HIV/AIDS and early childhood development (ECD)

Very young children living in HIV/AIDS affected communities are often ignored in development and HIV/AIDS policy and programming responses. Children aged 0-8 are at a critical stage of their development and need to receive adequate nutrition, healthcare, educational and psychosocial support. Families and communities under pressure to cope with the impact of the pandemic find it difficult to meet all of their developmental needs. This list of resources includes evidence of the need to address the needs of very young children living with and affected by HIV/AIDS in development interventions and strategies at community, national and international levels. There are suggestions on how this could be achieved including key tools, manuals and case studies of current work.

This list of key resources was compiled from research carried out for the Bernard van Leer Foundation. We would welcome suggestions or additions to the list: please send these to sourceassistant@hi-uk.org. There is also a short 'Findings' paper based on this research entitled, HIV/AIDS: what about very young children?

Selected resources

Books, reports, etc

A description of the selected interventions for the care of orphans and vulnerable children in Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe

DLAMINI, Phetsile K
2004

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This report contributes to phase one of a research programme which explores the social, political, economic and systemic determinants that affect vulnerability to HIV. This report documents existing interventions to gain more in-depth knowledge of interventions at grassroots level, identify their strengths and weaknesses, and consider opportunities and threats; analyse and assess the outcomes of such interventions and whether objectives were met, including the impact on vulnerable children, their families and communities, considering nutritional and education status, and psychosocial well-being; ascertain the level of awareness around HIV and AIDS, and especially of prevention strategies and care

A sensitisation programme for volunteers offering psychosocial support to vulnerable children affected by HIV/AIDS, violence and poverty|Participants' manual

KILLIAN, Beverley
January 2003

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This manual sets out an holistic approach to the psychosocial needs of children, focussing not just on those affected by HIV and AIDS but all living in impoverished communities. Helpfully, the activities in the manual are separated out into specific days and give a clear and concise explanation of the expected outcomes of each intervention

Annotated bibliography : children and families affected by HIV/AIDS

INTERAGENCY COALITION ON AIDS AND DEVELOPMENT (ICAD)
2003

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This is an annotated list of documents and papers concerning children and families affected by HIV/AIDS. Mostly written in the 1990s and early 2000s, it is a wide-ranging bibliography covering key issues and implications for women and children in the light of the HIV and AIDS pandemic

Antiretroviral drugs for treating pregnant women and preventing HIV infection in infants : guidelines on care, treatment and support for women living with HIV/AIDS and their children in resource-constrained settings

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO)
2004

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Mother to child transmission is the most common cause of HIV infection in children. These guidelines provide updated information on WHO issued recommendations on the use of antiretroviral drugs for preventing mother to child transmission of HIV. These reassessments are within the context of rapidly expanding treatment programmes using simplified and standardised regimens. There has been experienced gained from treatment of mother to child transmission of HIV in resource poor settings as well as further evidence on the safety and effectiveness of various antiretroviral regimens. This document addresses issues of efficacy, safety, drug resistance and feasibility and intends to guide the selection of antiretroviral regimens. They may also be useful for health service providers as specific recommendations are provided for the most frequently encountered clinical situations

Approaches to caring for children orphaned by AIDS and other vulnerable children : essential elements for a quality service

LOENING-VOYSEY, Heidi
WILSON, Theresa
February 2001

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This research study examines responses to the care of orphaned children. The goal of the study is to develop policy recommendations for the care of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in South Africa. It complements a partner study into the cost effectiveness of care. Here quality care is that which meets the needs of children in a culturally acceptable way and enables them to realise their rights. It examines a variety of approaches to care from formal to non-formal ways and examples, and case studies are looked at in order to evaluate quality. Conclusions and recommendations are made around the continuum of approaches for the care of OVC, the capacity of households to care for OVC, mobilising communities to care for OVC, and providing a safety net for OVC

Assessing the costs of a rural PMTCT pilot site in the Eastern Cape

DESMOND, Chris
BOYCE, Gerard
Eds
2004

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Mother to child transmission is by far the largest source of HIV infection in children below the age of 15. Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) programmes have been implemented nationally in South Africa since 2000. This report presents the results of research conducted at a pilot site in the Eastern Cape into the use of resources associated with the implementation of a PMTCT programme. It is part of a larger research project that seeks to examine and compare the costs of providing nevirapine and AZT in both urban and rural contexts. It is hoped that this study will contribute to the national programme of monitoring and evaluating the costs and effectiveness of PMTCT interventions in South Africa

Assessment and improvement of care for AIDS-affected children under age 5

LUSK, Diane
HUFFMAN, Sandra L
O'GARA, Chloe
June 2000

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Firstly statistical information about children under five affected by HIV/AIDS is documented along with the consequences of inadequate care for under five year olds. The special problems facing vulnerable children are addressed using age specific categories, including health and psychosocial concerns. Also examined are some cultural beliefs and traditions that impact upon children under five living in AIDS affected communities, including how orphans are perceived and treated. Who cares for under fives is also addressed, along with a critique of orphanages and alternative programmatic suggestions. The authors also review some assessment tools for the care of vulnerable children for feeding, health care and childrearing practices, and the time restraints of caregivers. There are some useful practical questions that can be put to communities and households in AIDS affected areas to assess the impact upon young children. Recommendations are then made as to appropriate strategies

Barriers to sustainable access of children and families to ART centres in rural India : a report on operations research conducted in Maharashtra and Manipur

INDIA HIV/AIDS ALLIANCE
December 2009

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This report identifies barriers that children and families face in accessing anti-retroviral therapy (ART) centres in rural India. The report also seeks to find solutions to these barriers based on an operations research conducted in Maharashtra Pradesh and Manipur. Operations research objectives: * To build an understanding among policy makers of the barriers faced by children and caregivers accessing ART services in rural communities. * To assess and highlight a basic minimum level of standards for ART centres in terms of adequacy, quality and timeliness of support needed. * To explore opportunities for linkages with state and district level departments and/or local self-governing institutions

Bernard Van Leer Foundation annual report 2002 : young children and HIV/AIDS

BERNARD VAN LEER FOUNDATION
2002

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This report briefly reviews the Foundation's operational year and then goes on to discuss whether, in the wake of the United Nations Special Session on Children in May 2002, young children really are on the international agenda. 2002 was a change for the Foundation, whose new strategic plan concentrated on the Foundation as a learning organisation, building and sharing knowledge in key areas of childhood development. Both the programmatic departments of Development and Management, which works with partners to operationalise projects, and Documentation and Communication, which gathers experience and information to analyse and learn, take part in this approach

Bernard Van Leer Foundation annual report 2003: young children and HIV/AIDS

BERNARD VAN LEER FOUNDATION
2003

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The Bernard Van Leer Foundation is committed to actively engaging with and supporting early childhood development activities in over 40 developing and industrialised countries. The Foundation's 2003 annual report gives a succinct overview of activities, clearly communicating around their mission and work and engaging with the current debate around the accountability of not for profit organisations. The report notes how the Foundation is working towards achieving various goals including working with a clear learning agenda, increasing synergies between the work of partners, their own work and the efforts of the broader ECD community and enhancing their communications functions and strengthening its advocacy role. The report contains an overview of the Foundations' grant-making activities and of the financial aspects of grant-making. A section on the work of the Foundation includes two major initiatives on 'Young Children and HIV/AIDS' and 'Respect for Diversity' which were launched in 2003 and a third 'Growing up in Indigenous Socities' which began in 2002

Beyond the targets : ensuring children benefit from expanded access to HIV/AIDS treatment

INTERNATIONAL SAVE THE CHILDREN ALLIANCE
2004

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This report explores the connections between tackling AIDS and tackling poverty and draws attention to the fact that millions of children affected by HIV and AIDS are in need of care and protection. There is an equally important and parallel agenda of expanding support for the millions of people needing access to treatment for HIV/AIDS. ARV treatment represents a crucial gateway to supporting millions of children yet it is rarely attempted. The report aims to examine the implications of expanded access to HIV/AIDS treatment, as exemplified by the 3 x 5 initiative, for prevention of HIV in children and young people and expanding support and care for orphans and other children made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS. Achieving the 3 by 5 goal set by WHO would mean that millions fewer children would lose their parents. Community based, NGO and governmental work could be pre-emptive in supporting children who do become orphaned rather than responding to mitigate impact. There are examples of programme good practice which illustrate the feasibility of developing effective treatment and care programmes and key findings and recommendations are made in the concluding section

