HIV and AIDS
This report contributes to phase one of a research programme which explores the social, political, economic and systemic determinants that affect vulnerability to HIV. This report documents existing interventions to gain more in-depth knowledge of interventions at grassroots level, identify their strengths and weaknesses, and consider opportunities and threats; analyse and assess the outcomes of such interventions and whether objectives were met, including the impact on vulnerable children, their families and communities, considering nutritional and education status, and psychosocial well-being; ascertain the level of awareness around HIV and AIDS, and especially of prevention strategies and care
This manual sets out an holistic approach to the psychosocial needs of children, focussing not just on those affected by HIV and AIDS but all living in impoverished communities. Helpfully, the activities in the manual are separated out into specific days and give a clear and concise explanation of the expected outcomes of each intervention
The purpose of the AOAD is to facilitate cooperation among organisations and individuals assisting children made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS and their care givers. The AOAD allows users to find, learn about and contact each other. The database also aims to help donors identify potential project partners directly, thus eliminating costly intermediaries. The purposes of the database include helping practitioners in the field to connect and exchange views and insights; helping community-based organisations and local NGOs identify potential sources of support; helping donors identify potential implementing partners; and helping programming agencies identify technical service providers
AIDSPortal.org is a collaboration between the DFID AIDS Policy Team, the UK Consortium on AIDS and International Development and the DFID Health Resource Centre, which produces the Eldis AIDS resource guide. AIDSPortal.org brings together the contents of the resource guide with policy discussions and country resources which are currently under development. There is a new AIDSPortal resource section on orphans and vulnerable children. It is also possible to access country specific resources and contacts from civil society organisations. There is information about a recent symposium to support the sharing of best practice in OVC programming which includes an overview of issues around OVC
Mother to child transmission is the most common cause of HIV infection in children. These guidelines provide updated information on WHO issued recommendations on the use of antiretroviral drugs for preventing mother to child transmission of HIV. These reassessments are within the context of rapidly expanding treatment programmes using simplified and standardised regimens. There has been experienced gained from treatment of mother to child transmission of HIV in resource poor settings as well as further evidence on the safety and effectiveness of various antiretroviral regimens. This document addresses issues of efficacy, safety, drug resistance and feasibility and intends to guide the selection of antiretroviral regimens. They may also be useful for health service providers as specific recommendations are provided for the most frequently encountered clinical situations
This research study examines responses to the care of orphaned children. The goal of the study is to develop policy recommendations for the care of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in South Africa. It complements a partner study into the cost effectiveness of care. Here quality care is that which meets the needs of children in a culturally acceptable way and enables them to realise their rights. It examines a variety of approaches to care from formal to non-formal ways and examples, and case studies are looked at in order to evaluate quality. Conclusions and recommendations are made around the continuum of approaches for the care of OVC, the capacity of households to care for OVC, mobilising communities to care for OVC, and providing a safety net for OVC
Mother to child transmission is by far the largest source of HIV infection in children below the age of 15. Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) programmes have been implemented nationally in South Africa since 2000. This report presents the results of research conducted at a pilot site in the Eastern Cape into the use of resources associated with the implementation of a PMTCT programme. It is part of a larger research project that seeks to examine and compare the costs of providing nevirapine and AZT in both urban and rural contexts. It is hoped that this study will contribute to the national programme of monitoring and evaluating the costs and effectiveness of PMTCT interventions in South Africa
Firstly statistical information about children under five affected by HIV/AIDS is documented along with the consequences of inadequate care for under five year olds. The special problems facing vulnerable children are addressed using age specific categories, including health and psychosocial concerns. Also examined are some cultural beliefs and traditions that impact upon children under five living in AIDS affected communities, including how orphans are perceived and treated. Who cares for under fives is also addressed, along with a critique of orphanages and alternative programmatic suggestions. The authors also review some assessment tools for the care of vulnerable children for feeding, health care and childrearing practices, and the time restraints of caregivers. There are some useful practical questions that can be put to communities and households in AIDS affected areas to assess the impact upon young children. Recommendations are then made as to appropriate strategies
This report briefly reviews the Foundation's operational year and then goes on to discuss whether, in the wake of the United Nations Special Session on Children in May 2002, young children really are on the international agenda. 2002 was a change for the Foundation, whose new strategic plan concentrated on the Foundation as a learning organisation, building and sharing knowledge in key areas of childhood development. Both the programmatic departments of Development and Management, which works with partners to operationalise projects, and Documentation and Communication, which gathers experience and information to analyse and learn, take part in this approach
The Bernard Van Leer Foundation is committed to actively engaging with and supporting early childhood development activities in over 40 developing and industrialised countries. The Foundation's 2003 annual report gives a succinct overview of activities, clearly communicating around their mission and work and engaging with the current debate around the accountability of not for profit organisations. The report notes how the Foundation is working towards achieving various goals including working with a clear learning agenda, increasing synergies between the work of partners, their own work and the efforts of the broader ECD community and enhancing their communications functions and strengthening its advocacy role. The report contains an overview of the Foundations' grant-making activities and of the financial aspects of grant-making. A section on the work of the Foundation includes two major initiatives on 'Young Children and HIV/AIDS' and 'Respect for Diversity' which were launched in 2003 and a third 'Growing up in Indigenous Socities' which began in 2002
This is a practical guide for caregivers and teachers consisting of a collection of ideas, theories, tasks and exercises that help understand the behaviour and feelings of children affected by HIV/AIDS. The handbook provides practical advice on how to support children who have experienced loss and death in order to help them to cope
This website was established by the University of the West Indies to make Caribbean-relevant information on early childhood available to the countries that the University of the West Indies serves. The website is targeted at practitioners, parents, policy makers, researchers, the media or other persons and organisations interested in Caribbean early childhood, parenting and family development issues. The aim of the site is to increase the sharing of information, strategies, resources and overall communication on early childhood, parenting and the family within the Caribbean. The website provides information on national Early Childhood Development (ECD) Associations and their plans of action, parenting initiatives, research, and publications and products available on early childhood development issues in the region. There is a section devoted to HIV AIDS and ECD, but only a few reports on this topic are currently available
This paper highlights the urgent need to support families and communities to care for children orphaned by HIV & AIDS. It looks at how the epidemic undermines children's health and schooling
This policy brief considers the risks of HIV transmission from mother to child through breastfeeding, and the benefits of breast milk in preventing child malnutrition and morbidity and mortality in the first two years of life
The CABA (Children Affected by AIDS) online discussion forum was established by the US Agency for International Development (USAID) to facilitate vital discussion and information exchange on efforts to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS on children, families and communities. USAID and the Synergy Project, which hosts the forum on behalf of USAID, encourages all to participate.
