Processes of intervention

Provision of services is key. The child/caregiver relationship is central, and services should seek to involve primary caregivers in preference to any institutional alternative. Services should be community-driven and address the real issues. They should be cost-effective, sustainable and build on existing strengths. Holistic and integrated approaches work better than isolated interventions.

Interventions should be rights-based. Rights-based approaches see young children not as beneficiaries but as rights holders, in a manner that protects their interests and dignity.

We welcome your feedback: please send comments or suggested additions to sourceassistant@hi-uk.org

Selected resources

Policies on child care

Better care, better services : standards for children and young people in care

JOHNSON, Kay
2007

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This paper sets out standards that have been developed from the guiding principles in Australia's Children and Community Services Act 2004. This Act provides the legislative framework for working with children and young people in care or where there may be concerns regarding a child’s safety. Foremost of these is the principle that the best interests of the child is the paramount consideration

Child health : generating the will

WORLD VISION
2009

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This edition of Global Future explores the nature of political will and what is required to reduce rates of under-five mortality and realise Millennium Development Goals (MDG) four (to reduce under-five mortality) and five (to improve maternal health). Authors from around the world lay out the "why, who, what and how" of the actions needed to realise these MDGs and get more countries on track quickly. At the time of publication only 16 of the 68 countries with the highest rates of child death were on track to reach MDG four

Children on the brink 2002 : a joint report on orphan estimates and program strategies

DENNIS, Mark
ROSS, Julia
SMITH, Shelley
Eds
July 2002

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This report contains statistics on children orphaned by HIV/AIDS from 88 different countries, analysis of the trends found in these statistics and principles for helping children. This is the third report in a series (previous reports in 1997 and 2000) and is a collaboration between USAID, UNICEF and UNAIDS. Critical points addressed in the report are that HIV/AIDS has created an orphan crisis, but that orphans due to other causes also need attention. AIDS threatens chidren's lives, and communities with a high proportion of orphans requiring urgent assistance. The crisis is such that no one can act alone and therefore collaboration is the key

Children on the brink 2004 : a joint report of new orphan estimates and a framework for action

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
USAID
July 2004

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Millions of children are growing up without parents. Millions more are in households with family members sick or dying from AIDS; children in sub-Saharan Africa have been hardest hit. This report presents the latest statistics on historical, current and projected numbers of children under 18 who have been orphaned by AIDS and other causes. This edition of the biennial report underscores the changing needs of this vulnerable group as they progress through adolescence and calls for the urgent development and expansion of family and community support

Conducting a situation analysis of orphans and vulnerable children affected by HIV/AIDS : a framework and resource guide

WILLIAMSON, John
COX, Adrienne
JOHNSTON, Beverly
February 2004

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This document moves towards a standard framework to help people involved in programmes conduct a situation analysis concerning orphans and vulnerable children (OVCs) in the context of HIV/AIDS. It includes the process of planning the situation analysis, defining its purpose, goals and objectives. It provides advice on methods to gather data and frameworks for assessing health, education and economic impacts of HIV/AIDS on OVCs. Analysis, reporting and communication of the information found is discussed

Declaration of commitment on HIV/AIDS : "Global Crisis-Global Action"

UNTED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY (UNGASS)
2001

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The declaration notes the scale of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, which constitutes a global emergency, and reaffirms previous commitments on HIV/AIDS made through other declarations. It stresses the need for strong leadership at all levels of society as essential for an effective response. It also suggests that prevention is the mainstay of the response, with care, support and treatment as fundamental elements. The realisation of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all is declared necessary to reduce vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. Empowering people, especially women, is essential to reducing vulnerability. Children and children orphaned by AIDS are also mentioned. Investing in sustainable development and national poverty alleviation strategies to address the impact is vital, as is research and development

Defining orphaned and vulnerable children

SKINNER, D
et al
2004

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This research forms part of a broader project aimed at development and evaluation of interventions for orphaned and vulnerable children. The paper aims to provide a definitional framework and an understanding of orphans and vulnerability

Great expectations

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO)
November 2004

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The subject of World Health Day 2005 is maternal and child health. In the lead up to World Health Day on 7 April 2005, six mothers-to-be living in different countries of the world are sharing their experiences of pregnancy and childbirth. The six unique stories reflect a common theme, the central importance of child health to families, communities and societies and aim to raise awareness of the challenges faced on a global level in improving maternal and newborn health

Health South Africa : efforts to ARV for kids are still in their infancy

NDURU, Moyiga
May 2004

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An interesting article noting the challenges of supplying the medicines to HIV positive children who have received little attention. Early in 2004 the South African national programme to provide anti-retrovirals (ARVs) became operational. There is now hope that this will bring opportunities for under 14 year olds including very young children to gain more access to the drugs. The government is seeking to treat over 50,000 people per year under the ARV programme. In private clinics it costs almost US$93 to put a child on ARV for one month although this has halved since two years ago. Doctors and health officials are debating about what age is right for a child to start ARV treatment although theoretically it can start as soon as it is born. Doctors Without Borders advises that treatment should start as soon as a child is discovered to be HIV positive so that the immune system is bolstered

