, Vol 16
This study assesses the vulnerability, impact and coping mechanisms of disabled people on HIV and AIDS, and suggests strategies for developing an HIV and AIDS programme for disabled people’s organisations. Using participatory methodologies of inquiry, the study found that disabled people perceive themselves to be at higher risk of HIV infection due to their disability, regardless of their awareness levels. Their social exclusion from the mainstream HIV/AIDS services makes the situation worse. The study revealed that the many myths and misconceptions around HIV and disability increase the vulnerability of disabled people to HIV/AIDS, such as the belief that sex with a disabled person cleanses a person of HIV/AIDS. It also revealed that disabled people have limited access to HIV/AIDS information and limited use of HIV/AIDS services mainly because of the nature of their disability, the location of the facilities and the attitudes of service providers. In conclusion, the study revealed that disabled people are at a higher risk of infection by sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS due to their exclusion from mainstream HIV interventions. This situation is further exacerbated by the lack of policy framework on disability and HIV and AIDS
"More than one billion people worldwide are estimated to be living with a disability. A significant proportion of them lives in Sub-Saharan Africa where they are reported to be at increased risk of HIV. However, quantitative evidence on this remains scarce. A systematic review and a meta-analysis of the risk of HIV infection among people with disabilities living in Sub-Saharan Africa were undertaken. We searched all published or unpublished studies and national surveys reporting HIV prevalence among adults with disabilities living in Sub-Saharan Africa between 2000 and 2013. The risk ratio (RR) of HIV infection in people with disabilities versus people without disabilities was estimated through a random-effects meta-analysis. Of the 12,252 references screened, 13 studies were selected. HIV prevalence varied widely across studies from 1.1% to 29%. Pooled RRs of HIV infection in people with disabilities compared to the general population were 1.31 (1.02–1.69) overall; 1.16 (0.71–1.87) among people with mental illness or intellectual disabilities and 1.07 (0.58–1.95) among people with hearing disabilities. This meta-analysis provides evidence that people with disabilities do not have a lower risk of HIV when compared to the general population, and that women with disabilities are especially affected. A clear increasing gradient in the risk of HIV according to gender and disability status was also observed. The important heterogeneity across studies and their varying quality warrant a closer look at the intersection between disability and HIV. Additional studies with more systematic approaches and with higher-quality methodologies are required to further address this knowledge gap"
AIDS Care : Psychological and Socio-medical Aspects of HIV/AIDS, Volume 26, Issue 12
"This article uses global socio-economic and HIV datasets and compares them to data contained in the most recent World Report on Disability in order to examine the relationship between HIV and disability in Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA). The analysis suggests that disability prevalence may be related to HIV-prevalence in ESA. It identifies research and policy gaps and seeks to shed light on the relationship between the two phenomena. It concludes that, more than any other region in the world, ESA needs to ensure better data collection on disability and the inclusion of disability throughout its HIV programmes in order to provide a comprehensive and appropriate response to the epidemic"
African Journal of Disability, Vol 2, No 1
This article reviews all the literature about disability and HIV and AIDS in Africa in the past decade. It presents data from different surveys and summarises their findings. It also reveals gaps in the research (e.g. research on other disability groups other than the deaf population) and areas of concern (e.g. sexual abuse and the exploitation of people with disabilities). This article would be useful for people interested in research and studies related to the field of disability and HIV and AIDS in Africa
This analysis was carried out by Save the Children UK after reports from the field suggested that disabled people were not accessing HIV prevention information or services, despite being at higher risk of infection. It outlines ways in which disabled people are not fully included in safer-sex communications: for instance blind people hear talk about condoms, but have never held one; the necessity to have a sign-language interpreter for deaf people compromises their right to confidentiality; young girls with disabilities are more likely to be raped and are less able to negotiate safe sex. It recommends the greater integration of disabled people into health and HIV communications and further research to develop disabled-friendly means of communication
This study explores the sexual and reproductive health needs and experiences of people with disabilities, as well as perceptions about HIV and AIDS and disability. The purpose is to address the accessibility of health communication for people with different impairments. This study would be useful for anyone with an interest in HIV and AIDS and disability
"This paper summarises findings from a participatory study which aimed to develop practical guidelines to make HIV programmes in the states of Manipur and Nagaland more disability-friendly...The objectives were to: 1) explore HIV risk and risk perception in relation to people with disability (PWD) among HIV and disability programmers, and PWD themselves; 2) identify HIV-related education and service needs and preferences of PWD; and 3) utilise findings and stakeholder consultation to draft practical guidelines for inclusion of disability into HIV programming in this region of India"
This report concerns HIV and AIDS preventative activities targeting people with disabilities in Kenya. Specifically, the report gathers information concerning the knowledge, attitude and practices among people with disabilities; and qualitative and quantitative data including 618 questionnaires conducted in Nairobi and Mobassa. The report findings advise on the development of policy on HIV and AIDS for people with disabilities in Kenya