The website includes listings of HIV/AIDS websites, grouped by topic and by country. Areas covered include: global HIV/AIDS, women, children and youth, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, donors, Africa, Newly Independent States, Asia and the Near East, Latin America and the Caribbean
This report assesses some of the most important actions and changes for children affected by AIDS that occurred in the first year of the global campaign Unite for Children
This literature review covers key issues relating to children aged 3-12 and HIV/AIDS, including discrimination, grief, children's rights, and knowledge and understanding of HIV/AIDS. The impact on the child, family and community is discussed in detail, particularly in terms of the psycho-social impact of bereavement and how this impacts on the child at different stages in its development. Various community programmes within southern Africa are highlighted, which support children to develop life skills. The influence, role and practice of the media in working with and reaching children is addressed, and case studies of South African media projects such as Soul Buddyz and Takalani Sesame are provided
This case study documents a successful model for facilitating a strong community response to HIV and AIDS. The Salvation Army Change Programme in Ndola and Choma Districts in Zambia illustrates the facilitation process stimulating an appropriate local response to HIV and AIDS and essential component of human capacity development. The model builds on local strengths and resources, stimulating ordinary people to address the barriers that prevent them from using HIV and AIDS information and services to prevent new infections, compassionately care for those who are infected and mitigate the effects of the epidemic on families and the community. Only by addressing personal risk, stigma and the potential for personal and societal change will the demand for and use of voluntary counselling and testing, prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy services increase
This framework and resource guide is intended to help people involved in programs assisting orphans and vulnerable children conduct a situation analysis. It serves as a tool for collecting and synthesising in-country and sub-national information. Examples of situation analyses and related research are provided throughout the document to draw upon the variety of approaches, and their components, that communities and institutions have undertaken to assess their particular situation
This document moves towards a standard framework to help people involved in programmes conduct a situation analysis concerning orphans and vulnerable children (OVCs) in the context of HIV/AIDS. It includes the process of planning the situation analysis, defining its purpose, goals and objectives. It provides advice on methods to gather data and frameworks for assessing health, education and economic impacts of HIV/AIDS on OVCs. Analysis, reporting and communication of the information found is discussed
The declaration notes the scale of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, which constitutes a global emergency, and reaffirms previous commitments on HIV/AIDS made through other declarations. It stresses the need for strong leadership at all levels of society as essential for an effective response. It also suggests that prevention is the mainstay of the response, with care, support and treatment as fundamental elements. The realisation of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all is declared necessary to reduce vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. Empowering people, especially women, is essential to reducing vulnerability. Children and children orphaned by AIDS are also mentioned. Investing in sustainable development and national poverty alleviation strategies to address the impact is vital, as is research and development
This PowerPoint presentation demonstrates the general context of HIV/AIDS prevalence and impact in Malawi on children aged 0-14. 1.2% of children aged 0-14 are infected with HIV. HIV prevalence in child bearing women however is 16-30%. The presentation goes on to show the situation of orphans in the country, and notes that 17.5% of all children are orphans with 24% of orphans being under 5. Around half are orphaned due to AIDS. The situation of ECD services in Malawi is presented (just 26% of people have access to ECD services). Key policies and legislative frameworks are documented along with stakeholders. Best practices are covered as well as challenges, gaps and opportunities that are evident
This website is updated with current initiatives on ECD and HIV/AIDS. It includes details of the important workshop on ECD and HIV/AIDS held in Dar es Salaam in April 2004. The site provides links to resources on HIV and AIDS and links to organisations taking action in this area
This PowerPoint presentation takes a specific look at Early Childhood Development (ECD) and HIV/AIDS in Rwanda. It initially considers the statistics around HIV infection of babies and infants and the number of children orphaned by AIDS. There are a high number of child headed households and street children. There are few interventions that comprehensively target the ECD section. The major problems are presented as high levels of stigma and discrimination, the lack of adult care and provision of basic needs to child headed households, limited technical skills in counselling, medical care and home care of children affected by AIDS. Existing interventions are fragmented and coordination and M&E is weak. Existing interventions are usefully listed and finally future perspectives are given
This paper articulates the vulnerabilities and protection risks of children affected by AIDS and proposes practical actions to address them. It is a companion paper to "The Framework for the Protection, Care and Support of Orphans and Vulnerable Children Living in a World with HIV and AIDS". It aims to help translate government commitment into practice, building on the strategies laid out in the Framework
This report, based on over 400 documents, reviews the available scientific and programmatic information on interventions aimed at children, families, households and communities. Specifically, the report considers: home-based child-centred development programmes focussing on health and nutrition; psychosocial care and management of inherited assets; interventions directed at supporting families and households to cope with the HIV/AIDS problem and interventions directed at building the capacities of communities to provide long-term care and support for children and households. It also contains an annotated bibliography of available literature in this area in Section 2. The main emphasis of the report is on intervention principles rather than on actual program implementation details as it is widely understood that interventions need to be tailored for each particular situation. There is no specific focus on very young children but interventions to support children, families and communities run into each other with inevitable overlaps