HIV and AIDS treatment and care policy

DEPARTMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (DFID)
2004

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This UK government policy was launched in 2004. It outlines UK support for efforts to provide increased access to treatment and care for people living with HIV, including those who are most vulnerable and marginalised. As well as looking at strategies to increase supply and funding of drugs, the policy outlines the need to strengthen health services, link prevention and care, and increase donor coordination

HIV and infant feeding : framework for priority action

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2003

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This is a key publication on infant feeding in the context of HIV and AIDS. The framework recommends to governments key actions related to infant and young children feeding, that cover the special circumstances associated with HIV and AIDS. The aim is to create and sustain an environment that encourages appropriate feeding practices for all infants, while scaling up interventions to reduce HIV transmission. It identifies five priority areas for governments and considers the role of UN agencies

HIV/AIDS : what about very young children?

DUNN, Alison
July 2004

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This short paper reflects findings from research carried out to identify current responses to meet the needs of children age 0-8 living in HIV/AIDS affected communities. The overall results show that at local, national and international levels there are gaps in programming and policy to engage ideas and mobilise resources to address the needs and experiences of very young children both infected and affected by HIV/AIDS. The question is then raised: What can we actually do to include very young children in programming and policy responses in HIV/AIDS affected communities? Supporting existing family and community networks and current efforts that are being made by people confronting HIV/AIDS on a daily basis are important strategies. Conclusions are drawn indicating that services are required urgently to support very young children both directly and through the families and communities in which they live. Ways of listening to and including very young children in these processes need to be developed and used. Partnerships need to be developed between parents, families, NGOs, CBOs and government to ensure the holistic development of the child. At policy levels, very young children need to be included in programmes that address children, HIV/AIDS and community development. All government ministries can participate in meeting the needs of very young children in HIV/AIDS affected communities

Integrating food and nutrition into HIV and AIDS strategies

MCDERMOTT, Peter
2005

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This is a slide presentation which considers the role of food and nutrition in the context of HIV and AIDS. It notes the vicious cycle of malnutrition, HIV and poverty and the effects of HIV and AIDS on nutrition, household food security and food production. HIV and AIDS also have an impact on the agricultural sector and examples are shown from Kenya, Zambia and Malawi. Increased malnutrition can lead to adults needing more access to quality health care but not getting it, increased caring for sick adults means less time for childcare, and children drop out of school to help with household labour. Finally, UNICEF support to nutrition and HIV and AIDS is shown along with their current operational approach. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Food Program (WFP) approach is also considered

Meeting the special needs of young children : the way forward

WORLD BANK
2004

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The ECD HIV/AIDS Workshop in Tanzania 12 - 16 April 2004, co-sponsored by the World Bank, UNICEF and UNAIDS, was the first of its kind in Sub-Saharan Africa. The objectives were to accelerate the early child development response in the region to learn how to access World Bank funding for ECD AIDS activities and to prepare an ECD HIV/AIDS action plan. This report gives a short summary of the workshop

Operational guidelines for supporting early child development (ECD) in multi-sectoral HIV/AIDS programs in Africa

SEIFMAN, Richard
SURRENCY, Amber
2003

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The document suggests how services that address young children's needs might be fully integrated into a national multisectoral HIV/AIDS programme. It gives advice on developing national ECD policies, programmes and interventions, multisectoral ECD approaches, and ways to advocate, implement, monitor and evaluate these efforts. It makes suggestions of interventions for very young children and is a resource for other national HIV/AIDS programme topics

Paediatric ARV roll-out in South Africa

HORIZONS PROGRAM
CAPE TOWN UNIVERSITY
2005

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The Horizons Program of the Population Council and the University of Cape Town are conducting a study to identify successful programme strategies in paediatric HIV treatment in South Africa and to determine priority knowledge gaps to be addressed by operations research. This report summarises key findings from the initial consultative workshop of expert practitioners and stake-holders, focusing on the status of providing antiretroviral therapy to children in South Africa and strategies to expand and improve services. It includes providing services to under six year olds

Policies for orphans and vulnerable children : a framework for moving forward

SMART, Rose
July 2003

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This paper presents a summary of the global orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) situation, and current policy responses. It is meant for individuals with strategic decision making responsibilties for HIV/AIDS programmes. It firstly defines what is meant by OVC and points out that sub-Saharan Africa has the most OVCs in the world and is therefore the focus of the paper. It outlines existing policy frameworks in responding to OVC including international and national instruments. It identifies policy gaps in national responses to the OVC crisis, and proposes a country-level OVC policy package based on current thinking. The focus is on children under 18 in general, and there is no response to specific age groups

Protect for the future : placing children's protection and care at the heart of the MDGs

DELAP, Emily
et al
July 2010

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This paper argues that, in relation to children, this vital change in approach must go beyond a consideration of survival, health and education rights already specifically referred to in the millennium development goals (MDGs), to encompass rights relating to children’s protection and care. These include recognition of the central importance of family-based care for child wellbeing, and children’s rights to be free from violence, exploitation, abuse and neglect. It is argued that only through a consideration of such rights will it be possible to make wide-reaching and sustainable progress in efforts to alleviate child poverty, increase access to education, improve maternal and child health, and reduce the spread of HIV and AIDS