Breaking barriers : facilitating HIV testing and disclosure for children and adolescents

INDIA HIV/AIDS ALLIANCE
2009

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This policy brief is based on operations research conducted by India HIV/AIDS Alliance in Andhra Pradesh which explored the challenges that faced facilitating HIV testing and disclosure for children in 0-6, 7-14 and 15-18 age groups. The aim of the research was to understand current challenges and to provide possible short to medium term solutions, thereby strengthening child-centric care and support to children living with and affected by HIV. The briefing also outlines recommendations and key actions for improving HIV testing and disclosure with children and adolescents

Building blocks : Africa-wide briefing notes. Resources for communities working with orphans and vulnerable children

INTERNATIONAL HIV/AIDS ALLIANCE
January 2003

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A set of eight booklets designed to support programme design and practice at the community level around children made vulnerable or orphaned by HIV or AIDS in Africa. The resources are all locally adaptable and are based on the experience of Alliance, its partners and other organisations. The booklets are called "Overview"; "Psychosocial support"; "Health and nutrition"; "Economic strengthening"; "Education"; "Social inclusion"; "Older Carers"; and "Young children and HIV"

Building resilience in children affected by HIV/AIDS

MALLMAN, Sr Silke-Andrea
2003

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This is a practical guide for caregivers and teachers consisting of a collection of ideas, theories, tasks and exercises that help understand the behaviour and feelings of children affected by HIV/AIDS. The handbook provides practical advice on how to support children who have experienced loss and death in order to help them to cope

Caring for children affected by HIV and AIDS

United Nations Childrens' Fund (UNICEF) Innocenti Research Centre (IRC)
November 2006

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This paper highlights the urgent need to support families and communities to care for children orphaned by HIV & AIDS. It looks at how the epidemic undermines children's health and schooling

Challenging assumptions : breastfeeding and HIV/AIDS

PROGRAM FOR APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY IN HEALTH (PATH)
March 2008

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This policy brief considers the risks of HIV transmission from mother to child through breastfeeding, and the benefits of breast milk in preventing child malnutrition and morbidity and mortality in the first two years of life

Child needs assessment tool kit : a tool kit for collecting information your organization needs for designing programs to help young children in areas heavily impacted by the HIV/AIDS epidemic

TASK FORCE FOR CHILD SURVIVAL AND DEVELOPMENT
December 2001

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The Task Force for Child Survival and Development was commissioned by the Early Child Development Team of the World Bank to develop an assessment tool to help programmes address issues and needs of young families and their children. The tool kit was designed to access the needs of young children (under 8 years old) in communities heavily affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The assessment provides information about the household, family, the main caregiver of young children, each child under 8 years of age, their basic needs (housing, food, clothing, bedding, daily activities, health, education and childcare), and unmet needs. The information from the assessment is intended to be used to design service programmes targeted to the needs of young children and their families
The needs assessment is carried out through the use of a survey of households in the area serviced by the organisation. If a survey of all households is not possible, simple random sampling or cluster survey methodology is used

Children and AIDS : a stocktaking report

UNITE FOR CHILDREN, UNITE AGAINST AIDS
January 2007

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This report assesses some of the most important actions and changes for children affected by AIDS that occurred in the first year of the global campaign Unite for Children

Children and AIDS : country fact sheets

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
April 2008

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Covering 157 low- and middle-income countries and territories, the fact sheets monitor progress in the four priority areas of the Unite for Children, Unite against AIDS campaign: - Preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV. - Providing paediatric HIV care and treatment. - Preventing infection among adolescents and young people. - Protecting and supporting children affected by AIDS

Children and AIDS : second stocktaking report

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
April 2008

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This report focuses on key issues and developments related to the following four priority areas: - Preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). - Providing paediatric HIV care and treatment. - Preventing infection among adolescents and young people. - Protecting and supporting children affected by AIDS

Children, HIV/AIDS and communication in South Africa : a literature review

FOX Susan
OYOSI Salome
PARKER Warren
May 2002

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This literature review covers key issues relating to children aged 3-12 and HIV/AIDS, including discrimination, grief, children's rights, and knowledge and understanding of HIV/AIDS. The impact on the child, family and community is discussed in detail, particularly in terms of the psycho-social impact of bereavement and how this impacts on the child at different stages in its development. Various community programmes within southern Africa are highlighted, which support children to develop life skills. The influence, role and practice of the media in working with and reaching children is addressed, and case studies of South African media projects such as Soul Buddyz and Takalani Sesame are provided

Community care, change and hope : local responses to HIV in Zambia

LUCAS, Sue
2004

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This case study documents a successful model for facilitating a strong community response to HIV and AIDS. The Salvation Army Change Programme in Ndola and Choma Districts in Zambia illustrates the facilitation process stimulating an appropriate local response to HIV and AIDS and essential component of human capacity development. The model builds on local strengths and resources, stimulating ordinary people to address the barriers that prevent them from using HIV and AIDS information and services to prevent new infections, compassionately care for those who are infected and mitigate the effects of the epidemic on families and the community. Only by addressing personal risk, stigma and the potential for personal and societal change will the demand for and use of voluntary counselling and testing, prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy services increase

Conducting a participatory situation analysis of orphans and vulnerable children affected by HIV/AIDS : guidelines and tools | A framework and resource guide

FAMILY HEALTH INTERNATIONAL (FHI)
April 2005

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This framework and resource guide is intended to help people involved in programs assisting orphans and vulnerable children conduct a situation analysis. It serves as a tool for collecting and synthesising in-country and sub-national information. Examples of situation analyses and related research are provided throughout the document to draw upon the variety of approaches, and their components, that communities and institutions have undertaken to assess their particular situation

Conducting a situation analysis of orphans and vulnerable children affected by HIV/AIDS : a framework and resource guide

WILLIAMSON, John
COX, Adrienne
JOHNSTON, Beverly
February 2004

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This document moves towards a standard framework to help people involved in programmes conduct a situation analysis concerning orphans and vulnerable children (OVCs) in the context of HIV/AIDS. It includes the process of planning the situation analysis, defining its purpose, goals and objectives. It provides advice on methods to gather data and frameworks for assessing health, education and economic impacts of HIV/AIDS on OVCs. Analysis, reporting and communication of the information found is discussed

Continuum of care for HIV-positive women accessing programs to prevent parent-to-child transmission : findings from India

MAHENDRA, Vaishali S
et al
2007

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This is the report of a diagnostic study in 2005 to provide an evidence base to strengthen the national Indian prevention of parent-to-child transmission (PPTCT) initiative. The key research questions were: What are the treatment, care, and support needs of HIV-positive women and what services do the women utilize to meet their needs? What are the different ways (clinic-based, community-based, etc) to link HIV-positive women and their families with treatment and care services? The study indicated that linkages between PPTCT and HIV care services, as well as PPTCT and reproductive health services, were limited

Declaration of commitment on HIV/AIDS : "Global Crisis-Global Action"

UNTED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY (UNGASS)
2001

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The declaration notes the scale of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, which constitutes a global emergency, and reaffirms previous commitments on HIV/AIDS made through other declarations. It stresses the need for strong leadership at all levels of society as essential for an effective response. It also suggests that prevention is the mainstay of the response, with care, support and treatment as fundamental elements. The realisation of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all is declared necessary to reduce vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. Empowering people, especially women, is essential to reducing vulnerability. Children and children orphaned by AIDS are also mentioned. Investing in sustainable development and national poverty alleviation strategies to address the impact is vital, as is research and development

