Capacity development

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) defines capacity development as the process through which individuals, organisations, and societies obtain, strengthen, and maintain the capabilities to set and achieve their own development objectives over time.

Capacity development is about growing an individual’s or organisation’s knowledge, skills and experience and can help build leadership; strategic planning; fundraising and financial management; communication strategies; human resources; governance and accountability; and empowerment. It is an organic process that helps a person, group or organisation to evolve. It can be supported or facilitated, but can neither be imposed nor controlled.  The success or failure of cooperation in capacity development depends on the insight and leadership of the individuals involved and their ability to help navigate their respective organisations through complex and often unfamiliar terrain.  The end aim is a learning organisation that is able to reflect critically on what happens inside and outside the organisation and respond proactively to changing circumstances.

This key list draws together a selection of existing resources on capacity development with detailed information on understanding the capacity development process, including organisational assessment; key issues such as change management, building capacity in fundraising, financial management, communication strategies, human resources, empowerment, sustainability, governance and accountability; planning, monitoring and evaluation of capacity development activities; and building the relationship between organisations and NGOs

Selected resources

Understanding capacity development

Capacity building seminars

OECD FORUM ON PARTNERSHIPS AND LOCAL DEVELOPMENT

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The Forum on Partnerships and Local Development (FPLD) is the OECD’s network of practitioners in the field of economic development, employment, skills and social inclusion.   This resource presents capacity building seminars in the field of development to build the capacities of stakeholders at all levels to work in partnerships to better tackle current economic and social challenges

 

Click on the following link to view the Capacity building seminars​

http://www.oecd.org/site/leedforumsite/activities/capacitybuildingseminars/?hf=10&b=0&r=%2Bf%2Fleed_typeofactivity_en%2Fforum+events%2Fcapacity+building+seminars&r=%2Bf%2Fleed_typeofactivity_en%2Fforum%2Bevents%2Fcapacity%2Bbuilding%2Bseminars&sl=leed&s=desc(leed_startdate)

Capacity development : a UNDP primer

WIGNARAJA, Kanni
2009

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"This primer addresses the basic elements of the UNDP approach to capacity development. It provides a simple, cogent and accessible illustration of the UNDP Capacity Development Approach for the benefit of development practitioners both within and beyond the UN development system – a real-world guide to real-world applications to strengthen and contribute to national capacities for development"

Capacity development and partnership : overview and methodology

ZIEGLER, Stefanie
October 2008

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This document is based on the experiences and lessons learned by Handicap International teams and partner organisations in relation to capacity development and developing partnerships between 2001 and 2007, following the creation of the partnership tools. It is the result of reading key documents and of communication between professionals between 2001 and 2007. It has been written as a guide for Handicap International staff

Capacity, change and performance : study report

BASER, Heather
MORGAN, Peter
April 2008

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This comprehensive report looks in detail at the issues of capacity and capacity development including an explanation and discussion of the concept of capacity development. The report considers the main actors who play a part in, and different ways to think about, capacity development; the different conditions under which capacity development takes place; and the processes and strategies that can/should be employed to increase it.  The report is structured to enable readers to easily access the sections that are relevant to them

Discussion Paper No 59B

capacity4dev.eu

EUROPEAID

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Created and managed by EuropeAid in 2009, capacity4dev.eu is the European Commission’s primary online knowledge sharing platform on development, external cooperation and policy, the aim of which is to improve capacity development through knowledge sharing. The interactive platform supports the European Commission's efforts to make technical cooperation more effective provides an open forum where EC staff at country level and in headquarters, development practitioners, partner countries, other donors, academics and civil society representatives can share ideas and knowledge

International Development Research Centre (IDRC-CRDI)

Canada

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250 Albert Street
PO Box 8500
Ottawa, ON, K1P 6M1

The International Development Research Centre aims to help developing countries to address their social, economic and environmental problems through the use of science and technology. It funds local research, provide expert advice and help develop local capacity. Publishes widely around economics, environment and biodiversity, health, information and communication, science and technology, social political sciences and development and evaluation. Publications can be ordered online and many are downloadable as free resources.