State of the world's children 2002 : leadership

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
2001

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The State of the World's Children 2002 presents models of leadership from individuals, agencies, organisations and alliances that have improved the lives of children and families. The report spotlights the 'Say Yes for Children' campaign and the UN Special Session on Children

State of the world's mothers 2007 : saving the lives of children under 5

SAVE THE CHILDREN
2007

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This year’s State of the World’s Mothers report shows which countries are succeeding, and which are failing, to save the lives of mothers and children. It examines how investments in health care and nutrition can make a difference for children, mothers, communities and society as a whole. It also points to proven, low-cost solutions that could save the majority of these young lives

Successful leadership : country actions for maternal, newborn and child health

PARTNERSHIP FOR MATERNAL, NEWBORN AND CHILD HEALTH
2008

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This document provides country-specific summaries of actions taken on a national level to improve maternal and child health. The summaries do not provide a comprehensive assessment of the progress made by individual countries, but demonstrate the importance of five factors: 1. Successful political leadership (Thailand) 2. Sound health policies (Indonesia and Tanzania) 3. Effective financing (Mexico) 4. Strong health systems (Nepal and Senegal) 5. Action to achieve equity (Bangladesh and Chile). Each summary covers: progress on MDGs, supportive policies and interventions, outcome, and key lesson

The state of Africa's children 2008 : child survival

ROGERS, Kate
GEBRE-EGZIABHER, Hirut
2008

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This report complements UNICEF’s ‘State of the World’s Children 2008’. It considers progress towards the related Millennium Development Goals in the region and the main causes of child deaths. It considers health-care systems and community-based approaches to providing maternal and child health care and outlines priorities required to accelerate progress

UN Millennium Project 2005 : who's got the power? Transforming health systems for women and children. Task Force on Child Health and Maternal Health

FREEDMAN, Lynn P
et al
2005

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This report has been produced by the Task Force on Child Health and Maternal Health. It identifies technical interventions needed to address the problems of high rates of maternal mortality, continued child deaths due to preventable illnesses, unmet need for sexual and reproductive health services, and weak and fragile health systems. The report also asserts that policymakers must act now to change the fundamental societal dynamics that currently prevent those most in need from accessing quality health care

UNICEF and WHO call for stronger support for the implementation of the joint United Nations HIV and infant feeding framework

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
December 2004

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This call for support aims to strengthen plans to help women who may be HIV positive to choose the right feeding option for their child. A framework has been created by the UN which recognises that special attention and practical support is needed in exceptionally difficult circumstances, including the presence of HIV. The framework outlines five priority areas

Using social transfers to improve human development

DEPARTMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (DFID)
February 2006

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This note provides an introduction to how social transfers - particularly cash transfers and vouchers - can improve human development, particularly for the extreme poor and socially excluded

Working group on integrated early childhood development policy, planning and research : recommendations

VARGAS-BARON, Emily
2002

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These recommendations, from the Working Group of the Early Childhood Development Conference in 2002, note the need for every nation to establish a national policy framework for Integrated Early Childhood Development (IECD). This should be highly participatory in a process that is country driven, not donor driven. IECD should be promoted as a national security issue and as a tool for poverty eradication and socio-economic development. The recommendations include a section on children affected by HIV and AIDS and their caregivers. There are recommendations for a detailed plan for children affected by HIV and AIDS, to include programs that address issues and needs at family and community levels, with institutional care as the last resort

Young children and HIV/AIDS : mapping the field

SHERR, Lorraine
January 2005

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This paper offers a concise and comprehensive overview of the literature from a psychological perspective. It explores a range of issues in emotional, psychological, social and physical development, and their relation to broader issues including poverty, nutrition and human rights. It idenifies gaps in knowledge and will help funders, policy makers and practitioners to locate their own work in the bigger picture. It is accompanied by an annotated bibliography

Early childhood education programmes

A parrot on your shoulder : a guide for people starting to work with orphans and vulnerable children

INTERNATIONAL HIV/AIDS ALLIANCE
2004

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This book is designed to help people who work with children initiate meaningful dialogue and engage them in a cheerful and positive manner. It considers issues around encouraging children’s participation, why it is important, and what to include when planning children’s participation. It discusses issues of safety in accordance with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and why, how and when to use games. It contains activities and ideas on how to include children in participatory processes

Early childhood development

TORKINGTON, Kate
January 2001

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This article delivers details on the Working Group on Early Childhood Development (WGECD) as one of the most recent working groups of the Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA). It describes its activities and the policy studies project which provides information to African governments about ECD policies that have been developed in Africa. It also takes a look at ECD and HIV/AIDS and the role of WGECD and UNICEF

Formative communication research on early childhood development in Uganda

BAUME, Carol A
et al
2004

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This is a report on findings of five years of communication research on parental interaction with young children in Uganda. The purpose was to identify factors that inhibit and encourage positive parental interactions (PPI) with young children, in order to guide the development of project communication and intervention strategies. The study covered opportunities for parent-child interaction, concepts of intelligence, parental role in school outcomes, beliefs and attitudes about child development, current parental interaction with children and behavioural analysis and program implications