Distorted image of AIDS and orphaning in Africa

WILLIAMSON, John
2003

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This is an interesting response to an article in the Washington Post, which described the horrific impact that AIDS had on a family in Kenya. Williamson responds by saying that the article promotes a distorted image of Africa, an image that is promoted by most US news coverage on HIV/AIDS. News coverage is of statistics and tragic stories, but not of responses that are being made at the community level to protect and care for orphans and other vulnerable children. He suggests that this lack of recognition of the actual capacity of communities in Africa makes it difficult to convince US donors of the importance of strengthening first line responses to the impact of HIV/AIDS which are ultimately family and community capacities

Enhanced protection for children affected by AIDS

GREENBERG, Aaron
et al
2007

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This paper articulates the vulnerabilities and protection risks of children affected by AIDS and proposes practical actions to address them. It is a companion paper to "The Framework for the Protection, Care and Support of Orphans and Vulnerable Children Living in a World with HIV and AIDS". It aims to help translate government commitment into practice, building on the strategies laid out in the Framework

Exploring the field of listening to and consulting with young children

CLARK, Alison
MCQUAIL, Susan
MOSS, Peter
July 2003

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This piece of research is a review into listening to and consulting with young children in the UK under five years old with a focus on views and experiences of education and child care. Different methodologies and approaches used in research and consultation are examined including those operating alongside listening to practitioners and parents, and tools that are open to young children with special needs. The impact is then considered based upon evidence gained of children's experiences and priorities, and subsequent changes to attitudes and practice. The review contains case studies to draw upon

Facilitating HIV testing and disclosure with children and adolescents

INDIA HIV/AIDS ALLIANCE
June 2009

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This report looks at the challenges in facilitating testing and disclosure for children in 0-6, 7-14 and 15-18 age groups. The report is based on operations research conducted by India HIV/AIDS Alliance in Andhra Pradesh and Manipur. This operations research was aimed at understanding current challenges with facilitating testing and disclosure for children, and to provide possible short to medium term solutions. Three broad objectives of the study were: * Identifying challenges and factors that prevent the community from seeking HIV testing of their children * Understanding issues related to disclosure of HIV status to children, and the social impact related to disclosure faced by parents and children * Using the study findings in formulating practical solutions to address these issues, and to come up with practical recommendations on building links between policy and practice

Family and community interventions for children affected by AIDS

RICHTER, Linda
MANEGOLD, Julie
PATHER, Riashnee
2004

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This report, based on over 400 documents, reviews the available scientific and programmatic information on interventions aimed at children, families, households and communities. Specifically, the report considers: home-based child-centred development programmes focussing on health and nutrition; psychosocial care and management of inherited assets; interventions directed at supporting families and households to cope with the HIV/AIDS problem and interventions directed at building the capacities of communities to provide long-term care and support for children and households. It also contains an annotated bibliography of available literature in this area in Section 2. The main emphasis of the report is on intervention principles rather than on actual program implementation details as it is widely understood that interventions need to be tailored for each particular situation. There is no specific focus on very young children but interventions to support children, families and communities run into each other with inevitable overlaps

Findings of the orphans and vulnerable children psychosocial survey

USAID: ZAMBIA
et al
January 2003

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The overall goal for the survey was to gather baseline data to facilitate an evaluation of the effectiveness of the Strengthening Community Participation for the Empowerment of Orphans and Vulnerable Children (SCOPE - OVC) project in particular areas of Zambia. Specific study objectives were to: gather information that will describe the impact of HIV/AIDS on children as well as measure the impact that programmes are having on the quality of life of the children; provide information that will be useful in the ongoing development of programmes designed to strengthen the care and support to orphans and vulnerable children, specifically in relation to their psycho-social needs; provide a framework that will show the progression of the SCOPE - OVC project towards its program goals and objectives; and document lessons learned in conducting OVC work as well as in documenting the use of a participatory evaluation process

Growing pains : how poverty and AIDS are challenging childhood

SWIFT, Anthony
MAHER, Stan
2008

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This report looks at projects and programmes that aim to respond to the needs of very young children in southern and eastern Africa whose lives have been affected by both poverty and HIV. What is highlighted in the interventions that are examined is the effort of human beings in caring and supporting people and sharing resources

Handbook on paediatric AIDS in Africa

TINDYEBWA, Denis
et al
2004

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This handbook intends to provide users in resource-poor countries with a tool that can be adapted to their needs. It follows the four principles of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and aims to provide a simple, accessible and practical handbook for health workers involved in preventing infection and caring for children infected and affected by HIV. It includes substantial chapters on caring for HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children, infants and orphans; diagnosis and the clinical stages of HIV infection; clinical conditions associated with HIV (diarrhoea, malnutrition, neurological manifestations, skin manifestations and more); pulmonary conditions; anti-retroviral therapy for children; youth issues, long-term and terminal care planning; psychosocial support. The primary targets are medical students and their lecturers, nurses, clinicians, community health workers and other service providers in resource poor settings where there is a significant HIV and AIDS burden

Health South Africa : efforts to ARV for kids are still in their infancy

NDURU, Moyiga
May 2004

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An interesting article noting the challenges of supplying the medicines to HIV positive children who have received little attention. Early in 2004 the South African national programme to provide anti-retrovirals (ARVs) became operational. There is now hope that this will bring opportunities for under 14 year olds including very young children to gain more access to the drugs. The government is seeking to treat over 50,000 people per year under the ARV programme. In private clinics it costs almost US$93 to put a child on ARV for one month although this has halved since two years ago. Doctors and health officials are debating about what age is right for a child to start ARV treatment although theoretically it can start as soon as it is born. Doctors Without Borders advises that treatment should start as soon as a child is discovered to be HIV positive so that the immune system is bolstered

Helping children in the time of HIV and AIDS

CHLDREN'S INSTITUTE
2004

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The information and recommendations in this clear, accessible publication come from an in-depth multi-site qualitative research study conducted by the Children’s Institute between 2001 and 2003. The research explored the life experiences of children in communities heavily affected by HIV and AIDS. It also looked at the experiences of their caregivers and service providers. This brief publication is aimed at individuals and organisations and considers which children to help, who should help, how to strengthen community responses, and related fundamental questions about starting to take action to help children

Helping my child stay healthy : for carers of HIV positive children

FAMILY HEALTH INTERNATIONAL (FHI) CAMBODIA
May 2009

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This book explains how to care for children living with HIV and how to involve them in their own care. It provides practical information on everything from talking to children about HIV, to supporting children starting antiretroviral therapy and managing common health problems they may have. Health providers in health facilities and home-based care teams may also find this book useful in helping them to better support, inform and guide carers of children living with HIV

HIV and AIDS treatment and care policy

DEPARTMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (DFID)
2004

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This UK government policy was launched in 2004. It outlines UK support for efforts to provide increased access to treatment and care for people living with HIV, including those who are most vulnerable and marginalised. As well as looking at strategies to increase supply and funding of drugs, the policy outlines the need to strengthen health services, link prevention and care, and increase donor coordination

HIV and infant feeding : a compilation of programmatic evidence

KONIZ-BOOHER, Peggy
et al
July 2004

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This paper tries to deepen understandings of the biological and programmatic implications of the transmission of HIV through breastfeeding which have previously been hampered by insufficient study and difficulties of interpretation. It is a careful look at the findings of programmatic approaches. The project attempted to find, summarise and analyse reports on a wide variety of relevant programmes conducted since 1998 UNICEF guidelines were issued. The programmes range from small community research projects to national programmes. The compilation addresses numerous controversial topics and constraints, including human resources, confused mothers, stigma and discrimination, spillover of replacement feeding, free or subsidised infant formula, family economics and the difficulty in providing integrated HIV testing, informed choice counselling, community support, logistics and follow-up care for mothers and infants

HIV and infant feeding : a report of a WABA-UNICEF Colloquium

GREINER, Ted
Ed
2003

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This report covers the main dilemmas and debates around HIV/AIDS and infant feeding practices. There is some focus on antiretrovirals and prevention of mother to child transmission, but sessions featured in the report mainly cover technical and progammatic issues, and the sharing of field experiences. The key themes are the issues of if and how to breastfeed, and confusion over unclear messages about infant feeding practices. Increasing access to information and voluntary counselling and testing is covered as well as community involvement and the perspective and role of breastfeeding supportive NGOs. Lessons learned are drawn upon and details of each working group on various subjects are documented. Research, monitoring and evaluation priorities are looked at, and there is a presentation of knowledge gaps and challenges for the future

