Monitoring and evaluation: memory work

Most monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is triggered by the funding loop – the need to secure funds for the next phase of activity – and is often seen as a negative pressure. Though vital, accountability is only one aspect of M&E, and increasingly practitioners and donors are recognising that M&E works best when the emphasis is on learning for the future. This is more likely when the process is initiated, designed and owned by the people directly involved in project work and those the work is supposed to be helping. This list highlights approaches which attempt to capture and account for the richness and complexity of outcomes, and allow key players and beneficiaries to reflect and report on their own terms, and in their own words. The emphasis is on participatory, community-based and child-centred methods and on resources specifically tailored to HIV and AIDS programmes. 

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Selected resources

Case studies and good practice

A final evaluation of the project on child-centered approaches to HIV and AIDS 2000-2004

CARNEGIE, Rachel
BROWN, Christiana
August 2004

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This is the final evaluation report of the Child-Centered approaches to HIV/AIDS (CCATH) project which was funded by Comic Relief for the years 2000-2004. This report synthesizes the findings from two independent evaluations and from the participatory evaluation undertaken by the CCATH project partners and the communities with whom they work. Project interventions included: Memory Project work; life skills education and seminars for parents/guardians and children to improve dialogue; Child-to-Child activities in schools promoting communication amongst children and with their teachers; sensitisation and advocacy activities in communities and at national level. The report finds that these initiatives have helped break the silence around HIV/AIDS, strengthen children's coping skills, reduce stigma and discrimination, influence policy makers on child-centered issues around HIV/AIDS and share learning from the project. This report is a particularly good example of a child-sensitive methodology applied to evaluation

Creating space for children's participation : planning with street children in Yangon, Myanmar

DORNING, Karl
O'SHAUGHNESSY, Tim
2001

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This paper is about a two-week empowerment evaluation that took place in April 2001 with World Vision's Street Children and Working Children Program (SWC), which is based in Yangon, Myanmar. The process allowed the children to be the primary evaluators. They spent time interviewing various stakeholders in the programme and analysed the information gathered. The evaluation described in this report was an experience that had a great impact on all involved. It brought about a fundamental shift in the way project staff viewed the children and, equally importantly, in the way the children viewed themselves

Putting child rights and participatory monitoring and evaluation with children into practice : some examples in Indonesia, Nepal, South Africa and the UK

NURICK, Robert
JOHNSON, Vicky
2001

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This paper focuses on children's rights and includes examples of participatory monitoring and evaluation with children. In particular, it looks at organisational mapping and case studies of child-sensitive monitoring and evaluation activities in South Africa and Nepal and reports on young people's participation in the evaluation of the Saying Power Scheme. Examples of evaluation techniques such as 'confidence lines' and the 'H method' are given

Practical tools and toolkits

Building monitoring, evaluation and reporting systems for HIV/AIDS programs

MCCOY, Lynn
NGARI, Patricia Njeri
KRUMPE, Edwin E
2005

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This manual is for use by NGOs working in HIV and AIDS, and aims to assist them monitor, evaluate and report on the progress and delivery of their programmes. MER (monitoring, evaluation and reporting) is often seen as a time-consuming and expensive activity, with limited benefits to the programmes themselves. This resource is designed to provide simple, affordable, efficient and useful tools and ideas to enable organisations to enhance effectiveness and make an efficient use of their resources. Adopting a result-based approach to MER, this publication discusses key principles, suggests indicators and illustrates in some detail monitoring, evaluation and reporting activities. Each chapter includes activity worksheets to help the readers apply the content to their context and programme

Evaluating programs for HIV/AIDS prevention and care in developing countries : a handbook for program managers and decision makers

REHLE, Thomas
et al
2002

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This handbook contains a comprehensive discussion of evaluation approaches and methodologies for HIV prevention and care programmes. Its premise is that evaluation is an integral part of any programme from initial planning onward. Section I discusses concepts and approaches to evaluation and suggests an evaluation strategy design. Section II describes operational approaches for evaluating programmes concerned with promotion of behavioural change, infection control, condom use, voluntary counselling and testing, and people living with HIV or AIDS (PLWHA). Section III focuses on methodologies for measuring behavioural trends while section IV addresses evaluation issues of programme impact assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis. This publication is designed for use by programme managers and decision makers