Making it work

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL

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This website provides information about Making it Work (MIW), a global multi-stakeholder initiative to promote effective implementation of the Convention for the Right of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). The initiative aims to collect and exchange examples of good practice and to use this to influence policy development in line with the CRPD. The MIW website highlights general information about the initiative and specific information about exisitng MIW projects and reports. It provides access to a series of user-friendly tools and resources to support practitioners working in the field of disability and development. The MIW Guidelines are available in downloadable pdf format in English, French and Spanish. A resource library is provided with links to CRPD-related information, disability and development topics and a news archive. This website is a useful tool for anyone working on disability rights issues

Manual for capacity development : methods document

SCHULZ, Karin
GUSTAFSSON, Ingemar
ILLES, Erik
October 2005

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This manual is a tool to assist with the initial analysis and then the choice of method and procedure in capacity development projects. It provides definitions and concepts, approaches and principles, and sets up a framework for the analysis and describes Sida’s various methods and ways of working

The challenge of capacity development, working towards good practice

ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT (OECD)
January 2006

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This OECD report “draws on four decades of documented experience provided by both bilateral and multilateral donors, as well as academic specialists, to help policy makers and practitioners think through effective approaches to capacity development and what challenges remain in the drive to boost country capacity. The analysis is underpinned by a conceptual framework which guides practitioners to view capacity development at three interrelated levels: individual, organisational and the enabling environment. It provides insights into what capacity development is, why it matters and, more importantly, what can be done to support it”

 

Note: Powerpoint slides are also available at: http://www.oecd.org/env/outreach/40695940.pdf 

Organisational assessment

Capacity assessment methodology : user’s guide

WIGNARAJA, Kanni
COLVILLE, Jennifer
BALASSNIAN, Dalita
May 2007

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This guide provides an overview, and the benefits of, UNDP’s approach to developing and assessing capacity.  It details methods by which to assess capacity and capacity development needs, providing operational guidelines and capacity development strategies.  It provides UNDP and other development practitioners with step-by-step guide using the UNDP default” Capacity Assessment Framework and Supporting Tool", including detailed examples of topics and questions to ask, when conducting a capacity assessment. The UNDP’s approach is presented in the Practice Notes which should be used in conjunction with the User’s Guide

Capacity development

ELDIS

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The Eldis website shares the best information on development policy, practice and research. This resource provides links to capacity development summarised documents which are all available to download free and links to related capacity development organisations

Capacity.org : a gateway for capacity development

CAPACITY.ORG

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Capacity.org was founded in 1999 as a resource portal for the practice of capacity development and the home of capacity.org journal, which was published between 1999 and 2013.  The website provides access to a broad range of related topic-based online resources that practitioners can draw on for their own work, and continues to track capacity development news and resources through several social media networks. The website is intended for practitioners and policy makers who work in or on capacity development in international cooperation in the south

The website also features links to a printed journal and an email newsletter, which are published quarterly in English, French and Spanish

From the roots up : strengthening capacity through guided self-assessment

GUBBELS, Peter
KOSS, Catheryn
2000

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This practical guide begins with a brief overview of capacity development, and instructions on how to use the guide in the field. The nine chapters in the full guide present detailed practical and accessible self-assessment and preparing exercises, planning workshops and exercises for preparing for fieldwork and working with facilitators. The guide also contains appendices, a glossary of key concepts and a list of recommended resources

How to build a good small NGO

ALIN, Fadumo
et al
2006

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A user-friendly and practical guide on how to build and run a small non-governmental organisation (NGO). This manual aims to build good practice into NGOs, and to help recognise, address and solve a range of problems. The manual covers all key aspects of running a small organisation, including identifying mission and purpose, planning, getting legal status, building sustainability, monitoring and evaluation, financial management and fundraising. Each section includes exercises and useful examples. This publication is intended for those starting an NGO and also for small organisations seeking to improve their performance and effectiveness

NGO capacity analysis : a toolkit for assessing and building capacities for high quality responses to HIV/AIDS

International HIV/AIDS Alliance
Ed
July 2004

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This toolkit can be used to identify the capacity building needs of NGOs, plan technical support interventions and monitor and evaluate the impact of capacity building. The toolkit is aimed at people and organisations that support NGOs and CBOs responding to HIV/AIDS in developing countries. Including NGO support programmes, training institutions and individual trainers

NGO self-assessment through a SWOT exercise

NETWORKLEARNING.ORG
January 2016

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This short guide aims to guide non-governmental organisations (NGOs) through a four-step analysis of capacity. Known as a SWOT exercise, this tool has been found to be useful in many NGOs and stands for the "Strengths" and "Weaknesses" within your organisation; plus factors outside your organisation that offer "Opportunities" or pose "Threats."  The guide enables NGOs to lead themselves through the SWOT exercise and make, implement, evaluate and monitor the resulting strategic action plan

Key issues

A guide to fundraising

HAYES, Ernest
ALIN, Fadumo
GINNEKEN, Lia van
February 2006

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A brief and very accessible guide to fundraising, primarily developed for NGOs and project managers. Fundraising is an essential component of an organisation's strategic management and its professional profile. The document discusses the three processes involved in fundraising, the process of professionalism (establishing an organisation), the planning of a project and finding money for the project