HIV and infant feeding : framework for priority action

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2003

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This is a key publication on infant feeding in the context of HIV and AIDS. The framework recommends to governments key actions related to infant and young children feeding, that cover the special circumstances associated with HIV and AIDS. The aim is to create and sustain an environment that encourages appropriate feeding practices for all infants, while scaling up interventions to reduce HIV transmission. It identifies five priority areas for governments and considers the role of UN agencies

HIV and infant feeding : new evidence and programmatic experience|Report of a technical consultation held on behalf of the Inter-agency Task Team (IATT) on Prevention of HIV infections in pregnant women, Mother and their Infants, Geneva, Switzerland, 25-

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
et al
2007

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This report aims to clarify and refine existing UN guidance on HIV and infant feeding. It follows a previous technical consultation in 2000 and presents a summary of findings, conclusions and recommendations regarding HIV and Infant Feeding between 2000 and 2006

HIV and young children : an annotated bibliography on psychosocial perspectives

SHERR, Lorraine
February 2005

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This annotated bibliography offers a practical guide to the content of the references which informed the literature review presented in BVLF Working Paper 33 (Young Children and HIV/AIDS: Mapping the Field). It is intended to help readers who want to go deeper into the issues and explore the original source material. The bibliography presents the references - mostly to peer-reviewed medical or psychology journals - under subject headings such as "disclosure", "interventions", "parentless children", "social development", and more

HIV risk exposure in young children : a study of 2-9 year olds served by public health facilities in the Free State, South Africa

SHISANA, Olive
MEHTAR, Shaheen
2005

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South Africa has, until now, focused its HIV prevention efforts on youth and adults, and now needs to expand its focus to include children. Much is already known about mother to child transmission, which is the dominant mode of HIV transmission among children. However, little investigation has been done into the potential for horizontal transmission of HIV on the population below reproductive age. This report focuses on children aged 2-9 years and, using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, presents evidence on the potential for HIV transmission in dental, maternity and paediatric service in public health facilities. A new finding concerns the practice of shared breastfeeding

HIV-infected women and their families : psychosocial support and related issues. A literature review

LINDSEY, Elizabeth
2003

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This review looks at global literature from academic institutions and UN agencies on psychosocial support and counselling, to HIV infected pregnant women and their families (from pre-conception to 2 years old). It also contains information about the efficacy of practices and projects that care for infected women and their families, especially methods used in relation to mother-to-child transmission during the perinatal period. There are also interesting examples of such projects from around the world. The final section of the review makes recommendations on psychosocial support and counselling for HIV infected women and families

HIV/AIDS : what about very young children?

DUNN, Alison
March 2005

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This paper presents the results of research into the question of how to include very young children in programming and policy responses in HIV/AIDS affected communities. The third in a dedicated sub-series of working papers devoted to young children and HIV/AIDS, it shows how young children impacted by HIV/AIDS often seem to be almost invisible in the wider HIV/AIDS field, although no affected group is more vulnerable, more deserving or has greater potential to benefit from proper programming

HIV/AIDS : what about very young children?

DUNN, Alison
July 2004

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This short paper reflects findings from research carried out to identify current responses to meet the needs of children age 0-8 living in HIV/AIDS affected communities. The overall results show that at local, national and international levels there are gaps in programming and policy to engage ideas and mobilise resources to address the needs and experiences of very young children both infected and affected by HIV/AIDS. The question is then raised: What can we actually do to include very young children in programming and policy responses in HIV/AIDS affected communities? Supporting existing family and community networks and current efforts that are being made by people confronting HIV/AIDS on a daily basis are important strategies. Conclusions are drawn indicating that services are required urgently to support very young children both directly and through the families and communities in which they live. Ways of listening to and including very young children in these processes need to be developed and used. Partnerships need to be developed between parents, families, NGOs, CBOs and government to ensure the holistic development of the child. At policy levels, very young children need to be included in programmes that address children, HIV/AIDS and community development. All government ministries can participate in meeting the needs of very young children in HIV/AIDS affected communities

HIV/AIDS and children affected by armed conflict

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
2001

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This publication addresses the issue of how to incorporate HIV prevention and care into routine responses to complex humanitarian emergencies. It considers evidence that conflict facilitates the spread of HIV and also inhibits responses to HIV/AIDS. It reviews interventions carried out at international and national levels by UNICEF, other UN agencies and non-governmental organizations. Lessons learned are discussed and recommendations are given for UNICEF’s role in reducing the spread of HIV in situations of armed conflict

Impact of AIDS on early childhood care and education

HEYMANN, Joey
June 2003

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This policy briefing sets out the background of the HIV pandemic and notes thats its impact has transformed childhood. Findings from a study in Botswana assessing the impact show results in areas of childcare, caring for sick children and parental time with children. Policy recommendations are made concerning the implications for the quality, quantity and nature of early childhood care and education services needed, and also for the supports that are necessary to enable parents and extended family members to care for children who are affected and infected by HIV

Improving nutrition and reproductive health : a review of UNICEF experience with the distribution of free infant formula for infants of HIV-infected mothers in Africa

WAGT, Arjan de
Clark, David
2004

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This review considers the experience of UNICEF with the distribution of free infant formula for infants of HIV infected mothers in Africa. UNICEF has provided, or is planning to provide, support to pregnant women in 54 countries, with HIV testing and counselling, improved health care, anti-retroviral drugs, and counselling on infant feeding options. After 1998, UNICEF decided to provide poorer HIV positive mothers with an alternative to breastfeeding by providing free formula. This paper presents the experiences with the procurement, distribution and use of free formula in PMTCT programmes. It further suggests conditions for the use of free formula

Inspiring futures : learning from memory work in Africa

DUNN, Alison
HAMMOND WARD, Sarah
2009

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This learning paper looks at the experiences of applying memory work as part of broader strategies to mitigate the impact of HIV and AIDS in five African countries. It explores how six NGOs in sub-Saharan Africa established memory work as a key component of their community-based HIV programmes and draws on the experience of people living with HIV and AIDS, children and young people who participated in the initiative, partner organisations' own learning and analysis and the end of project evaluation report

Mainstreaming psychological care and support within paediatric HIV and AIDS treatment : for health care workers working with children and families affected by HIV and AIDS

REPSSI
May 2008

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The principle aim of this resource is to promote psychosocial care as a separate intervention in itself and proscribe methods of implementing it through a holistic, community based approach which adequately meets the needs of the recipients. The report is for health care workers working with children and families affected by HIV and AIDS

Manual : psycho-social support of orphans

MADÖRIN, Kurt
1999

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This manual is a tool for trainers to train concerned community members to assist distressed children, and to facilitate their interventions on the level of awareness, knowledge, skills and behaviour in relation to orphans. Its stated objective is to enhance the capacity of adults to listen and talk to orphans and children of terminally ill parents, and to understand their situation and their needs. In this way the community improves its capacity to cope with some of the consequences of AIDS. In the manual there are 16 modules that rely on participatory methods, each with detailed instructions for the facilitator and a handout for participants. The manual was produced by the Humuliza (Community Based Mental Health for Orphans) project team

Matrix of five types of ECD HIV/AIDS interventions, suggested outcome indicators, and comments

WORLD BANK
2004

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This is a matrix of the five recommended types of Early Childhood Development (ECD) and HIV and AIDS interventions. It includes suggestions of delivery services to young children, education and support for families and caregivers, training and support of care providers, sensitisation through the mass media and community mobilisation. It provides indicators and comments for each of these categories and is a useful overview of the key interventions which could take place in this field

Mobilising children & youth into their own child- & youth-led organisations

MADOERIN, Kurt
May 2008

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This publication explores child- and youth-led organisations from many different angles, amongst others, HIV and AIDS prevention, the critical role of adults within these organisations, and economic strengthening. What is also perhaps distinctive about the approach outlined in this booklet is the fact that organisation of children into their own child- and youth-led organisations is considered primarily from a psychosocial wellbeing perspective

National plans of action for orphans and vulnerable children in sub-Saharan Africa : where are the youngest children?