The overall goal for the survey was to gather baseline data to facilitate an evaluation of the effectiveness of the Strengthening Community Participation for the Empowerment of Orphans and Vulnerable Children (SCOPE - OVC) project in particular areas of Zambia. Specific study objectives were to: gather information that will describe the impact of HIV/AIDS on children as well as measure the impact that programmes are having on the quality of life of the children; provide information that will be useful in the ongoing development of programmes designed to strengthen the care and support to orphans and vulnerable children, specifically in relation to their psycho-social needs; provide a framework that will show the progression of the SCOPE - OVC project towards its program goals and objectives; and document lessons learned in conducting OVC work as well as in documenting the use of a participatory evaluation process
The publication examines the economic, social and emotional problems experienced by older carers, orphans and vulnerable children through case studies of community responses in Africa and Asia. It concludes with recommendations for action by national governments, international development institutions, NGOs and CBOs
This report looks at projects and programmes that aim to respond to the needs of very young children in southern and eastern Africa whose lives have been affected by both poverty and HIV. What is highlighted in the interventions that are examined is the effort of human beings in caring and supporting people and sharing resources
This site is a source of information and resources for children of both younger and older age groups. These books and resources are produced to support adults who are working in education, both inside and outside the classroom, to equip children to know and think about HIV and AIDS and how it affects people. There are fiction reviews, information books and curriculum material. Lower primary through to upper secondary levels are covered and aim to give children the knowledge, skills and values they need to tackle HIV and AIDS.
For younger children, there is a series of 3 books.
1. Go Away Dog by David Donald about a grumpy grandmother, a puppy and the importance of care and friendship in a time of sickness.
2. Respect and Care by Glynis Clacherty that looks at respect and care and co-operation amongst children as they confront sickness and loss.
3. Lerato’s Story by Glynis Clacherty which is a lively photo story about a young child who is HIV positive told through the eyes of her sister
The information and recommendations in this clear, accessible publication come from an in-depth multi-site qualitative research study conducted by the Children’s Institute between 2001 and 2003. The research explored the life experiences of children in communities heavily affected by HIV and AIDS. It also looked at the experiences of their caregivers and service providers. This brief publication is aimed at individuals and organisations and considers which children to help, who should help, how to strengthen community responses, and related fundamental questions about starting to take action to help children
This book explains how to care for children living with HIV and how to involve them in their own care. It provides practical information on everything from talking to children about HIV, to supporting children starting antiretroviral therapy and managing common health problems they may have. Health providers in health facilities and home-based care teams may also find this book useful in helping them to better support, inform and guide carers of children living with HIV
This section of WABA's website provides resources and information on key issues such as what interventions should be put in place to prevent transmission of HIV through breastfeeding, while also protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding for the majority of children who benefit from it. It also tries to address the question of how to decide which children would be at greater risk from being breastfed. An additional difficulty is the need to encourage HIV-positive mothers to choose either exclusive replacement feeding or exclusive breastfeeding, since neither is common in low-income populations
This paper tries to deepen understandings of the biological and programmatic implications of the transmission of HIV through breastfeeding which have previously been hampered by insufficient study and difficulties of interpretation. It is a careful look at the findings of programmatic approaches. The project attempted to find, summarise and analyse reports on a wide variety of relevant programmes conducted since 1998 UNICEF guidelines were issued. The programmes range from small community research projects to national programmes. The compilation addresses numerous controversial topics and constraints, including human resources, confused mothers, stigma and discrimination, spillover of replacement feeding, free or subsidised infant formula, family economics and the difficulty in providing integrated HIV testing, informed choice counselling, community support, logistics and follow-up care for mothers and infants
This report covers the main dilemmas and debates around HIV/AIDS and infant feeding practices. There is some focus on antiretrovirals and prevention of mother to child transmission, but sessions featured in the report mainly cover technical and progammatic issues, and the sharing of field experiences. The key themes are the issues of if and how to breastfeed, and confusion over unclear messages about infant feeding practices. Increasing access to information and voluntary counselling and testing is covered as well as community involvement and the perspective and role of breastfeeding supportive NGOs. Lessons learned are drawn upon and details of each working group on various subjects are documented. Research, monitoring and evaluation priorities are looked at, and there is a presentation of knowledge gaps and challenges for the future
This report aims to clarify and refine existing UN guidance on HIV and infant feeding. It follows a previous technical consultation in 2000 and presents a summary of findings, conclusions and recommendations regarding HIV and Infant Feeding between 2000 and 2006
This annotated bibliography offers a practical guide to the content of the references which informed the literature review presented in BVLF Working Paper 33 (Young Children and HIV/AIDS: Mapping the Field). It is intended to help readers who want to go deeper into the issues and explore the original source material. The bibliography presents the references - mostly to peer-reviewed medical or psychology journals - under subject headings such as "disclosure", "interventions", "parentless children", "social development", and more