Participatory methods toolkit : a practitioner's manual

SLOCUM, Nikki
September 2005

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This publication provides practical information for starting up and managing participatory projects. It presents and discusses ten participatory techniques, methods or applications, including participatory assessment, monitoring and evaluation (PAME). Each method is defined, and indications of when to use it are given. There is a detailed discussion of how to implement each method, including budget considerations. These methods and techniques can be adapted or combined to suit specific projects. The manual is for use by practitioners who want to familiarise themselves with a variety of participatory methods, and can also be used as an introductory resource for less experienced development workers

Participatory monitoring and evaluation training manual

FAMILY AIDS CARING TRUST (FACT)
1999

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Manual developed to support FACT training workshops. The manual contains materials specifically designed for these workshops, and draws on materials developed by others. It can be used in two ways: as a training resource, as the basis for training activities on participatory monitoring and evaluation (PME); or as a practical guide for monitoring and evaluation activities in HIV/AIDS organisations. The manual also includes sample two, three and four day PME workshops

Ten steps to a results-based monitoring and evaluation system : a handbook for development practitioners

ZALL, Jody Kusek
RIST, Ray C
2004

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This is a comprehensive introduction to results-based monitoring and evaluation, illustrating ten essential steps to designing, building and sustaining an effective monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system. The ten steps are: conducting a readiness assessment, agreeing on outcomes to monitor and evaluate, selecting key indicators to monitor outcomes, baseline data on indicators, selecting results targets, monitoring for results, role of evaluations, reporting findings, using findings and sustaining the M&E system within the organisation. Properly implemented, this model will provide essential information feedback for policymakers but also help project managers to assess the effectiveness of their organisations and their programmes

Child-centred monitoring and evaluation

Children and participation : research, monitoring and evaluation with children and young people

SAVE THE CHILDREN UK. Development Dialogue Team
2000

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This book is about participatory information gathering in the process of research, monitoring and evaluation with children and young people. It describes participatory methods of information gathering with children, including drawing, role play, photography and video-making. It also guides teachers, project planners and practitioners towards other sources of information

Ethical approaches to gathering information from children and adolescents in international settings : guidelines and resources

SCHENK, Katie
WILLIAMSON, Jan
2005

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This publication was developed in response to the need for guidance in research activities involving children and adolescent with HIV/AIDS. It is aimed at project managers and researchers gathering information from and about children, and provides recommendations on how to avoid unintentional harm and how to safeguard the rights of vulnerable children during the process of data collection. Part 1 of this document presents some key principles and considerations that must be considered from the earliest stages of planning and throughout the information-gathering activity. Part 2 contains practical ethical guidelines, which are presented using a question-and-answer format. Part 3 summarizes the main recommendations and suggests roles for various staff members involved in information gathering activities with children and adolescents

Facilitator's guide for participatory evaluation with young people

CHECKOWAY, Barry
RICHARDS-SCHUSTER, Katie
2005

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This guide is intended for use in conjunction with the workbook 'Participatory evaluation with young people', and provides additional information for trainers and facilitators. Although evaluation is an every-day experience for most young people, they are often unaware of it as evaluation, lack adequate experience or perceive it as a negative process defined and controlled by adults. Through an interactive and participatory approach this document aims to help young people to be active participants in their own learning. Although based on community development experience in the United States, these methods are easily adaptable to development work in the South

Participatory evaluation with young people

CHECKOWAY, Barry
RICHARDS-SCHUSTER, Katie
2005

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This workbook contains practical tools and learning activities to help young people 'learn for change' through good participatory evaluation practices. It is based on the premise that evaluation is an everyday experience for most young people and that it is crucial that they participate in the decisions that affect their lives. The suggested evaluation questions, methods of gathering information, exercises and other hands-on problem-solving tools are designed for small groups and training workshops. Although based on community development experience in the United States, these methods are easily adaptable to development work in the South

So you want to consult with children? A toolkit of good practice

International Save the Children Alliance
November 2003

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This toolkit is designed to be a flexible tool for people who want to involve children of all ages in discussion about issues that affect them, but don’t know how to do so. It does not list practical activities but rather makes suggestions on what needs to be done to ensure that such exercises have a good chance of success. It addresses issues around how to make sure that children feel that their views and opinions have been listened to and respected. What can be done to ensure that the children involved are safe and protected at all times? How can children and adults be equal partners in representing an organisation, country or delegation to a formal meeting? The main topics covered include organising a consultation or meeting with children, planning a prepatory meeting with and for children, having children on your delegation, the role of adults in creating an enabling environment, ensuring children are safe and protected, and ensuring quality follow up