ENGLE, Patrice
July 2008

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"There are three reasons for wanting young children to be included in the National Plans of Action. First, as the numbers indicate, there are a substantial number of young children who are orphans and/or vulnerable, but they tend to escape notice. Second, they have specific rights and requirements for care that differ from those of older children...Third, because of the growth potential of young children, the possibilities for effective interventions to prevent long-term negative consequences are greater than at older ages"

Operational guidelines for supporting early child development (ECD) in multi-sectoral HIV/AIDS programs in Africa

SEIFMAN, Richard
SURRENCY, Amber
2003

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The document suggests how services that address young children's needs might be fully integrated into a national multisectoral HIV/AIDS programme. It gives advice on developing national ECD policies, programmes and interventions, multisectoral ECD approaches, and ways to advocate, implement, monitor and evaluate these efforts. It makes suggestions of interventions for very young children and is a resource for other national HIV/AIDS programme topics

Orphans and vulnerable children technical consultation : presentations and materials for OVC consultation

UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (USAID)
2003

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This web page of a technical consultation on orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) contains a variety of presentations of the situation of OVC, the impact of HIV/AIDS global strategies of action and some presentations of case studies from different countries such as Cambodia and Malawi. Some also look at clinical and community care and include ethical considerations

Paediatric ARV roll-out in South Africa

HORIZONS PROGRAM
CAPE TOWN UNIVERSITY
2005

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The Horizons Program of the Population Council and the University of Cape Town are conducting a study to identify successful programme strategies in paediatric HIV treatment in South Africa and to determine priority knowledge gaps to be addressed by operations research. This report summarises key findings from the initial consultative workshop of expert practitioners and stake-holders, focusing on the status of providing antiretroviral therapy to children in South Africa and strategies to expand and improve services. It includes providing services to under six year olds

Placental malaria increases mother to child HIV transmission

BRAHMBHATT, Heena
November 2003

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This news release from John Hopkins University contains reports that that placental malaria infection during pregnancy scientifically increases the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The study, funded by John Hopkins University, was carried out in Uganda where 40% of HIV positive women with placental malaria had HIV positive babies, compared to 15.4% of HIV positive women without malaria. Interventions to prevent malaria during pregnancy could potentially reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV

Protecting the rights of young children affected and infected by HIV/AIDS in Africa : updating strategies and reinforcing existing networks

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)
June 2003

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This report attempts to identify strategies, lines of action and innovative approaches to respond to the needs of young children faced by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Key issues addressed in the workshop and report are around obstacles that prevent the provision of appropriate services, key issues that affect young children, and the cultural and religious causes of discrimination. It suggests principles that should be observed in programming in this area, ways of advocating for the needs of young children affected by HIV/AIDS, and ways of moving forward by developing an action plan

Psychosocial support training manual

WALKER, Lynn
2005

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This document recognises that psychosocial support for children affected by HIV and AIDS is as important as responding to their material needs. It explores children's experience of loss and grief, and suggests ways to deal with aggressive behaviour and to overcome stigma and discrimination. Some of the topics discussed are accompanied by useful handouts. It is designed as a training tool for professionals working directly with children or in community building projects

Repositioning postnatal care in a high HIV environment : Swaziland

WARREN, Charlotte
et al
2008

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This report arose from recognition of the need to provide better care and follow up of mothers and infants in the postnatal period in order to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes in Swaziland. The objectives of the study were to determine if changes to the guidelines on postnatal care would result in improvements to provision of of maternal and newborn care in the postnatal period, increase utilization of postnatal care services among all postpartum (PP) women, and improve the care and follow up of HIV-positive postpartum women and their infants. The study confirmed that the introduction of an improved postnatal package with revised timing and content provided key components of maternal, newborn, and HIV care, and increased the utilization of services among postpartum women and their infants. An assessment of the quality of care during client-provider interactions for all postpartum women demonstrated a fourfold increase in the proportion that included all aspects of care: maternal and newborn health, counseling for HIV, family planning, and improved provider-client relationships

Responding to children, young people and AIDS : collection of best practices under UNTG on AIDS, working group on children

June 2009

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This collection of best practices on the prevention of mother to child transmission; treatment and care for women and children with HIV; vulnerability reduction for youth; and stigma reduction, aims to contribute to experience- and expertise-sharing about tailored interventions to meet the needs of target populations. The publication was produced by the United Nations Theme Group (UNTG) on AIDS, Working Group on Children to contribute to sharing between UN agencies, NGOs and bilateral organisations and civil society. The Chinese Campaign on HIV Prevention for Children and Young People was launched by the Government of China in September, 2006 under the global campaign 'Unite for Children, Unite against AIDS'

Seen & heard : children affected by HIV and AIDS, XVII International AIDS Conference

HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT NETWORKS (HDN)
2008

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This project set out to help young people affected by HIV to find their voices and to provide them with a platform from which to speak not only in their home countries, but also internationally. At the heart of the project, was the participation of a team of six young people, aged 7 to 17, from the United Kingdom, Uganda and Mexico. These young people were the first ever to participate in an International AIDS Conference. They interviewed key participants and asked direct questions about how they will support HIV-affected children

Speak for the child : community care for orphans and affected children. Case study Kenya

LUSK, Diane
et al
2003

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This is a rare case study of a pilot project to address the specific needs of children under 5 affected by HIV/AIDS who are typically ignored at the programming level and often miss the benefits of general HIV/AIDS interventions. The project operated in Western Kenya and the study contains evidence of the work carried out, a lessons learned catalogue of the processes and tools developed, and a set of suggestions of how the tools and processes might be adapted to other groups in other contexts. It is an excellent example of a community based response to the needs of very young children and addresses the key challenges faced in attempting to do so

Standarad package of activities : orphans and vulnerable children (OVC)

KHMER HIV/AIDS NGO ALLIANCE (KHANA)
July 2008

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This resource outlines a comprehensive package of what KHANA see as the priorities for the populations at risk of, affected by, or living with HIV. The contents have been directly informed by KHANA partners, the beneficiaries of their programnes, government initiatives and the programmes of other stakeholders. As such, they reflect the current needs of PLHIV and other at-risk groups, in particular orphans and vulnerable children

Taking better care? Review of a decade of work with orphans and vulnerable children in Rakai, Uganda

WITTER, Sophie
CALDER, George
AHIMBISIBWE, Timothy
2004

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Taking Better Care looks at the situation facing orphaned and vulnerable children in the Rakai District in Uganda and at the legacy of Save the Children's Child Social Care Project (CSCP) there. The report examines the impact of the CSCP, implemented between 1991 and 1996, and at trends in Rakai since the CSCP ended, as well as outlining the lessons learned and providing recommendations for future action. It concludes that in order to support orphans and vulnerable children in a long-term, sustainable way, child-care models now need to incorporate a maximum of state support and civil society mobilisation, combined with more traditional family support

The cost-effectiveness of six models of care for orphans and vulnerable children in South Africa

DESMOND, Chris
GOW, Jeff
2001

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An analysis of the most cost effective way of providing care for orphaned children in South Africa. It examines six models of care ranging from formal children's homes to community-based structures. The paper is part of a combined study, the other part of which looks at the quality of different types of orphan care and their associated costs. There is initially a detailed look at the various categories of care followed by an outline of the method used to evaluate cost. Six case studies are examined and conclusions and recommendations are made as a result of evaluation

The spillover impacts of Africa's orphan crisis

EVANS, David
2005

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This is a study using a collection of 41 demographic and health surveys from 26 African countries. The households that provide care for orphans are characterised, and the impact of taking in orphans on outcomes for other household residents, including children's health and education, is estimated. A key finding is that orphan care is concentrated in households with fewer other childcare responsibilities, especially elderly households. The researcher found no evidence that having an orphan join the household significantly affected the household, contrary to popular views that orphans generate negative spillovers

Theory to practice cards and checklists

REPSSI
2008

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This is an introduction to the theory behind using picture cards as an educational and sensitisation tool with children affected by HIV and AIDS. It offers a detailed introduction to, and practical examples of, communicating with children and providing psychosocial support. The activities are set out clearly and are easy to follow and implement