South Africa has, until now, focused its HIV prevention efforts on youth and adults, and now needs to expand its focus to include children. Much is already known about mother to child transmission, which is the dominant mode of HIV transmission among children. However, little investigation has been done into the potential for horizontal transmission of HIV on the population below reproductive age. This report focuses on children aged 2-9 years and, using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, presents evidence on the potential for HIV transmission in dental, maternity and paediatric service in public health facilities. A new finding concerns the practice of shared breastfeeding
This review looks at global literature from academic institutions and UN agencies on psychosocial support and counselling, to HIV infected pregnant women and their families (from pre-conception to 2 years old). It also contains information about the efficacy of practices and projects that care for infected women and their families, especially methods used in relation to mother-to-child transmission during the perinatal period. There are also interesting examples of such projects from around the world. The final section of the review makes recommendations on psychosocial support and counselling for HIV infected women and families
This PowerPoint presentation looks at the impact and scale of HIV/AIDS on the young, and the health and social aspects of HIV/AIDS. The focus on very young chldren focuses on the prevention of mother-to-child transmission. The presentation also makes recommendations for advocacy to ensure the non-discrimination of children living with HIV/AIDS and their access to health care, education and social services and benefits
This paper presents the results of research into the question of how to include very young children in programming and policy responses in HIV/AIDS affected communities. The third in a dedicated sub-series of working papers devoted to young children and HIV/AIDS, it shows how young children impacted by HIV/AIDS often seem to be almost invisible in the wider HIV/AIDS field, although no affected group is more vulnerable, more deserving or has greater potential to benefit from proper programming
This short paper reflects findings from research carried out to identify current responses to meet the needs of children age 0-8 living in HIV/AIDS affected communities. The overall results show that at local, national and international levels there are gaps in programming and policy to engage ideas and mobilise resources to address the needs and experiences of very young children both infected and affected by HIV/AIDS. The question is then raised: What can we actually do to include very young children in programming and policy responses in HIV/AIDS affected communities? Supporting existing family and community networks and current efforts that are being made by people confronting HIV/AIDS on a daily basis are important strategies. Conclusions are drawn indicating that services are required urgently to support very young children both directly and through the families and communities in which they live. Ways of listening to and including very young children in these processes need to be developed and used. Partnerships need to be developed between parents, families, NGOs, CBOs and government to ensure the holistic development of the child. At policy levels, very young children need to be included in programmes that address children, HIV/AIDS and community development. All government ministries can participate in meeting the needs of very young children in HIV/AIDS affected communities
This publication addresses the issue of how to incorporate HIV prevention and care into routine responses to complex humanitarian emergencies. It considers evidence that conflict facilitates the spread of HIV and also inhibits responses to HIV/AIDS. It reviews interventions carried out at international and national levels by UNICEF, other UN agencies and non-governmental organizations. Lessons learned are discussed and recommendations are given for UNICEF’s role in reducing the spread of HIV in situations of armed conflict
This is one of the few publications solely dedicated to early childhood and HIV/AIDS. It contains articles examining the particular experience of the very young child and the social, psychosocial and nutritional impact on their lives in AIDS affected communities. There is also an article about infant feeding practices in Africa. It makes some policy recommendations and the several case studies provide some direct examples of programming in this area
This policy briefing sets out the background of the HIV pandemic and notes thats its impact has transformed childhood. Findings from a study in Botswana assessing the impact show results in areas of childcare, caring for sick children and parental time with children. Policy recommendations are made concerning the implications for the quality, quantity and nature of early childhood care and education services needed, and also for the supports that are necessary to enable parents and extended family members to care for children who are affected and infected by HIV
This review considers the experience of UNICEF with the distribution of free infant formula for infants of HIV infected mothers in Africa. UNICEF has provided, or is planning to provide, support to pregnant women in 54 countries, with HIV testing and counselling, improved health care, anti-retroviral drugs, and counselling on infant feeding options. After 1998, UNICEF decided to provide poorer HIV positive mothers with an alternative to breastfeeding by providing free formula. This paper presents the experiences with the procurement, distribution and use of free formula in PMTCT programmes. It further suggests conditions for the use of free formula
This learning paper looks at the experiences of applying memory work as part of broader strategies to mitigate the impact of HIV and AIDS in five African countries. It explores how six NGOs in sub-Saharan Africa established memory work as a key component of their community-based HIV programmes and draws on the experience of people living with HIV and AIDS, children and young people who participated in the initiative, partner organisations' own learning and analysis and the end of project evaluation report
The principle aim of this resource is to promote psychosocial care as a separate intervention in itself and proscribe methods of implementing it through a holistic, community based approach which adequately meets the needs of the recipients. The report is for health care workers working with children and families affected by HIV and AIDS
This manual is a tool for trainers to train concerned community members to assist distressed children, and to facilitate their interventions on the level of awareness, knowledge, skills and behaviour in relation to orphans. Its stated objective is to enhance the capacity of adults to listen and talk to orphans and children of terminally ill parents, and to understand their situation and their needs. In this way the community improves its capacity to cope with some of the consequences of AIDS. In the manual there are 16 modules that rely on participatory methods, each with detailed instructions for the facilitator and a handout for participants. The manual was produced by the Humuliza (Community Based Mental Health for Orphans) project team