Impact of AIDS on early childhood care and education

HEYMANN, Joey
June 2003

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This policy briefing sets out the background of the HIV pandemic and notes thats its impact has transformed childhood. Findings from a study in Botswana assessing the impact show results in areas of childcare, caring for sick children and parental time with children. Policy recommendations are made concerning the implications for the quality, quantity and nature of early childhood care and education services needed, and also for the supports that are necessary to enable parents and extended family members to care for children who are affected and infected by HIV

Keeping children safe toolkit : a toolkit for child protection

KEEPING CHILDREN SAFE COALITION
2011

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This toolkit is a complete package for people working in safeguarding children across the world. It aims to support agencies at international, national and local levels to put these standards into practice. This revised toolkit for child protection includes material on children's participation in child protection. The toolkit has five components: Tool 1: Standards for child protection Tool 2: How to implement the standards Tool 3: Training for child protection Tool 4: Children's participation in child protection Tool 5: Film
Note: The original version of this document is also available to download in Arabic and Albanian

Orphans and schooling in Africa : a longitudinal analysis

EVANS, David
MIGUEL, Edward
2005

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This paper looks at the impact of parent death on primary school participation using an unusual five-year panel data set of over 20,000 children in rural Kenya. There was a focus on children who began the study period as non-orphans and compare children who subsequently lost a parent to those who did not. There is a substantial decrease in school participation following a parent death as well as evidence of a drop before the death. Effects are largest for children whose mothers died, for young girls (under age 12) and for children with low base line academic performance. The authors then discuss implications for the design of programmes to assist orphans and vulnerable children

Supporting early childhood development (ECD) in HIV/AIDS programs for Africa

EMING YOUNG, Mary
2003

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This PowerPoint presentation is a good overview of reasons why it is important to address early childhood development (ECD) in HIV/AIDS programmes for Africa; what policy makers need to know about ECD in relation to HIV/AIDS; and how governments can partner with civil society to support ECD HIV/AIDS interventions. It examines the potential negative consequences for a child born in an AIDS affected community, and how ECD programs benefit communities. The potential direct beneficiaries are identified and finally an ECD HIV/AIDS policy package is suggested

Good practices in Care interventions

A family is for a lifetime

WILLIAMSON, Jan
December 2003

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A discussion on the need for family care for children living in HIV/AIDS affected communities followed by an annotated bibliography. This pulls together the best research and experience from practice to provide important guidance to responses at family levels. Community based responses are difficult to define and this identifies the need to find a consensus so as to provide a way forward for action. The discussion in the paper is a review of 80 documents about the provision of care for children lacking family care in countries affected by HIV/AIDS

A sensitisation programme for volunteers offering psychosocial support to vulnerable children affected by HIV/AIDS, violence and poverty|Participants' manual

KILLIAN, Beverley
January 2003

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This manual sets out an holistic approach to the psychosocial needs of children, focussing not just on those affected by HIV and AIDS but all living in impoverished communities. Helpfully, the activities in the manual are separated out into specific days and give a clear and concise explanation of the expected outcomes of each intervention

Advancing newborn health : the saving newborn lives initiative

TINKER, A
et al
January 2010

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The value of low-cost, community-based interventions and strategies in significantly reducing newborn mortality has been demonstrated by targeted research, focused on overcoming the key barriers to improved newborn survival. This research is part of Saving Newborn Lives, an initiative, which is helping to address what was previously a largely neglected area within the global health agenda but is increasingly being addressed by assistance agencies, national governments and non-governmental organisations. Building on what has been learned from this and other efforts to date, the challenge is to reach the millions of newborns still at risk

Approaches to caring for children orphaned by AIDS and other vulnerable children : essential elements for a quality service

LOENING-VOYSEY, Heidi
WILSON, Theresa
February 2001

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This research study examines responses to the care of orphaned children. The goal of the study is to develop policy recommendations for the care of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in South Africa. It complements a partner study into the cost effectiveness of care. Here quality care is that which meets the needs of children in a culturally acceptable way and enables them to realise their rights. It examines a variety of approaches to care from formal to non-formal ways and examples, and case studies are looked at in order to evaluate quality. Conclusions and recommendations are made around the continuum of approaches for the care of OVC, the capacity of households to care for OVC, mobilising communities to care for OVC, and providing a safety net for OVC

Bernard Van Leer Foundation annual report 2002 : young children and HIV/AIDS

BERNARD VAN LEER FOUNDATION
2002

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This report briefly reviews the Foundation's operational year and then goes on to discuss whether, in the wake of the United Nations Special Session on Children in May 2002, young children really are on the international agenda. 2002 was a change for the Foundation, whose new strategic plan concentrated on the Foundation as a learning organisation, building and sharing knowledge in key areas of childhood development. Both the programmatic departments of Development and Management, which works with partners to operationalise projects, and Documentation and Communication, which gathers experience and information to analyse and learn, take part in this approach