Understanding community responses to the situation of children affected by AIDS : lessons for external agencies. Draft paper prepared for the UNRISD project HIV/AIDS and Development

FOSTER, Geoff
March 2002

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This is a key report that documents community responses and coping mechanisms towards the HIV/AIDS pandemic in relation to children affected by AIDS (CABA) and orphans and vulnerable children (OVC). Fostering families are under enormous strain and local initiatives at the community level have been little studied or documented, and few organisations have sought to encourage their development. The paper analyses some of these initiatives and encourages external agencies to support them through building the capacity of local responses rather than imposing external solutions

Understanding the needs of orphans and other children affected by HIV and AIDS in Africa : the state of the science

BIRDTHISTLE, Isolde
April 2004

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To date, responses to the needs of orphans and vulnerable children have not typically been guided by research, though a body of empirical evidence related to the impact of HIV and AIDS on children is growing. USAID/AFR/SD and the SARA project commissioned a review of 48 selected studies to summarize the findings that represent the most current understanding of children's vulnerability due to AIDS. The review captures what is known and not yet known about the impact of HIV and AIDS on the survival, health, education, social, and emotional needs of children; identifies the content gaps and methodological limitations of existing research; suggests priorities for future research; and informs programmatic and political responses

UNICEF and WHO call for stronger support for the implementation of the joint United Nations HIV and infant feeding framework

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
December 2004

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This call for support aims to strengthen plans to help women who may be HIV positive to choose the right feeding option for their child. A framework has been created by the UN which recognises that special attention and practical support is needed in exceptionally difficult circumstances, including the presence of HIV. The framework outlines five priority areas

USAID announces HIV/AIDS grant finalists

UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (USAID)
May 2004

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Press release announcing the funding of four projects by USAID through the Community REACH program, which aims to promote scaling up successful creative community based programs which have a demonstratble impact on the HIV/AIDS pandemic

USAID project profiles : children affected by HIV/AIDS

UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (USAID)
January 2005

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This document presents profiles of 114 projects (90 country-specific, 12 regional, and 12 global) funded by USAID. It includes a section on USAID projects that support access to education in Africa. The project profiles include the names of implementing organisations, funding periods and amounts, objectives, strategies, key accomplishments, priority activities for the year ahead, and materials and tools available to other projects that can help meet the needs of children and youth affected by HIV and AIDS. The diversity of these projects demonstrates the US government's efforts to meet the wide variety of needs of children and youth affected by HIV and AIDS. Approaches vary in both strategy and scale. The vast majority of projects work with communities to identify opportunities that strengthen existing resources without undermining local ownership. In many places, communities are already mobilised and have systems in place to identify, protect, and provide basic necessities to the most vulnerable children. USAID supports the strengthening and monitoring of these existing activities

Voices from the communities : the impact of HIV/AIDS on the lives of orphaned children and their guardians

FAMILY HEALTH INTERNATIONAL (FHI); SCOPE-OVC
July 2003

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Voices from the Communities is a follow-up qualitative study by Family Health International (FHI) and Strengthening Community Partnerships for the Empowerment of Orphans and Vulnerable Children (SCOPE-OVC) to a 2001 quantitative survey. The quantitative study sought to determine the psychosocial and emotional needs of orphans and vulnerable children in sixteen communities in four districts of Zambia: Livingstone, Lusaka, Mongu and Kitwe. Voices extends the original research by ascertaining the psychosocial and emotional needs of OVC in greater detail. In Voices, 10 focus group discussions were held during 2002 in two townships; Itimpi in Kitwe and Chawama in Lusaka. The study sample of one hundred and eighty one discussants consisted of orphaned children, child heads of household and adult heads of household

WABA position on HIV and breastfeeding

WORLD ALLIANCE FOR BREASTFEEDING ACTION (WABA)
1998

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This is a position paper on HIV and breastfeeding. It makes broad statements on the situation of breastfeeding mothers in the light of HIV. It states that it is concerned that recent changes in WHO, UNICEF and UNAIDS policy regarding breastfeeding and HIV as these changes appear to put major stress on the use of infant formula and less on alternative feeding methods. Recommendations are then made which indicate what some of these alternatives are

Young children and HIV/AIDS : mapping the field

SHERR, Lorraine
January 2005

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This paper offers a concise and comprehensive overview of the literature from a psychological perspective. It explores a range of issues in emotional, psychological, social and physical development, and their relation to broader issues including poverty, nutrition and human rights. It idenifies gaps in knowledge and will help funders, policy makers and practitioners to locate their own work in the bigger picture. It is accompanied by an annotated bibliography

Databases

AIDS orphans assistance database (AOAD)

ASSOCIATION FRANCOIS XAVIER BAGNOUD (AFXB)
WORLD BANK, Early Childhood Development Team

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The purpose of the AOAD is to facilitate cooperation among organisations and individuals assisting children made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS and their care givers. The AOAD allows users to find, learn about and contact each other. The database also aims to help donors identify potential project partners directly, thus eliminating costly intermediaries. The purposes of the database include helping practitioners in the field to connect and exchange views and insights; helping community-based organisations and local NGOs identify potential sources of support; helping donors identify potential implementing partners; and helping programming agencies identify technical service providers

Email forums

Children Affected by AIDS (CABA) online forum

SYNERGY PROJECT
2004

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The CABA (Children Affected by AIDS) online discussion forum was established by the US Agency for International Development (USAID) to facilitate vital discussion and information exchange on efforts to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS on children, families and communities. USAID and the Synergy Project, which hosts the forum on behalf of USAID, encourages all to participate.
The website includes listings of HIV/AIDS websites, grouped by topic and by country. Areas covered include: global HIV/AIDS, women, children and youth, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, donors, Africa, Newly Independent States, Asia and the Near East, Latin America and the Caribbean

REPSSI Forum

The Regional Psychosocial Support Initiative For Children Affected by HIV/AIDS (REPSSI)

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This forum is aimed at promoting awareness of psychosocial support for children affected by HIV/AIDS.

Journal articles

Advocacy [whole issue]

2003

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This issue of the Coordinators' Notebook has two main sections: an extensive article entitled 'Advocacy, Communications and Social Mobilisation on Behalf of Young Children', and a series of case studies of projects in the Caribbean, Pakistan, East Africa, Brazil, Tanzania and the USA. It addresses issues including: the different dimensions of advocacy for early childhood care and development, expanding the view of what constitutes advocacy on behalf of young children; the role of communication in moving agenda and practice forward; and the purposes and roles of advocacy

Data availability on men's involvement in families in sub-Saharan Africa to inform family-centred programmes for children affected by HIV and AIDS

HOSEGOOD, Victoria
MADHAVAN, Sangeetha
June 2010

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This article describes the availability of data about men and families, in particular fathers, in sub-Saharan African surveys and longitudinal population cohorts. To date, there has been limited research to examine men's role in providing emotional and material support and protection for children and families affected by HIV and AIDS, however increasing interest in family-oriented interventions around HIV and AIDS mean that such information needs to be collected

HIV/AIDS and early childhood [whole issue]

BARTLETT, Kathy
ZIMANYI, Louise
Eds
December 2002

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This is one of the few publications solely dedicated to early childhood and HIV/AIDS. It contains articles examining the particular experience of the very young child and the social, psychosocial and nutritional impact on their lives in AIDS affected communities. There is also an article about infant feeding practices in Africa. It makes some policy recommendations and the several case studies provide some direct examples of programming in this area

Together now

INDIA HIV/AIDS ALLIANCE
April 2009

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Together Now’ is Alliance India's periodical newsletter. This issue focuses on psychosocial support in relation to support of people affected by HIV and AIDS including interventions that assist children and families to cope

Multimedia

Early childhood development HIV/AIDS Malawi

MALAWI COUNTRY TEAM
2004

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This PowerPoint presentation demonstrates the general context of HIV/AIDS prevalence and impact in Malawi on children aged 0-14. 1.2% of children aged 0-14 are infected with HIV. HIV prevalence in child bearing women however is 16-30%. The presentation goes on to show the situation of orphans in the country, and notes that 17.5% of all children are orphans with 24% of orphans being under 5. Around half are orphaned due to AIDS. The situation of ECD services in Malawi is presented (just 26% of people have access to ECD services). Key policies and legislative frameworks are documented along with stakeholders. Best practices are covered as well as challenges, gaps and opportunities that are evident