This is a matrix of the five recommended types of Early Childhood Development (ECD) and HIV and AIDS interventions. It includes suggestions of delivery services to young children, education and support for families and caregivers, training and support of care providers, sensitisation through the mass media and community mobilisation. It provides indicators and comments for each of these categories and is a useful overview of the key interventions which could take place in this field
This publication explores child- and youth-led organisations from many different angles, amongst others, HIV and AIDS prevention, the critical role of adults within these organisations, and economic strengthening. What is also perhaps distinctive about the approach outlined in this booklet is the fact that organisation of children into their own child- and youth-led organisations is considered primarily from a psychosocial wellbeing perspective
"There are three reasons for wanting young children to be included in the National Plans of Action. First, as the numbers indicate, there are a substantial number of young children who are orphans and/or vulnerable, but they tend to escape notice. Second, they have specific rights and requirements for care that differ from those of older children...Third, because of the growth potential of young children, the possibilities for effective interventions to prevent long-term negative consequences are greater than at older ages"
The document suggests how services that address young children's needs might be fully integrated into a national multisectoral HIV/AIDS programme. It gives advice on developing national ECD policies, programmes and interventions, multisectoral ECD approaches, and ways to advocate, implement, monitor and evaluate these efforts. It makes suggestions of interventions for very young children and is a resource for other national HIV/AIDS programme topics
This web page of a technical consultation on orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) contains a variety of presentations of the situation of OVC, the impact of HIV/AIDS global strategies of action and some presentations of case studies from different countries such as Cambodia and Malawi. Some also look at clinical and community care and include ethical considerations
A PowerPoint presentation showing some key statistics on global HIV/AIDS estimates on children under 15, and the estimated impact of HIV/AIDS on under-five mortality rates and on the infant and child survival. The presentation also looks at how children become infected with HIV and why they die so young. Current responses are listed with a look at the contiuum of care followed by some key challenges. Finally the medical, nursing and psychosocial needs of children are presented
The Horizons Program of the Population Council and the University of Cape Town are conducting a study to identify successful programme strategies in paediatric HIV treatment in South Africa and to determine priority knowledge gaps to be addressed by operations research. This report summarises key findings from the initial consultative workshop of expert practitioners and stake-holders, focusing on the status of providing antiretroviral therapy to children in South Africa and strategies to expand and improve services. It includes providing services to under six year olds
This news release from John Hopkins University contains reports that that placental malaria infection during pregnancy scientifically increases the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The study, funded by John Hopkins University, was carried out in Uganda where 40% of HIV positive women with placental malaria had HIV positive babies, compared to 15.4% of HIV positive women without malaria. Interventions to prevent malaria during pregnancy could potentially reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV
This report attempts to identify strategies, lines of action and innovative approaches to respond to the needs of young children faced by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Key issues addressed in the workshop and report are around obstacles that prevent the provision of appropriate services, key issues that affect young children, and the cultural and religious causes of discrimination. It suggests principles that should be observed in programming in this area, ways of advocating for the needs of young children affected by HIV/AIDS, and ways of moving forward by developing an action plan
Guidelines on mainstreaming psycho-social support for children affected by HIV and AIDS
This document recognises that psychosocial support for children affected by HIV and AIDS is as important as responding to their material needs. It explores children's experience of loss and grief, and suggests ways to deal with aggressive behaviour and to overcome stigma and discrimination. Some of the topics discussed are accompanied by useful handouts. It is designed as a training tool for professionals working directly with children or in community building projects
This collection of best practices on the prevention of mother to child transmission; treatment and care for women and children with HIV; vulnerability reduction for youth; and stigma reduction, aims to contribute to experience- and expertise-sharing about tailored interventions to meet the needs of target populations. The publication was produced by the United Nations Theme Group (UNTG) on AIDS, Working Group on Children to contribute to sharing between UN agencies, NGOs and bilateral organisations and civil society. The Chinese Campaign on HIV Prevention for Children and Young People was launched by the Government of China in September, 2006 under the global campaign 'Unite for Children, Unite against AIDS'
This project set out to help young people affected by HIV to find their voices and to provide them with a platform from which to speak not only in their home countries, but also internationally. At the heart of the project, was the participation of a team of six young people, aged 7 to 17, from the United Kingdom, Uganda and Mexico. These young people were the first ever to participate in an International AIDS Conference. They interviewed key participants and asked direct questions about how they will support HIV-affected children
This advocacy paper stresses the importance of involving children in HIV and AIDS interventions of which they are a part. Child participation creates a sense of selfhood and agency which helps them cope with loss and better equips them to manage any future problems
This report synthesizes the presentations and discussion from this mini-conference to present a thematic update on issues in the care for orphaned and vulnerable children