Bernard Van Leer Foundation annual report 2003: young children and HIV/AIDS

BERNARD VAN LEER FOUNDATION
2003

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The Bernard Van Leer Foundation is committed to actively engaging with and supporting early childhood development activities in over 40 developing and industrialised countries. The Foundation's 2003 annual report gives a succinct overview of activities, clearly communicating around their mission and work and engaging with the current debate around the accountability of not for profit organisations. The report notes how the Foundation is working towards achieving various goals including working with a clear learning agenda, increasing synergies between the work of partners, their own work and the efforts of the broader ECD community and enhancing their communications functions and strengthening its advocacy role. The report contains an overview of the Foundations' grant-making activities and of the financial aspects of grant-making. A section on the work of the Foundation includes two major initiatives on 'Young Children and HIV/AIDS' and 'Respect for Diversity' which were launched in 2003 and a third 'Growing up in Indigenous Socities' which began in 2002

Child needs assessment tool kit : a tool kit for collecting information your organization needs for designing programs to help young children in areas heavily impacted by the HIV/AIDS epidemic

TASK FORCE FOR CHILD SURVIVAL AND DEVELOPMENT
December 2001

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The Task Force for Child Survival and Development was commissioned by the Early Child Development Team of the World Bank to develop an assessment tool to help programmes address issues and needs of young families and their children. The tool kit was designed to access the needs of young children (under 8 years old) in communities heavily affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The assessment provides information about the household, family, the main caregiver of young children, each child under 8 years of age, their basic needs (housing, food, clothing, bedding, daily activities, health, education and childcare), and unmet needs. The information from the assessment is intended to be used to design service programmes targeted to the needs of young children and their families
The needs assessment is carried out through the use of a survey of households in the area serviced by the organisation. If a survey of all households is not possible, simple random sampling or cluster survey methodology is used

Children in crisis : good practices in evaluating psychosocial programming

DUNCAN, Joan
ARNTSON, Laura
2004

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This manual attempts to articulate major principles of psychosocial project design and evaluation practices in concise, user-friendly terms. It is intended for field-based managers and coordinators of psychosocial programming, as well as for managers of emergency relief programmes who may want to integrate psychosocial programming methods into more traditional relief efforts, such as food distribution, construction projects, and medical assistance. The manual also seeks to heighten critical awareness of the cultural and ethical issues associated with psychosocial work

Community care, change and hope : local responses to HIV in Zambia

LUCAS, Sue
2004

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This case study documents a successful model for facilitating a strong community response to HIV and AIDS. The Salvation Army Change Programme in Ndola and Choma Districts in Zambia illustrates the facilitation process stimulating an appropriate local response to HIV and AIDS and essential component of human capacity development. The model builds on local strengths and resources, stimulating ordinary people to address the barriers that prevent them from using HIV and AIDS information and services to prevent new infections, compassionately care for those who are infected and mitigate the effects of the epidemic on families and the community. Only by addressing personal risk, stigma and the potential for personal and societal change will the demand for and use of voluntary counselling and testing, prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy services increase

Early childhood development resource pack

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
2008

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This Resource Pack is designed to help programme planners and managers understand the basic elements of the best start in life for children and how to most effectively work together to achieve those goals. It combines advocacy arguments with experiences, exercises and information that can be used to develop skills and understand programming for young children in development and emergency situations

Going to scale : lessons learned by the IMPACT project on meeting the needs of orphans and other vulnerable children

FAMILY HEALTH INTERNATIONAL (FHI)
October 2008

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The Implementing AIDS Prevention and Care (IMPACT) Project, ran between 1997 and 2007, and used a comprehensive response to HIV prevention, care, and treatment worldwide. By the end of IMPACT, FHI had directed efforts to support orphans and other vulnerable children and their families in 13 countries. Key learnings from the project were that: OVC programmes should be designed to be as comprehensive as possible w ithin resource constraints; key stakeholders must be involved in the OVC response; the organisational capacities of CSOs engaged in OVC programmes need to be strengthened; subgrants should be provided to local implementing partners while their capacities are being strengthened; referral networks and linkages must be strengthened to maximize the response; simple community-based monitoring and information systems should be set up; work toward sustainability is essential; and technical leadership must be expanded at community, national, regional, and international levels

Improving birth outcomes : meeting the challenge in the developing world

BALE, Judith R
STOLL, Barbara J
LUCAS, Adetokunbo O
Eds
2003

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This report reviews evidence on key interventions that could greatly improve birth outcomes in developing countries. It reviews the available statistics of low birth weight, prematurity, and birth defects; reviews current knowledge and practices of a healthy pregnancy, identifies cost-effective opportunities for improving birth outcomes and supporting families with an infant handicapped by birth problems

Management of birth asphyxia in home deliveries in rural Gadchiroli : the effect of two types of birth attendants and of resuscitating with mouth-to-mouth, tube-mask or bag-mask

BANG, Abhay T
et al
2005

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This article reports the results of a study to evaluate the effect of home-based neonatal care on birth asphyxia and to compare the effectiveness of trained traditional birth attendants and village health workers in using mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, tube-mask or bag-mask interventions

Matrix of five types of ECD HIV/AIDS interventions, suggested outcome indicators, and comments