ECD and HIV/AIDS in Rwanda

WORLD BANK

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This PowerPoint presentation takes a specific look at Early Childhood Development (ECD) and HIV/AIDS in Rwanda. It initially considers the statistics around HIV infection of babies and infants and the number of children orphaned by AIDS. There are a high number of child headed households and street children. There are few interventions that comprehensively target the ECD section. The major problems are presented as high levels of stigma and discrimination, the lack of adult care and provision of basic needs to child headed households, limited technical skills in counselling, medical care and home care of children affected by AIDS. Existing interventions are fragmented and coordination and M&E is weak. Existing interventions are usefully listed and finally future perspectives are given

HIV/AIDS : issues affecting the young child

EDWARDS, Morris
2002

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This PowerPoint presentation looks at the impact and scale of HIV/AIDS on the young, and the health and social aspects of HIV/AIDS. The focus on very young chldren focuses on the prevention of mother-to-child transmission. The presentation also makes recommendations for advocacy to ensure the non-discrimination of children living with HIV/AIDS and their access to health care, education and social services and benefits

Integrating food and nutrition into HIV and AIDS strategies

MCDERMOTT, Peter
2005

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This is a slide presentation which considers the role of food and nutrition in the context of HIV and AIDS. It notes the vicious cycle of malnutrition, HIV and poverty and the effects of HIV and AIDS on nutrition, household food security and food production. HIV and AIDS also have an impact on the agricultural sector and examples are shown from Kenya, Zambia and Malawi. Increased malnutrition can lead to adults needing more access to quality health care but not getting it, increased caring for sick adults means less time for childcare, and children drop out of school to help with household labour. Finally, UNICEF support to nutrition and HIV and AIDS is shown along with their current operational approach. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Food Program (WFP) approach is also considered

Overview of children living with HIV/AIDS

BOWSKY, Sarah
2004

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A PowerPoint presentation showing some key statistics on global HIV/AIDS estimates on children under 15, and the estimated impact of HIV/AIDS on under-five mortality rates and on the infant and child survival. The presentation also looks at how children become infected with HIV and why they die so young. Current responses are listed with a look at the contiuum of care followed by some key challenges. Finally the medical, nursing and psychosocial needs of children are presented

Supporting early childhood development (ECD) in HIV/AIDS programs for Africa

EMING YOUNG, Mary
2003

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This PowerPoint presentation is a good overview of reasons why it is important to address early childhood development (ECD) in HIV/AIDS programmes for Africa; what policy makers need to know about ECD in relation to HIV/AIDS; and how governments can partner with civil society to support ECD HIV/AIDS interventions. It examines the potential negative consequences for a child born in an AIDS affected community, and how ECD programs benefit communities. The potential direct beneficiaries are identified and finally an ECD HIV/AIDS policy package is suggested

Websites

AIDSPortal

UK CONSORTIUM ON AIDS AND INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

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AIDSPortal.org is a collaboration between the DFID AIDS Policy Team, the UK Consortium on AIDS and International Development and the DFID Health Resource Centre, which produces the Eldis AIDS resource guide. AIDSPortal.org brings together the contents of the resource guide with policy discussions and country resources which are currently under development. There is a new AIDSPortal resource section on orphans and vulnerable children. It is also possible to access country specific resources and contacts from civil society organisations. There is information about a recent symposium to support the sharing of best practice in OVC programming which includes an overview of issues around OVC

Caribbean Early Childhood Development and HIV/AIDS

UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES
2002

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This website was established by the University of the West Indies to make Caribbean-relevant information on early childhood available to the countries that the University of the West Indies serves. The website is targeted at practitioners, parents, policy makers, researchers, the media or other persons and organisations interested in Caribbean early childhood, parenting and family development issues. The aim of the site is to increase the sharing of information, strategies, resources and overall communication on early childhood, parenting and the family within the Caribbean. The website provides information on national Early Childhood Development (ECD) Associations and their plans of action, parenting initiatives, research, and publications and products available on early childhood development issues in the region. There is a section devoted to HIV AIDS and ECD, but only a few reports on this topic are currently available

ChildCareExchange.com

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This website is a useful resource for publications, conferences, documents and websites to do with childcare and is targeted at educators and caregivers. Although it is US-based, it does cover global issues. The key publication, Childcare Information Exchange is available through the website which also contains a list of early childhood organisations

ECD and HIV/AIDS

WORLD BANK

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This website is updated with current initiatives on ECD and HIV/AIDS. It includes details of the important workshop on ECD and HIV/AIDS held in Dar es Salaam in April 2004. The site provides links to resources on HIV and AIDS and links to organisations taking action in this area

Heinemann HIV/AIDS teaching support site

Heinemann Publishers

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This site is a source of information and resources for children of both younger and older age groups. These books and resources are produced to support adults who are working in education, both inside and outside the classroom, to equip children to know and think about HIV and AIDS and how it affects people. There are fiction reviews, information books and curriculum material. Lower primary through to upper secondary levels are covered and aim to give children the knowledge, skills and values they need to tackle HIV and AIDS.
For younger children, there is a series of 3 books.
1. Go Away Dog by David Donald about a grumpy grandmother, a puppy and the importance of care and friendship in a time of sickness.
2. Respect and Care by Glynis Clacherty that looks at respect and care and co-operation amongst children as they confront sickness and loss.
3. Lerato’s Story by Glynis Clacherty which is a lively photo story about a young child who is HIV positive told through the eyes of her sister

HIV and infant feeding

WORLD ALLIANCE FOR BREASTFEEDING ACTION (WABA)

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This section of WABA's website provides resources and information on key issues such as what interventions should be put in place to prevent transmission of HIV through breastfeeding, while also protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding for the majority of children who benefit from it. It also tries to address the question of how to decide which children would be at greater risk from being breastfed. An additional difficulty is the need to encourage HIV-positive mothers to choose either exclusive replacement feeding or exclusive breastfeeding, since neither is common in low-income populations

HIV/AIDS, children and young people

ELDIS

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This Eldis guide provides summaries and research on the key issues related to orphans and vulnerable children affected by HIV and AIDS, including an overview of the current situation, projected trends and proposed strategies to fight this growing problem. It includes sections on children and young people, orphans and vulnerable children, mother to child transmission, children’s rights and HIV/AIDS, working with children and young people on HIV/AIDS, and adolescents. It provides a list of recommended readings and latest additions on HIV/AIDS

SciDev.Net : spotlight on mother to child transmission

SCIENCE AND DEVELOPMENT NETWORK

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This new online ‘spotlight’ on mother-to-child transmission of HIV brings together news, opinion and information on the latest research and international guidelines on the prevention of MTCT. The spotlight contains a comprehensive introduction to the issues with breast-feeding and drug therapy, including an overview of the current guidelines on anti-retrovirals; essential background reading on the basic science of mother-to-child transmission and its prevention as well as on anti-retrovirals, microbicides and vaccine development up to date news, features and opinion articles on mother-to-child transmission and links to key organisations in the field. The spotlight is a new edition to the HIV/AIDS quick guide which charts recent developments and indicates promising new avenues of treatment by bringing together topical coverage and background reading

Women, children, and HIV

FRANCOIS XAVIER BAGNAUD (FXB) CENTER
CENTER FOR HIV INFORMATION (CHI)

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This site contains a library of practically applicable materials on mother and child HIV infection including preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT), infant feeding, clinical care of women and children living with HIV infection, and the support of orphans. The goal of the site is to contribute to an improvement in the scale and quality of international HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and treatment programs for women and children by increasing access to authoritative HIV/AIDS information. Its aims are to disseminate state of the art clinical information and training resources on MTCT and related topics. It also communicates the best practices in preventing MTCT and caring for infected children. It aims to disseminate prevention of MTCT program resource materials, clinical information and training resources on perinatally acquired pediatric HIV infection. It is browseable and searchable through a basic 'free-text' search box. The site also features an up-to-date news section.