An analysis of the most cost effective way of providing care for orphaned children in South Africa. It examines six models of care ranging from formal children's homes to community-based structures. The paper is part of a combined study, the other part of which looks at the quality of different types of orphan care and their associated costs. There is initially a detailed look at the various categories of care followed by an outline of the method used to evaluate cost. Six case studies are examined and conclusions and recommendations are made as a result of evaluation
This paper examines the psychological effect of orphanhood in a case study of 193 children in the Rakai district of Uganda
This is a study using a collection of 41 demographic and health surveys from 26 African countries. The households that provide care for orphans are characterised, and the impact of taking in orphans on outcomes for other household residents, including children's health and education, is estimated. A key finding is that orphan care is concentrated in households with fewer other childcare responsibilities, especially elderly households. The researcher found no evidence that having an orphan join the household significantly affected the household, contrary to popular views that orphans generate negative spillovers
This paper surveys the ways in which funding for HIV/AIDS care is disbursed, and the reasons why only a small amount is spent on addressing the needs of young children. It identifies strategies for advocating for a greater priority to be given to young children in HIV/AIDS funding decisions
This is an introduction to the theory behind using picture cards as an educational and sensitisation tool with children affected by HIV and AIDS. It offers a detailed introduction to, and practical examples of, communicating with children and providing psychosocial support. The activities are set out clearly and are easy to follow and implement
Together Now’ is Alliance India's periodical newsletter. This issue focuses on psychosocial support in relation to support of people affected by HIV and AIDS including interventions that assist children and families to cope
This is a key report that documents community responses and coping mechanisms towards the HIV/AIDS pandemic in relation to children affected by AIDS (CABA) and orphans and vulnerable children (OVC). Fostering families are under enormous strain and local initiatives at the community level have been little studied or documented, and few organisations have sought to encourage their development. The paper analyses some of these initiatives and encourages external agencies to support them through building the capacity of local responses rather than imposing external solutions
To date, responses to the needs of orphans and vulnerable children have not typically been guided by research, though a body of empirical evidence related to the impact of HIV and AIDS on children is growing. USAID/AFR/SD and the SARA project commissioned a review of 48 selected studies to summarize the findings that represent the most current understanding of children's vulnerability due to AIDS. The review captures what is known and not yet known about the impact of HIV and AIDS on the survival, health, education, social, and emotional needs of children; identifies the content gaps and methodological limitations of existing research; suggests priorities for future research; and informs programmatic and political responses
Press release announcing the funding of four projects by USAID through the Community REACH program, which aims to promote scaling up successful creative community based programs which have a demonstratble impact on the HIV/AIDS pandemic
This document presents profiles of 114 projects (90 country-specific, 12 regional, and 12 global) funded by USAID. It includes a section on USAID projects that support access to education in Africa. The project profiles include the names of implementing organisations, funding periods and amounts, objectives, strategies, key accomplishments, priority activities for the year ahead, and materials and tools available to other projects that can help meet the needs of children and youth affected by HIV and AIDS. The diversity of these projects demonstrates the US government's efforts to meet the wide variety of needs of children and youth affected by HIV and AIDS. Approaches vary in both strategy and scale. The vast majority of projects work with communities to identify opportunities that strengthen existing resources without undermining local ownership. In many places, communities are already mobilised and have systems in place to identify, protect, and provide basic necessities to the most vulnerable children. USAID supports the strengthening and monitoring of these existing activities
Voices from the Communities is a follow-up qualitative study by Family Health International (FHI) and Strengthening Community Partnerships for the Empowerment of Orphans and Vulnerable Children (SCOPE-OVC) to a 2001 quantitative survey. The quantitative study sought to determine the psychosocial and emotional needs of orphans and vulnerable children in sixteen communities in four districts of Zambia: Livingstone, Lusaka, Mongu and Kitwe. Voices extends the original research by ascertaining the psychosocial and emotional needs of OVC in greater detail. In Voices, 10 focus group discussions were held during 2002 in two townships; Itimpi in Kitwe and Chawama in Lusaka. The study sample of one hundred and eighty one discussants consisted of orphaned children, child heads of household and adult heads of household
This is a position paper on HIV and breastfeeding. It makes broad statements on the situation of breastfeeding mothers in the light of HIV. It states that it is concerned that recent changes in WHO, UNICEF and UNAIDS policy regarding breastfeeding and HIV as these changes appear to put major stress on the use of infant formula and less on alternative feeding methods. Recommendations are then made which indicate what some of these alternatives are
This site contains a library of practically applicable materials on mother and child HIV infection including preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT), infant feeding, clinical care of women and children living with HIV infection, and the support of orphans. The goal of the site is to contribute to an improvement in the scale and quality of international HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and treatment programs for women and children by increasing access to authoritative HIV/AIDS information. Its aims are to disseminate state of the art clinical information and training resources on MTCT and related topics. It also communicates the best practices in preventing MTCT and caring for infected children. It aims to disseminate prevention of MTCT program resource materials, clinical information and training resources on perinatally acquired pediatric HIV infection. It is browseable and searchable through a basic 'free-text' search box. The site also features an up-to-date news section.