Building capacity through financial management : a practical guide

CAMMACK, John
August 2007

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“This guide provides an overview of financial management and the practical tools that can help build the financial capacity of non-profit organisations. Using case studies to demonstrate good practice, it offers practical advice in how to work with a partner organisation to build financial capacity. Intended for managers and trustees of non-profit organisations, the guide provides tools and techniques for using financial skills to improve organisational and programme management. enabling them to build their own financial systems. It is also of use to those assessing another organisation's financial capacity”

LenCD learning network on capacity development

LENCD LEARNING NETWORK ON CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT

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LenCD is an informal and open network of individuals and organisations that share a common interest in improving capacity development practice.  The network aims to promote and facilitate sharing of lessons and learning on capacity development and promote changes for better practice at the global, regional and local levels

NGO manager directory categories

NGO MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION SWITZERLAND

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This directory presents management tools and information for nonprofits worldwide in the following categories: general resources, organisational development, performance management, managing finances, developing human resources, communication and marketing

Practitioner’s guide : strengthening civil society organisations in good governance processes : principles and general procedures

GTZ-FRCS PROJECT TEAM
January 2007

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A critical focus of development projects in countries transitioning to democracy has become the strengthening of civil society.  Providing an effective capacity building training programme necessarily begins with a thorough and reliable identification of the potentials, weaknesses and needs of local civil society entities. The method detailed in this section of the guide proposes a seven step process to help civil society organisations improve their governance processes. Compared to many other civil society programmes, it takes a wide view of civil society, working with more than just formally registered NGOs. It focuses on certain functions that civil society groups can perform in a good governance system rather than their legal forms. In addition there is brief guidance on the method, advice on the purpose of the method and who should use it, and a two examples to help users of the method

Note: The full guide is available to download from the link above

Rural finance and investment learning centre

RURAL FINANCE AND INVESTMENT LEARNING CENTRE

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The Rural Finance and Investment Learning Centre (RFILC) is a web platform dedicated to the dissemination of cutting-edge knowledge for the promotion of rural and agricultural finance and investment in developing countries. It provides access to related materials for capacity development and policy design, in addition to the dissemination of news, events and multimedia

Target clients include all public and private organisations working towards greater financial inclusion and rural and agricultural development, such as financial institutions, governments, civil society organisations, development agencies and academia, among others. Materials such as training manuals, policy guides, and on-line training sessions are disseminated through the RFILC with the purpose of further developing clients’ capacity to deliver improved financial services that meet the needs of rural enterprises and households

Successful communication : a toolkit for researchers and civil society organisations

HOVLAND, Ingie
October 2005

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From the introduction: "This toolkit is for researchers and practitioners who wish to communicate to policymakers. The tools are therefore specifically geared towards the needs of researchers and practitioners in civil society organisations (CSOs), including development NGOs, research institutes, think tanks, universities and networks. The toolkit addresses the questions of how researchers and CSOs can best communicate evidence in order to inform or influence policy, to achieve their own stated development objectives, or simply to make their own knowledge accessible and understandable to a wider audience." After a brief but useful introduction, tools are presented in four sections: planning, packaging, targeting and monitoring

Towards financial self-reliance : a handbook on resource mobilisation for civil society organisations in the south : introduction

HOLLOWAY, Richard

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The resource provides the introductory chapter of a "manual for the use of trainers of facilitators who want to manage a four-day course in ‘Resource Mobilization for Civil Society Organizations in the South’. This Manual provides the core text of the handbook, plus suggestions for how each section of the course can be presented. It contains the hard copy to be made into overheads to assist the facilitator in his/her work. It also contains copies of all the handouts ready for photocopying. Finally, it provides suggestions for the exercises to be used in the course”

UNESCO global report|Opening new avenues for empowerment : ICTs to access information and knowledge for persons with disabilities

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (UNESCO)
February 2013

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This report aims "to provide governments, civil society, industry, academia and other groups with an insight into the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) by persons with disabilities to access information and knowledge around the world; To present an overview and critical assessment of existing information policies and strategies as well as challenges and advantages in using ICTs to access information and knowledge for persons with disabilities; To identify practices at local, national and global levels on effective application of ICTs by persons with disabilities to access information and knowledge; To foster future frameworks on the use of ICTs to access information and knowledge of persons with disabilities (PWD); and Based on the best available information and analysis, to make recommendations for strategy formulation, action-oriented initiatives and new synergies at national, regional and international levels"

Planning and monitoring & evaluation

The capacity development results framework : a strategic and results-oriented approach to learning for capacity development

OTOO, Samuel
AGAPITOVA, Natalia
BEHRENS, Joy
2009

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“The Capacity Development Results Framework (CDRF or the Framework) is a powerful new approach to the design, implementation, monitoring, management, and evaluation of development programs... [It] can be profitably applied to assess the feasibility and coherence of proposed development projects, to monitor projects during implementation (with a view to taking corrective action), or to assess the results, or even the design, of completed projects.  The framework can also be used as a step-by-step guide to the planning, implementation, and evaluation of projects and programs designed to build capacity for development at a national or sub-national level”