WORLD BANK
2004

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This is a matrix of the five recommended types of Early Childhood Development (ECD) and HIV and AIDS interventions. It includes suggestions of delivery services to young children, education and support for families and caregivers, training and support of care providers, sensitisation through the mass media and community mobilisation. It provides indicators and comments for each of these categories and is a useful overview of the key interventions which could take place in this field

Orphan programming in Zambia : developing a strategy for very young children in Zambia

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
July 1998

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This is a report of an assessment of UNICEF's programming in Zambia for children in general and those affected by HIV/AIDS. The assessment follows the release of the report "Children on the Brink", which was a wake up call to the international development community. The report discusses current programmes and opportunities for expanded programming with government personnel, NGOs, business and private sector associations, other UN agencies and bilateral donors operating in Zambia. It also extensively reviews literature and documentation

Orphans and other vulnerable children support toolkit

INTERNATIONAL HIV/AIDS ALLIANCE
FAMILY HEALTH INTERNATIONAL
December 2005

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This is a collection of information, tools and guidance on supporting orphans and other vulnerable children living in a world with HIV/AIDS. It covers a wide range of subject areas, including running a programme, health and nutrition, education, psychosocial support, economic strengthening, living environments and children's rights. It contains a wide range of useful resources on the different topic areas. It also contains a section on early childhood development

Sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency : progress since the 1990 World Summit for Children

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
2008

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This report has three purposes. First, it reviews the global and national efforts to eliminate IDD during the past two decades. And it shows how governments, the salt industry and communities, with UNICEF support, have made great progress in eliminating iodine deficiency through universal salt iodization. Second, it captures the lessons learned and best practices in the elimination of IDD in various countries. Third, it proposes an agenda against IDD as a vital step towards preventing adverse effects on international development and human potential

Taking critical services to the home : scaling-up home-based maternal and postnatal care, including family planning, through community midwifery in Kenya

MWANGI, Annie
WARREN, Charlotte
2008

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This publication is the report of a project to scale-up a community-based model, in Kenya, that enabled women to give birth safely at home or be referred to a hospital when attended by a self-employed skilled midwife living in the community. The findings of the project were that community midwifery contributed to increasing the proportion of women assisted by skilled attendants during birth in the four districts in which the scheme was trialed, amounting to just under half of all skilled attended births in the districts. Although the skilled birth attendant rate in these districts was well below the national average of 42 percent, there was a steady increase in the proportion of attended deliveries since CMs were introduced in 2005. The districts also reported an increase in postnatal assessments in the first 48 hours and increase in immunization coverage

The cost-effectiveness of six models of care for orphans and vulnerable children in South Africa

DESMOND, Chris
GOW, Jeff
2001

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An analysis of the most cost effective way of providing care for orphaned children in South Africa. It examines six models of care ranging from formal children's homes to community-based structures. The paper is part of a combined study, the other part of which looks at the quality of different types of orphan care and their associated costs. There is initially a detailed look at the various categories of care followed by an outline of the method used to evaluate cost. Six case studies are examined and conclusions and recommendations are made as a result of evaluation

USAID announces HIV/AIDS grant finalists

UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (USAID)
May 2004

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Press release announcing the funding of four projects by USAID through the Community REACH program, which aims to promote scaling up successful creative community based programs which have a demonstratble impact on the HIV/AIDS pandemic

Social welfare systems/structures

A description of the selected interventions for the care of orphans and vulnerable children in Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe

DLAMINI, Phetsile K
2004

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This report contributes to phase one of a research programme which explores the social, political, economic and systemic determinants that affect vulnerability to HIV. This report documents existing interventions to gain more in-depth knowledge of interventions at grassroots level, identify their strengths and weaknesses, and consider opportunities and threats; analyse and assess the outcomes of such interventions and whether objectives were met, including the impact on vulnerable children, their families and communities, considering nutritional and education status, and psychosocial well-being; ascertain the level of awareness around HIV and AIDS, and especially of prevention strategies and care

AIDS orphans assistance database (AOAD)

ASSOCIATION FRANCOIS XAVIER BAGNOUD (AFXB)
WORLD BANK, Early Childhood Development Team

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The purpose of the AOAD is to facilitate cooperation among organisations and individuals assisting children made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS and their care givers. The AOAD allows users to find, learn about and contact each other. The database also aims to help donors identify potential project partners directly, thus eliminating costly intermediaries. The purposes of the database include helping practitioners in the field to connect and exchange views and insights; helping community-based organisations and local NGOs identify potential sources of support; helping donors identify potential implementing partners; and helping programming agencies identify technical service providers

Assessment and improvement of care for AIDS-affected children under age 5

LUSK, Diane
HUFFMAN, Sandra L
O'GARA, Chloe
June 2000

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Firstly statistical information about children under five affected by HIV/AIDS is documented along with the consequences of inadequate care for under five year olds. The special problems facing vulnerable children are addressed using age specific categories, including health and psychosocial concerns. Also examined are some cultural beliefs and traditions that impact upon children under five living in AIDS affected communities, including how orphans are perceived and treated. Who cares for under fives is also addressed, along with a critique of orphanages and alternative programmatic suggestions. The authors also review some assessment tools for the care of vulnerable children for feeding, health care and childrearing practices, and the time restraints of caregivers. There are some useful practical questions that can be put to communities and households in AIDS affected areas to assess the impact upon young children. Recommendations are then made as to appropriate strategies