This paper offers a concise and comprehensive overview of the literature from a psychological perspective. It explores a range of issues in emotional, psychological, social and physical development, and their relation to broader issues including poverty, nutrition and human rights. It idenifies gaps in knowledge and will help funders, policy makers and practitioners to locate their own work in the bigger picture. It is accompanied by an annotated bibliography
This paper ..."begins by reviewing different approaches to estimating child expenditure, arguing that one based on equivalence scales is the only defensible approach. Part 3 explains the theory behind the two most commonly used approaches, the method of empirical estimation and how these estimates are used to calculate child poverty. Part 4 applies the method to the case of Vietnam, and Part 5 concludes"
This paper explores patterns in access to multiple basic services, including health and education, among children living in poverty by drawing on a sample of over 8,000 children in four developing countries - Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam - participating in the longitudinal Young Lives project on childhood poverty
This paper discusses the measures of child welfare that are available and how appropriate they are to creating child-centric, sustainable and rights-based approaches the poverty reductions strategies
This paper describes the patterns of income diversification of Peruvian households with young children (aged between 6 and 18 months) interviewed during the first phase of the Young Lives study. It "aims to link income diversification strategies to the livelihood asset base and the external context of these households. In addition, it examines the relationship between these income diversification strategies and child wellbeing"
This paper addresses some of the key factors affecting children's education completion rates and achievement scores. It looks at the relative importance of the school and family environment and individual child characteristics in determining child grade completion or drop out at primary school; the relative importance of investment in school quality in determining students educational achievement; and the extent to which the Education Sector Development Programme reflects the determinants of children's primary school completion rates and educational achievement scores
This paper aims ..."to assess whether the government of Andhra Pradesh is giving sufficient priority to investment in children at the state and the sub-state levels, through both rural and urban local bodies, to ensure improved outcomes for children"
Young Lives is a research and advocacy project investigating the nature of child poverty in selected developing countries over time. This paper offers guidelines for setting up a similar projects in child poverty
This paper assesses how the needs of children are incorporated in Ethiopia’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) - the Ethiopian Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Program 2002-05 (SDRDP) - and seeks to develop policy recommendations for the second PRSP, based on a comparative content analysis with other countries’ PRSPs
This is the report of a study comparing unconditional cash transfers to vulnerable groups in 15 countries in east and southern Africa, with in-depth analysis of four counties - Ethiopia, Lesotho, Mozambique and Zambia. Because cash transfers are new to this region, the aim is to draw lessons for policy from a comparative review. The report finds that knowledge gaps impede the development of meaningful policy. This work would be useful for anyone with an interest in vulnerable groups, development and the socio-economic factors
This paper describes the early work of the Young Lives project and how the research is changing the way various factors behind child poverty are understood. "Measures of poverty are rarely applied in a child-centric fashion and have solely focused on income. Increasingly, however, poverty is being recognised as encompassing low achievement in education and health, vulnerability and exposure to risk. Both subjective and objective measures of well-being need to be used to create a multi-dimensional picture of childhood poverty"
This valuable new report looks at the levels of infection of HIV and AIDS, the levels of orphaning and child headed households, sexual debut and sexual experiences and risk factors and risk environments for children aged 2-14 in South Africa. This has been investigated as the HSRC recognizes that there is very little known about HIV prevalence rates among children or about the risk factors that predispose them to becoming infected. The study looks at the social and community risk factors that predispose children to HIV infection as well as the impact of the epidemic on children in terms of orphan status and child headed households. It examines children’s knowledge of HIV and AIDS prevention, their knowledge about sexual behaviour and HIV as well as their own patterns of sexual behaviour and changes in that behaviour. This study is interesting as it explicitly includes young children
"This paper charts the developments in research on child poverty and policy responses between 1800 and 1950 and considers their relationship and interaction"
This paper reviews the development and application of the concept of resilience and assesses how useful the term is to poverty researchers and practitioners, when applied to childhood poverty, poverty over the life course and the intergenerational transmission of poverty
This paper explores efforts to bridge multi-disciplinary research, policy engagement and practice to improve poor children’s life quality in four diverse transforming societies. It draws on Young Lives (2000-2015), an international longitudinal policy-research project on childhood poverty, tracing 12,000 children (8,000 from birth and 4,000 from age eight) in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam
This report chronicles the exploitation and abuse of working children; surveys international and national law and practice; and points the way toward effective practical action to remove children from debt bondage, prostitution and hazardous occupations and activities. It is accompanied by a questionnaire which seeks the views of governments, in consultation with employers' and workers' organisations, on the possible scope and content of proposed international legal instruments to combat the worst forms of child labour
This report looks at attempts to draw children in Ethiopia into the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper process. It is divided into two sections. The first looks at the importance of mapping the policy context so as to carry out effective policy influencing for and with children; and the second reviews the experience of the Young Lives project in Ethiopia