Toolkits : a practical guide to monitoring, evaluation and impact assessment

GOSLING, Louisa
EDWARDS, Mike
2003

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This field-tested toolkit has been designed to measure the extent to which programmes make a difference. The 2003 edition of Toolkits has been extended with contributions from SCF and beyond. It describes participatory methodologies, such as mapping and focus groups. It is divided into three sections: underlying principles, practical questions and tools. This new edition brings these up to date and discusses the implications of adopting a human rights approach to development and the increased emphasis on partnership. There are new chapters on impact assessment, monitoring and evaluating advocacy, as well as two new tools - one for improving planning, evaluation, and impact assessment and one for stakeholder analysis

Methods and approaches

Monitoring and evaluation : some tools, methods and approaches

WORLD BANK
2004

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An introductory guide to methods and approaches for monitoring and evaluation. Provides an overview of key tools, with essential information about their use, advantages and disadvantages, costs, skills and time required. Types of evaluation discussed include: performance indicators, logical framework approach, theory-based evaluation, formal surveys, rapid appraisal methods, participatory methods, public expenditure tracking surveys, cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis and impact evaluation

Outcome mapping : building learning and reflection into development programmes

EARL, Sarah
CARDEN, Fred
SMUTYLO, Terry
2002

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Assessing the impact of the efforts of a single external development agency is problematic because changes in the well-being of beneficiaries occur as a result of a ‘confluence of events’. Outcome mapping is a dynamic methodology that looks at the contribution an agency has made at project, programme or organisational level to influence the processes leading to changes in the behaviour, relationships, actions and activities of people and organisations. According to the authors, development is about people relating to each other and their environment. Outcome mapping is therefore a monitoring and evaluation system for current and completed activities and provides a framework and vocabulary for understanding changes and assessing efforts. It is based on principles of participation, iterative learning and evaluative thinking throughout.
This book includes a thorough explanation of the outcome mapping approach, and provides detailed information on workshop design and facilitation, as well as numerous worksheets and examples

Reporting with pictures : a concept paper for researchers and health policy decision-makers

HAALAND, Ane
et al
2000

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Describes a framework for developing and implementing pictoral community reporting. Draws from the authors' experience with literate and illiterate community distributors of a drug to combat onchocerciasis in Nigeria. Reports high rates of efficiency, coverage, reliability and flexibility, in addition to motivation and pride among participants. Advocates wider testing and use of this innovative reporting form

Sleeping on our own mats : an introductory guide to community-based monitoring and evaluation

TOLEDANO, Josef
et al
October 2002

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Community-based monitoring and evaluation is a tool for building communities' capacity so that they can make their own choices about their development. A participatory approach which aims at community empowerment is essential to the sustainability of community development projects. The document outlines a monitoring and evaluation system (or 'how to') in five stages, from preparation to final re-appraisal. It also describes key operational tools and how to use them as training exercises. They include a 'signs of well-being' table, internal organisations chart, external organisation chart, activity monitoring table, meeting calendar and service provider agreement. It is intended for trainers, community workers and practitioners wishing to use monitoring and evaluation activities as a resource for capacity building and community empowerment

The 'Most Significant Change' (MSC) technique : a guide to its use

DAVIES, Rick
DART, Jess
April 2005

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This publication is an introduction to the 'Most Significant Change' (MSC) approach to monitoring and evaluation. MSC is a participatory technique of monitoring without indicators. It asks users to collect "significant change" stories from the field level and to select and filter these through a panel of stakeholders or staff. It gives an overview of the "story" approach, and illustrates how to implement the MSC technique in ten steps. Chapter five looks in detail at the place of MSC in a monitoring and evaluation framework. The guide also includes a comparison with other approaches, a historical overview a of its development and outlines possible next steps and future innovations for the approach

Utilization-focused evaluation in Africa

QUINN PATTON, Michael
September 1999

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This training document contains a series of lectures on utilization-focused evaluation. This approach assumes that the value of an evaluation rests not simply on the quality of its findings but also on an adequate utilization of the review process and its results. Good evaluations have the effect of building capacity, ensuring proper use of evaluation process and findings, and not merely producing reports. At every stage of the evaluation process, from design to data collection, analysis and report writing, the evaluators need to be aware of the intended use by intended users. This is a useful resource for those wishing to explore alternative approaches to evaluation, and willing to maximise the impact and benefits of monitoring and evaluation activities