Beyond the targets : ensuring children benefit from expanded access to HIV/AIDS treatment

INTERNATIONAL SAVE THE CHILDREN ALLIANCE
2004

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This report explores the connections between tackling AIDS and tackling poverty and draws attention to the fact that millions of children affected by HIV and AIDS are in need of care and protection. There is an equally important and parallel agenda of expanding support for the millions of people needing access to treatment for HIV/AIDS. ARV treatment represents a crucial gateway to supporting millions of children yet it is rarely attempted. The report aims to examine the implications of expanded access to HIV/AIDS treatment, as exemplified by the 3 x 5 initiative, for prevention of HIV in children and young people and expanding support and care for orphans and other children made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS. Achieving the 3 by 5 goal set by WHO would mean that millions fewer children would lose their parents. Community based, NGO and governmental work could be pre-emptive in supporting children who do become orphaned rather than responding to mitigate impact. There are examples of programme good practice which illustrate the feasibility of developing effective treatment and care programmes and key findings and recommendations are made in the concluding section

ChildCareExchange.com

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This website is a useful resource for publications, conferences, documents and websites to do with childcare and is targeted at educators and caregivers. Although it is US-based, it does cover global issues. The key publication, Childcare Information Exchange is available through the website which also contains a list of early childhood organisations

Children in residential care and alternatives

MILES, Glenn
STEPHENSON, Paul
January 2001

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Residential Care and Alternatives is based on child development and protection principles. Tearfund is a Christian organisation and the document makes a number of references to Christian scripture and values. It could be a useful tool for helping Christian organisations that provide, or that are considering providing, residential care to explore better care alternatives or improving the quality of residential care

Community based care for separated children

TOLFREE, David K
2003

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The International Save the Children’s Alliance organised a project called ‘Care and Protection of Separated Children in Emergencies’ to address the issue of children that are separated from their parents in situations of armed conflict, natural disasters, pandemics such as AIDS and various forms of exploitation and abuse. The initiative explored issues of fostering, group care, and other types of care arrangements for children. The project produced case studies in 6 countries. Participatory research with children was a key theme. This paper offers a ten-point analysis of the typical negative features of institutional care and then looks at community based care. This is done firstly under the heading of preventative approaches to avoid the unnecessary separation of children, then alternative care strategies such as community based care. There are some concluding comments pointing towards the need for further research and the need to place more emphasis on what children themselves have to say in research, in policy formulation and in developing good practice

Community-based health financing and child health

MAKINEN, Marty
PARTNERS FOR HEALTH REFORMPLUS (PHRplus)
et al
2006

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This brief reports on the effects that membership in community-based health financing schemes has on the use of health services when a member is ill or injured and, specifically, on priority child health services (immunisations, vitamin A supplementation, treatment of diarrhoeal disease, and prevention and treatment of malaria). The results come from household surveys performed by the Partners for Health Reformplus project (PHRplus) in the three West African countries of Ghana, Mali, and Senegal in 2004

Community-based worker systems : guidelines for practitioners

MBULLU, Patrick
et al
September 2007

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These guidelines aim to assist practitioners and implementing partners to run Community Based Worker systems (CBW) more effectively, maximising impacts to clients of the service, empowering communities, empowering the CBWs themselves, and assisting governments to ensure that services are provided at scale to enhance livelihoods

Family and community interventions for children affected by AIDS

RICHTER, Linda
MANEGOLD, Julie
PATHER, Riashnee
2004

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This report, based on over 400 documents, reviews the available scientific and programmatic information on interventions aimed at children, families, households and communities. Specifically, the report considers: home-based child-centred development programmes focussing on health and nutrition; psychosocial care and management of inherited assets; interventions directed at supporting families and households to cope with the HIV/AIDS problem and interventions directed at building the capacities of communities to provide long-term care and support for children and households. It also contains an annotated bibliography of available literature in this area in Section 2. The main emphasis of the report is on intervention principles rather than on actual program implementation details as it is widely understood that interventions need to be tailored for each particular situation. There is no specific focus on very young children but interventions to support children, families and communities run into each other with inevitable overlaps

Guidelines for national OVC programme coordination

MINISTRY OF GENDER, LABOUR AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT, UGANDA
2008

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"This guide highlights key features of the national OVC programme coordination mechanism that allows for an effective national OVC response with harmonised interventions at different levels. The guide highlights key stakeholder programme coordination roles and composition. The OVC programme coordination mechanism is based on the conceptual understanding and agreement that a multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary and multi-level approach is needed in understanding the needs of OVC and coordinating an effective response to address these needs"

HIV and infant feeding : a compilation of programmatic evidence

KONIZ-BOOHER, Peggy
et al
July 2004

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This paper tries to deepen understandings of the biological and programmatic implications of the transmission of HIV through breastfeeding which have previously been hampered by insufficient study and difficulties of interpretation. It is a careful look at the findings of programmatic approaches. The project attempted to find, summarise and analyse reports on a wide variety of relevant programmes conducted since 1998 UNICEF guidelines were issued. The programmes range from small community research projects to national programmes. The compilation addresses numerous controversial topics and constraints, including human resources, confused mothers, stigma and discrimination, spillover of replacement feeding, free or subsidised infant formula, family economics and the difficulty in providing integrated HIV testing, informed choice counselling, community support, logistics and follow-up care for mothers and infants