This article presents the results of the first scoping review to examine the extent, nature and range of disability among people living with HIV in HIV hyper-endemic countries. The studies indicate that people living with HIV experience a variety of disabilities. Impairments in body structure/function comprise the majority of data, with particular focus on mental function. Data on activity limitations and participation restriction were limited, however, they were recorded. They indicate severe impact on people’s life and possible adherence. The review argues that the time has come to elevate the focus holistically on health and life-related consequences of living with HIV and to integrate disability into the discussions and approaches to HIV care
World Journal of Aids, Vol 3, No 3
This quantitative study compares HIV and AIDS knowledge among hearing and deaf individuals in Nigeria, in order to identify if, and in what way, deaf community members lack access to AIDS information due to low literacy or problems in communication. Significant differences in levels of understanding and access to accurate information were found, indicating the need for inclusion of people with disabilities in HIV and AIDS strategies, and the need to address their specific vulnerabilities. The article would be useful for health and development professionals working in the field of HIVand AIDS, or with deaf individuals in Nigeria
This is a report of the global survey carried out by the Yale School of Public Health and the World Bank, into the research, policies and programmes that concern the impact of HIV/AIDS on disabled people. The report outlines the research methods used and the findings of the research. It concludes that HIV/AIDS represents a significant threat to disabled individuals and populations around the globe, at rates at least comparable to and quite possibly significantly higher than those affecting the general public. Moreover, findings from the survey clearly document that individuals with disability are not included in most AIDS outreach efforts
This article looks at the impact of HIV on people living with permanent physical, sensory, intellectual, or mental health disability. In particular, it considers whether AIDS messages reach disabled populations and the inequity of access to health care that they face
This thesis explores how the cultural context in which people think about disability and HIV exposes disabled people to a higher risk of infection. To investigate this issue, this work analyses the macro-cultural, micro-cultural and individual level of people in the KwaZulu-Natal region of South Africa. This resource would be useful for anyone interested in the cultural aspects of disability and HIV and AIDS
During 2001 Save the Children commissioned a study to explore approaches to engaging youth response to HIV/AIDS. This involved the development of two action research interventions in very different communities, one in a rural community in the Eastern Cape, and the other at a school for the blind. The case studies chosen for the report were selected because they involve young people who have been particularly overlooked in HIV prevention responses, namely disabled young people and young people in rural areas. The projects in these communities set out to explore the capacity of young people to respond to AIDS, and how contextual factors mediate response at individual and community levels
This article reports on work preparatory to the development of a programme focusing on the needs of people with visual impairments in South Africa regarding HIV prevention. Fifteen participants were interviewed, most of whom were in senior positions of organisations in the field of visual impairment and the majority of whom had a visual impairment themselves. Their responses support the view that more work is needed regarding HIV prevention for persons with visual impairments in South Africa. Social exclusion was viewed as an overarching risk factor. This article may be of interest to those working with people with visual impairments in Africa
“The study investigated HIV testing prevalence and factors associated with the utilization of voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) services among individuals with disabilities in Addis Ababa. The analysis was based on a survey of 209 men and 203 women with disabilities, aged 15–49, who had ever heard about HIV and AIDS in four sub-cities in Addis Ababa. HIV testing prevalence was 53.2%, with no significant difference between males and females. Comprehensive HIV knowledge, living with spouse, and religious affiliations positively predicted utilization of VCT services among participants. Living with both parents and having physical or mental/intellectual disabilities were negative predictors of VCT services utilization. More research on the predictors of utilization of VCT services by gender and urban/rural divides are needed among people with disabilities”
AIDS Care: Psychological and Socio-medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV, Vol 26, Issue 10
This article describes a study to investigate the prevalence of HIV in people who are hearing impaired among the population of Yaounde, the capital of Cameroon, and assess their sexual vulnerability, through interviews and, in most cases, HIV testing. The research concludes that hearing impairment is a significant risk factor for contracting sexually transmitted infections and HIV, and that more research is needed into the impact of HIV and AIDS on people with disabilities, particularly those who are hearing impaired, in order to tackle this vulnerability
"South Africa has the largest burden of HIV/AIDS and is currently implementing the largest antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme in the world. It is therefore fitting that South Africa is the first in the world to conduct three repeated national HIV population-based surveys to help monitor our response as a nation to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. This report is the third in a time series of population-based HIV seroprevalence surveys which started in 2002 and were repeated in 2005 and again in 2008"
This report discusses prevalence and causes of disability in Zimbabwe, and explores issues such as poverty, gender, health and HIV, education, employment and sports. It is based on a 2006 survey by Progressio Zimbabwe. The report concludes with a chapter on lessons learned and policy recommendations. This resource provides useful information for people interested in the situation and life of people with disabilities in Zimbabwe
Objective: To systematically review evidence on the prevalence and risk of disabilities among children and adults living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.