VSO facilitator guide to participatory approaches

BRADLEY, D
SCHNEIDER, H
2004

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A facilitator guide published in three parts - (1) Principles; (2) Methods; and (3) Tools - that presents the case for participation and partnership in development and provides a guide to understanding and developing that relationship.  Designed primarily for VSO volunteers, partner organisations and staff,  it is based on VSO’s existing experience in promoting participation in partnerships and is hoped that it will also prove useful to the wider development community, wherever people are committed to facilitating more participation, inclusion and empowerment in the development process

Building the relationship

Partnership guide : a practical guide to be used by partners from the north and the south

COORDINATION SUD
2006

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“This guide was developed to accompany workshops held by French NGOs and their southern and eastern partners in the early 2000s. It illustrates the lessons learnt as a result of the exchanges between the NGOs that participated in the process. The guide provides reflective comments and useful methodological tools that may help improve partnership practices in three areas: partnership strategy development, capacity building in partnerships and the contractualisation process”

The determinants of effectiveness : partnerships that deliver : review of the GHP and ‘business’ literature

DRUCE, Nel
HARMER, Andrew
January 2004

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This paper reviews what makes for good practice in governance and operations, and what determines "partnership effectiveness… what factors determine the extent to which the partnership objectives are achieved; and, what makes some partnerships work better and deliver more added value than others. The paper summarizes two literature reviews that were commissioned, aiming to: a) synthesise the evidence for the determinants of effective partnership from the existing evaluation literature for the major GHPs; and b) from the wider business and political science field and finds good (and less good) practices that results in more (or less) effective partnerships"

Study paper No. 6 of the 2004 DFID Study: Global Health Partnerships [GHP]: Assessing the Impact

The partnering toolbook

TENNYSON, Ros
2003

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This publication is in three parts: Part 1 is a short book that describes the generic partnering process from inception to conclusion. Part 2 is in the form of ‘stand alone’ tools to enable practitioners to develop effective partnerships. Part 3 includes more information about the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN), the issues around food fortification and case studies selected to be locally appropriate for each of the different language versions

Experiences of NGOs

Building effective States : forging engaged societies

WORLD BANK
September 2005

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"This report of the Task Force on Capacity Development in Africa analyzes four decades of capacity development experience in Africa and offers key messages for African countries and their international partners that should underpin a renewed effort to develop, use, and retain capacity for development in Sub Saharan Africa. It also presents specific recommendations of how the World Bank, as a leading development agency in the region, should step up its analytical, financial, and operational contribution to capacity development as part of a coordinated international effort under the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. This paper contains the following chapters: why capacity development - and why now; governance matters for sustained capacity development; the new paradigm for capacity development; from shared vision to implementation platform - renewing the compact; and updating the World Bank's approach to capacity development in Africa - business unusual. The paper includes five annexes that cover the consultations, the literature review, and the country and portfolio evidence collected by the Task Force. It also includes a note on the World Bank Institute's capacity development activities in Africa"

Report number 37709

Capacity is development : stories of institutions

UNDP CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT
January 2010

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This report presents a series of narratives aims to capture the national and local institutional transformations, led and driven by the institutions themselves, that UNDP has supported over the years at the country level. These stories have been collated and synthesised by the UNDP Capacity Development Group, drawing on data and narratives provided mainly by UNDP Country Offices in each region. Each narrative clearly outlines the situation, response and results

Series 1

Successful projects : what makes them work? a cross-national analysis of the studies of projects that have improved the quality of life of people with intellectual disabilities in India, Romania, Kenya and South Africa

GUSTAVSSON, Anders
et al
January 2007

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“This cross national analysis is based on national studies made by research teams in India, Kenya, Romania and South Africa. It aims to draw out the lessons learnt from successful social development processes in these countries. In each country, studies have been made of projects identified as interesting, successful and/or outstanding in the way they have improved the quality of life of people with intellectual disabilities. This comparative report briefly describes the national studies, from which the respective teams made their own national conclusions and continues with across national analysis attempting to identify circumstances or factors that are common to these successful projects. Finally, the report summarises the conclusions and their implications”

World Bank group supported transformational leadership program in Madagascar : final evaluation

KABELL KONSULTING APS
January 2008

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This report presents an evaluation of the Transformational Leadership Programme (TLP) in Madagascar.  The TLP is one of the Bank’s most longstanding leadership development programmes, and one that has been accompanied by an evaluative process. This report presents the findings to allow for simultaneous learning about both the programme and the difficulties of evaluation of this type of evolving programme