Home truths : facing the facts on children, AIDS and poverty

IRWIN, Alec
ADAMS, Alayne
WINTER, Anne
2009

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This report summarises the main reports and recommendations of the Joint Learning Initiative on Children and HIV/AIDS (JLICA). The primary inputs are technical papers and synthesis papers produced by JLICA’s four Learning Groups, which over two years researched and analysed the following areas: * Strengthening families; * Community action; * Expanding access to services and protecting human rights, and * Social and economic policies. The report makes the case for redirecting the response to HIV and AIDS to address children’s needs more effectively

Improving nutrition and reproductive health : a review of UNICEF experience with the distribution of free infant formula for infants of HIV-infected mothers in Africa

WAGT, Arjan de
Clark, David
2004

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This review considers the experience of UNICEF with the distribution of free infant formula for infants of HIV infected mothers in Africa. UNICEF has provided, or is planning to provide, support to pregnant women in 54 countries, with HIV testing and counselling, improved health care, anti-retroviral drugs, and counselling on infant feeding options. After 1998, UNICEF decided to provide poorer HIV positive mothers with an alternative to breastfeeding by providing free formula. This paper presents the experiences with the procurement, distribution and use of free formula in PMTCT programmes. It further suggests conditions for the use of free formula

Orphans and vulnerable children in India : understanding the context and the response

GOLDMAN, Judith
ANASTASI, Marie-Christine
June 2003

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A report from a meeting for exchange and learning between organisations working with orphans and vulnerable children in India, looking community responses to working with this group. The experience of Plan International, Palmyrah Workers Development Society and the International HIV/AIDS Alliance was presented to the meeting. Specific responses to working with orphans and vulnerable children discussed in the report include lessons from a child participatory approach, prevention of mother-to-child transmission and the development of community action

Progress for children : a report card on maternal mortality, number 7

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
September 2008

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This report describes global and regional progress in reducing maternal mortality and provides the latest statistics on Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 indicators for 192 countries and territories. Globally, the maternal mortality ratio declined from 430 deaths per 100,000 live births in 1990 to 400 in 2005, with significant regional disparities. The report examines differences in progress between regions and within regions and describes lifetime risk by region and country. Reductions in maternal mortality have come far too slowly, particularly in those regions where the problem is most acute (such as sub-Saharan Africa). Current progress is not sufficient to achieve the MDG target of reducing the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. This lack of progress has an enormous impact on children

Speak for the child : community care for orphans and affected children. Case study Kenya

LUSK, Diane
et al
2003

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This is a rare case study of a pilot project to address the specific needs of children under 5 affected by HIV/AIDS who are typically ignored at the programming level and often miss the benefits of general HIV/AIDS interventions. The project operated in Western Kenya and the study contains evidence of the work carried out, a lessons learned catalogue of the processes and tools developed, and a set of suggestions of how the tools and processes might be adapted to other groups in other contexts. It is an excellent example of a community based response to the needs of very young children and addresses the key challenges faced in attempting to do so

Swaziland : grassroots approach to orphan care

Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN)
September 2004

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This news report shows steps taken by the Swazi government and UNICEF to collect ideas for development programmes aimed at orphans and vulnerable children. Workers are canvassing the country’s 55 rural districts to find grassroots ideas and responses and also to identify responsible volunteers and authorities who can be counted on to implement them

Understanding community responses to the situation of children affected by AIDS : lessons for external agencies. Draft paper prepared for the UNRISD project HIV/AIDS and Development

FOSTER, Geoff
March 2002

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This is a key report that documents community responses and coping mechanisms towards the HIV/AIDS pandemic in relation to children affected by AIDS (CABA) and orphans and vulnerable children (OVC). Fostering families are under enormous strain and local initiatives at the community level have been little studied or documented, and few organisations have sought to encourage their development. The paper analyses some of these initiatives and encourages external agencies to support them through building the capacity of local responses rather than imposing external solutions

USAID project profiles : children affected by HIV/AIDS

UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (USAID)
January 2005

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This document presents profiles of 114 projects (90 country-specific, 12 regional, and 12 global) funded by USAID. It includes a section on USAID projects that support access to education in Africa. The project profiles include the names of implementing organisations, funding periods and amounts, objectives, strategies, key accomplishments, priority activities for the year ahead, and materials and tools available to other projects that can help meet the needs of children and youth affected by HIV and AIDS. The diversity of these projects demonstrates the US government's efforts to meet the wide variety of needs of children and youth affected by HIV and AIDS. Approaches vary in both strategy and scale. The vast majority of projects work with communities to identify opportunities that strengthen existing resources without undermining local ownership. In many places, communities are already mobilised and have systems in place to identify, protect, and provide basic necessities to the most vulnerable children. USAID supports the strengthening and monitoring of these existing activities