Methods: Articles were identified from 1980 to June 2013 through searching seven electronic databases. Epidemiological studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa that explored the association between HIV status and general disability or specific impairments, with or without an HIVuninfected comparison group, were eligible for inclusion.
Results: Of 12 867 records initially identified, 61 papers were deemed eligible for inclusion. The prevalence of disability was high across age groups, impairment types and study locations. Furthermore, 73% of studies using an HIV- comparator found significantly lower levels of functioning in people living with HIV (PLHIV). By disability type, the results were as follows: (i) for studies measuring physical impairments (n = 14), median prevalence of limitations in mobility and motor function among PLHIV was 25.0% (95% CI: 21.8–28.2%). Five of eight comparator studies found significantly reduced functioning among PLHIV; for arthritis, two of three studies which used an HIV- comparison group found significantly increased prevalence among PLHIV; (ii) for sensory impairment studies (n = 17), median prevalence of visual impairment was 11.2% (95%CI: 9.5– 13.1%) and hearing impairment was 24.1% (95%CI: 19.2–29.0%) in PLHIV. Significantly increased prevalence among PLHIV was found in one of four (vision) and three of three studies (hearing) with comparators; (iii) for cognitive impairment in adults (n = 30), median prevalence for dementia was 25.3% (95% CI: 22.0–28.6%) and 40.9% (95% CI: 37.7–44.1%) for general cognitive impairment. Across all types of cognitive impairment, twelve of fourteen studies found a significant detrimental effect of HIV infection; (iv) for developmental delay in children with HIV (n = 20), median prevalence of motor delay was 67.7% (95% CI: 62.2–73.2%). All nine studies that included a comparator found a significant difference between PLHIV and controls; for cognitive development and global delay, a significant detrimental effect of HIV was found in five of six and one of two studies, respectively. In the nine cohort studies comparing vertically infected and uninfected children, eight showed a significant gap in development over time in children with HIV. Finally, fifteen of thirty-one (48%) studies found a statistically significant dose–response relationship between indicators of disease progression (CD4 or WHO stage) and disability.
Conclusions: HIV is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and the evidence suggests that it is linked to disabilities, affecting a range of body structures and functions. More research is needed to better understand the implications of HIV-related disability for individuals, their families as well as those working in the fields of disability and HIV so that appropriate interventions can be developed.
This report looks at the findings of a research project to identify gaps in HIV awareness, prevention, care and support programmes in India and make recommendations on how HIV planning, policy and practice might be made inclusive of people with disabilities. In over 500 interviews with people with disabilities, levels of awareness of HIV and perceptions of vulnerability were explored as well as how these differ according to sex, age, impairment and location. In addition, organisations working on HIV were visited to look at whether people with disabilities were included in their programmes and organisations working with disabilities for their provision of information on HIV. The main recommendation of the report is that one or more disability NGOs become HIV champions to encourage and support the disability sector to engage with the HIV sector. The report offers a series of suggested strategies and some practical recommendations for both sectors. The project was funded by the Programme Management Office on behalf of the Department for International development
People with disabilities, including people with disabilities who are living with HIV, are often excluded from their community and their family. This video presents testimonies of people with disabilities who are living with HIV and proposes actions in Kenya to fight against their exclusion. For example, it highlights support groups that have been created to educate people with disabilities, living with HIV or not, on sexuality, HIV/AIDS, and how to live positively with disabilities and reduce the stress caused by them. Another section of the video presents a support group for parents of children with disabilities where it is encouraged to talk about sexual abuse and violence on children and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. Support groups for hearing and visually impaired people are also presented in the video. In addition to support groups, education and prevention are also promoted by through sport and street shows which contribute to the social inclusion of people with disabilities living with HIV
This video features HIV and AIDS prevention and education initiatives in Kenya. It particularly targets the youth population due to a lack of available information and risk behaviours, such as sexuality, drug use and alcohol use. In order to prevent risks and present treatment options for the youth who are AIDS-carriers, several youth groups organized the following activities to prevent and fight the disease: street theatre for awareness-raising, group education sessions, and promotion of VCT services for communication and information. This video contains several testimonies and one features Mercy, a young girl who has AIDS after working as prostitute to feed her two children and is now involved in a support group