This paper looks at the impact of women's empowerment on child poverty and well-being. It includes an overview of theoretical literature on women's empowerment and inter-generational poverty transmissions; outlines the research methodology used; presents the findings from research in four districts of Andhra Pradesh; and sets out the conclusions and policy recommendations
This paper argues that malnutrition cannot be tackled with out understanding its causes. It draws on evidence collected by the young lives project in Ethiopia
This paper looks at research and reciprocity between partners and participants in the Young Lives project in Vietnam with particular regard to: the sustainability of relationships with local collaborators and project partners; the challenge of ensuring that research is designed and disseminated in a way that translates into pro-poor and child-focused policy; and the particular challenges of adhering to the principles of research reciprocity when working on a child-focused project
Social transfers are increasingly recognised as an important component of an overall care package for children affected by AIDS. The World Bank is scaling up its support to social transfers as a key policy response to inequalities in health and education
This manual, for health care practitioners, is intended as an introductory resource tool for health care professionals around the world, and especially in developing countries, who aim to increase their knowledge and understanding of children and environmental health
"The objective of this WHO/UNICEF report is to focus attention on the prevention and management of diarrhoeal diseases as central to improving child survival. It examines the latest available information on the burden and distribution of childhood diarrhoea. It also analyses how well countries are doing in making available key interventions proven to reduce its toll. Most importantly, it lays out a new strategy for diarrhoea control, one that is based on interventions drawn from different sectors that have demonstrated potential to save children’s lives. It sets out a 7-point plan that includes a treatment package to reduce childhood diarrhoea deaths, as well as a prevention package to make a lasting reduction in the diarrhoea burden in the medium to long term"
This website focuses on a package of proven prevention and treatment measures for diarrhoea. It is divided into sections which include: the global burden of diarrhoea, the basics of diarrhoeal diseases; where we stand today in preventing and treating childhood diarrhoea; and a seven-point plan for comprehensive diarrhoeal control. The website is a version of the UNICEF/WHO report 'Diarrhoea: why children are still dying and what can be done'. It would be useful to the general public, health workers, government, NGOs, United Nations organisations, policy makers and private sector workers
This document aims to provide concise, practical (but non-technical) guidance on how to ensure appropriate infant and young child feeding in emergencies. A number of elements are also applicable in non-emergency settings. It is intended for emergency relief staff, programme managers, national governments, United Nations agencies, NGOs and donors, and it applies to all countries. It includes six sections of practical steps, references, key contacts and definitions. Members of the IFE Core Group are: UNICEF, WHO, UNHCR, WFP, IFBAN-GIFA, CARE USA, Fondation Terre des hommes and Emergency Nutrition Network. It is also available in Arabic, Bahasa Indonesian, French, Portuguese and Spanish
This document has been prepared for maternal and newborn health experts as well as reproductive health experts coordinating and assisting with emergency care during the humanitarian crisis. It describes the ways to estimate the number of pregnant women and those who are about to deliver, highlights some important aspects of emergency care related to pregnancy, childbirth and newborn care, and describes the content of UN kits for such care in three different scenarios
These guidelines are to assist in the care of children in emergencies. They are designed to serve as a reference manual for the evaluation and management of children in emergencies, and as the basis for the training of health care workers. The target audience is first level health workers who provide care to children under the age of 5 years. Physicians and health care workers with more advanced training are referred to the WHO Pocket Book of Hospital Care for Children: Guidelines for the Management of Common Illnesses with Limited Resources (2005)
This guide offers a full understanding of the current challenges faced by children in armed conflict and the international law, norms and developments that apply to children in these situations. It is divided into two sections: the first gives sets out the background context of the situation; and the second section looks at particular issue faced by children affected by armed conflict and the international law and other developments that attempt to address these issues. The conclusion of the guide, examines the extent of the application of international law and standards, according to the experience of children and young people from Colombia and northern Uganda. There are also a number of annexes designed to further assist practitioners in their analysis, advocacy efforts, provision of care and practice
This report documents abuses against India’s HIV/AIDS-affected children, including doctors refusing to treat or even touch HIV-positive children, schools expelling or segregating children because they or their parents are HIV-positive, and orphanages and other residential institutions rejecting HIV-positive children or denying that they house them. Children from families affected by AIDS may be denied an education, pushed onto the street, forced into the worst forms of child labour, or otherwise exploited, all of which puts them at greater risk of contracting HIV. This report calls on the Indian government to recognise their plight and to take immediate action to protect them from discrimination and exploitation
This study provides an understanding of the nature, extent, causes, and consequences of different forms of violence against children (physical, psychological, and sexual), taking into account five main settings in which violence takes place - the family, schools, care and residential institutions as well as detention facilities and prisons, in work situations, and in communities and on the streets. A range of cross cutting issues are featured including trafficking and exploitation, refugees, separated and internally displaced children, and children affected by HIV