International conventions and policy issues: young children affected by HIV and AIDS

At policy levels, young children need to be included in programmes that address children, HIV and AIDS and community development. This was the theme at the international conference on early childhood development (ECD) in Asmara, Eritrea, 2002. In 2003 UNAIDS, The World Bank and UNICEF published guidelines on ECD in multi-sectoral HIV/AIDS programmes in Africa, which serve as a useful tool for policy makers. In addition, UNICEF experience suggests that a good ECD programme should have a broad framework, be developed with and for families and with and for communities, respecting cultural values and building local capacity. Also important is equal access for all children and a programme that is flexible and reflects diversity. It should also take into account the different experiences and needs of the different age groups within early childhood.

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Selected resources

Books, reports, etc

Approaches to caring for children orphaned by AIDS and other vulnerable children : essential elements for a quality service

LOENING-VOYSEY, Heidi
WILSON, Theresa
February 2001

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This research study examines responses to the care of orphaned children. The goal of the study is to develop policy recommendations for the care of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in South Africa. It complements a partner study into the cost effectiveness of care. Here quality care is that which meets the needs of children in a culturally acceptable way and enables them to realise their rights. It examines a variety of approaches to care from formal to non-formal ways and examples, and case studies are looked at in order to evaluate quality. Conclusions and recommendations are made around the continuum of approaches for the care of OVC, the capacity of households to care for OVC, mobilising communities to care for OVC, and providing a safety net for OVC

HIV/AIDS : what about very young children?

DUNN, Alison
March 2005

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This paper presents the results of research into the question of how to include very young children in programming and policy responses in HIV/AIDS affected communities. The third in a dedicated sub-series of working papers devoted to young children and HIV/AIDS, it shows how young children impacted by HIV/AIDS often seem to be almost invisible in the wider HIV/AIDS field, although no affected group is more vulnerable, more deserving or has greater potential to benefit from proper programming

HIV/AIDS : what about very young children?

DUNN, Alison
July 2004

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This short paper reflects findings from research carried out to identify current responses to meet the needs of children age 0-8 living in HIV/AIDS affected communities. The overall results show that at local, national and international levels there are gaps in programming and policy to engage ideas and mobilise resources to address the needs and experiences of very young children both infected and affected by HIV/AIDS. The question is then raised: What can we actually do to include very young children in programming and policy responses in HIV/AIDS affected communities? Supporting existing family and community networks and current efforts that are being made by people confronting HIV/AIDS on a daily basis are important strategies. Conclusions are drawn indicating that services are required urgently to support very young children both directly and through the families and communities in which they live. Ways of listening to and including very young children in these processes need to be developed and used. Partnerships need to be developed between parents, families, NGOs, CBOs and government to ensure the holistic development of the child. At policy levels, very young children need to be included in programmes that address children, HIV/AIDS and community development. All government ministries can participate in meeting the needs of very young children in HIV/AIDS affected communities

Impact of AIDS on early childhood care and education

HEYMANN, Joey
June 2003

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This policy briefing sets out the background of the HIV pandemic and notes thats its impact has transformed childhood. Findings from a study in Botswana assessing the impact show results in areas of childcare, caring for sick children and parental time with children. Policy recommendations are made concerning the implications for the quality, quantity and nature of early childhood care and education services needed, and also for the supports that are necessary to enable parents and extended family members to care for children who are affected and infected by HIV

Operational guidelines for supporting early child development (ECD) in multi-sectoral HIV/AIDS programs in Africa

SEIFMAN, Richard
SURRENCY, Amber
2003

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The document suggests how services that address young children's needs might be fully integrated into a national multisectoral HIV/AIDS programme. It gives advice on developing national ECD policies, programmes and interventions, multisectoral ECD approaches, and ways to advocate, implement, monitor and evaluate these efforts. It makes suggestions of interventions for very young children and is a resource for other national HIV/AIDS programme topics

Policies for orphans and vulnerable children : a framework for moving forward

SMART, Rose
July 2003

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This paper presents a summary of the global orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) situation, and current policy responses. It is meant for individuals with strategic decision making responsibilties for HIV/AIDS programmes. It firstly defines what is meant by OVC and points out that sub-Saharan Africa has the most OVCs in the world and is therefore the focus of the paper. It outlines existing policy frameworks in responding to OVC including international and national instruments. It identifies policy gaps in national responses to the OVC crisis, and proposes a country-level OVC policy package based on current thinking. The focus is on children under 18 in general, and there is no response to specific age groups

Young children and HIV/AIDS : mapping the field

SHERR, Lorraine
January 2005

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This paper offers a concise and comprehensive overview of the literature from a psychological perspective. It explores a range of issues in emotional, psychological, social and physical development, and their relation to broader issues including poverty, nutrition and human rights. It idenifies gaps in knowledge and will help funders, policy makers and practitioners to locate their own work in the bigger picture. It is accompanied by an annotated bibliography

Multimedia

Early childhood development HIV/AIDS Malawi

MALAWI COUNTRY TEAM
2004

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This PowerPoint presentation demonstrates the general context of HIV/AIDS prevalence and impact in Malawi on children aged 0-14. 1.2% of children aged 0-14 are infected with HIV. HIV prevalence in child bearing women however is 16-30%. The presentation goes on to show the situation of orphans in the country, and notes that 17.5% of all children are orphans with 24% of orphans being under 5. Around half are orphaned due to AIDS. The situation of ECD services in Malawi is presented (just 26% of people have access to ECD services). Key policies and legislative frameworks are documented along with stakeholders. Best practices are covered as well as challenges, gaps and opportunities that are evident

The state of the world's children : special edition

BRAZIER, Chris
et al
November 2009

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This report celebrates 20 years of the Convention of the Rights of the Child. Chapters consider the timeless relevance of the convention; offer essays on a number of different perspectives on the convention; and look at the challenges for making the convention a reality in the 21st century. The online pack includes the report, statistics, panels, photo panels, a video and a press centre