Organisations

ActionAid International

South Africa

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PostNet Suite No 248
Private Bag x31
Saxonwold 2132
Johannesburg

ActionAid International works in 35 countries across Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Through long term development, relief and peace building work, ActionAid aims to secure lasting improvements in people's quality of lives and to support poor and marginalised groups to secure their basic rights to live a more fulfilled and dignified life. ActionAid works in partnership with over 2,000 civil society partners ranging from village-based AIDS support and women’s credit groups to national peasants’ movements and global education campaigns. ActionAid also works with national and local governments in poor countries to ensure that they respect, protect and fulfil their citizens’ human rights. ActionAid’s work reaches 13 million of the world’s poorest people and it employs 1,800 staff - 90% of them from developing countries

Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA)

France

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7-9 rue Eugène-Delacroix
75116 Paris

ADEA is a network of partners promoting the development of effective education policies based on African leadership and ownership. ADEA is a network of African Ministries of Education, Development Agencies, education specialists and researchers, and NGOs active in education. Its mission is to: promote dialogue and partnerships; develop consensus on policy issues facing education in Africa; reinforce African Ministries' capacities to develop, manage, and implement education policies; promote the sharing of experiences and successful strategies; and promote nationally-driven education policies, projects, and programs

Catholic AIDS Action

Namibia

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P O Box 11525
Windhoek

Namibia ranks as one of the most HIV/AIDS-affected countries in the world. But most people who have HIV don't know they are infected, which means that the disease continues to spread, unabated. Catholic AIDS Action believes that the AIDS pandemic calls for a holistic response, that addresses both prevention and care. There is no time to waste. Since its founding in 1998 as the first national church-based response to HIV/AIDS in Namibia, Catholic AIDS Action has grown to become Namibia's largest and most effective non-governmental organisation in the AIDS field. Thirty trained volunteer groups now provide nationwide home-based family care to people infected with HIV and AIDS. Another 35 groups work on income-producing projects, living programs for people who are already infected, peer support, and outreach. Its prevention program has graduated over 4,000 youngsters in a ten-week UNICEF-sponsored course. It has also established national standards for training and supervising home-based care, as well as care of needy orphans

Centre for AIDS Developmenet Research and Evaluation (CADRE)

South Africa

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Street Address:
5th Floor, Johannesburg Chamber of Commerce and Industry Building, 27 Owl Street, Milpark, Johannesburg, 2193.

Postal Address:
PO Box 30829, Braamfontein 2017, South Africa.

The Centre for AIDS Development, Research and Evaluation (CADRE) is a South African non-profit organisation working in the area of HIV/AIDS social research, programme development and communication. CADRE is committed to fast-tracking appropriate and effective response to HIV/AIDS through developing coherent strategic models for interventions

Early Learning Resource Unit (ELRU)

South Africa

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19 Flamingo Crescent
Lansdowne 7780
Cape Town

The Early Learning Resource Unit (ELRU) is an organisation based in South Africa working in the field of early childhood development. The aim of the website is to provide a virtual overview of the organisation and act as an online resource base of information regarding early childhood development. ELRU seeks to build on existing knowledge and skills, promote and provide access to knowledge and skills, affirm and harness the potential of diversity and support those working with young children. It does this through a series of programmes based around inclusion and diversity training, HIV/AIDS strategies, and leadership in early childhood development training. ELRU has had an incalculable influence on pre-school education in South Africa, with virtually all para-professional training either being based on ELRU materials and methods, or being heavily influenced by them. ELRU offers support to educators and others involved in post-apartheid transformation so that they are able to influence and promote change in practical ways. The anti-bias work challenges beliefs, attitudes, behaviours and social and institutional practices which are oppressive. ELRU addresses HIV/AIDS through providing training to parents and teachers, in both urban and rural settings, about the vulnerability of young children and the effects of HIV/AIDS on them and their families. They say that early childhood development (ECD) work provides a logical framework to strengthen and sustain families and projects

Family Health International (FHI)

USA

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PO Box 13950
Research Triangle Park
NC 27709

Works to improve reproductive and family health around the world through bio-medical and social science research, innovative health service delivery interventions, and training and information programmes. It works in partnership with universities, ministries of health and NGOs, conducting on-going projects in the USA and more than 40 developing countries. The resource centre is open to the public

Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)

Switzerland

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20 Avenue Appia
CH-1211 Geneva 27

A leading advocate for worldwide action against AIDS. Its mission is to lead, strengthen and support an expanded response to the AIDS epidemic in a way that will prevent the spread of HIV, and provide care and support for those affected by the disease; reduce the vulnerability of individuals and communitites to HIV/AIDS; and alleviate the socio-economic and human impact of the epidemic

Synergy Project

USA

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1101 Vermont Avenue NW Suite 900
Washington DC 20005

The Synergy Project is a five-year, performance-based project that provides technical assistance and services to the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to design, evaluate, and coordinate HIV/AIDS programs and identify and disseminate lessons learned from these programs. It has an on-line resource centre on HIV project management and research. There are over 3700 resources on the database, some of which are available online (work is currently being done to make more available in pdf format). The database can be searched for any instance of a keyword in the title, author, publisher, publication year, abstract, target group, technical area, or country fields (see http://www.synergyaids.com/resources.asp)

Takalani Sesame|SABC Education Planning and Support,

South Africa

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Private Bag X41
Auckland Park 2006

Takalani Sesame was launched in July 2000. It is designed to support the Early Childhood Development (ECD) policy of the Department of Education. The project consists of a multi-lingual television and radio programme, supported by print resources and training initiatives. The initiative was launched to achieve the mass reach of young children - to encourage learning in the areas of literacy, numeracy and life-skills. Effective use of Takalani Sesame by parents, caregivers and ECD Educators is a key issue for the project. Dedicated ECD trainers are taking Takalani Sesame into homes, community centres, and anywhere groups of young children spend their days, in the four most disadvantaged and poor provinces of South Africa. A new addition to the cast is a young muppet who is HIV positive. The show aimed at children aged 3 to 7, will help educate viewers about AIDS. The female character, aged 5, is expected to help destigmatise AIDS and encourage positive behaviour towards infected people

The Consultative Group on Early Childhood Care and Development (CGECCD) Secretariat

Canada

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Ryerson University, School of Early Childhood Education
350 Victoria Street
Toronto
Ontario M5B 2K3

The consultative Group on Early Childhood Care and Development is a global inter-agency consortium which was established in 1984.  The focus is on young children (0 to 8yrs), their families and communities.  They take into account the large numbers of young children living in difficult and resource-poor contexts and the effects this has on their overall physical, social and cognitive development and well-being.

Training and Resources in Early Education (TREE)

South Africa

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PO Box 35173
Northway 4065
KZN

TREE is a nonprofit NGO that provides training, resources and support to caregivers, parents & communities engaged in Early Childhood Development (ECD), which is the holistic education, care and development of young children from birth to 7 years of age. TREE's aims are to promote and support quality, sustainable, holistic ECD for children in disadvantaged communities; to provide access for adults, who impact on the lives of young children, to quality training in early childhood education, care and development; and to provide access to a range of low-cost resources for ECD. It provides opportunities for women's empowerment, income generation and community development through partnership and cooperation with the Department of Education and other departments at the local, provincial and national levels, as well as other stakeholders, on health, education and welfare issues that affect the young child. It trains approximately 3000 women a year to implement quality ECD programmes in their communities, throughout KwaZulu Natal and the Eastern Cape. This training improves the educational potential of approximately 80 000 young children annually, many from remote, impoverished rural areas.
TREE has received funding as part of the Community REACH program to investigate new roles for ECD practitioners in supporting orphans and vulnerable children in KwaZulu-Natal province. TREE will use qualitative and quantitative research methods (focus groups and key informants)_ to assess community perceptions of how OVC can best be supported and nurtured. A manual will be produced in Zulu to assist ECD practitioners to identify, care for and support OVCs

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

France

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7 Place de Fontenoy
75352 Paris 07 SP

1 rue Miollis,
75732 Paris Cedex 15

Created in 1945 in order to build networks between nations to enable solidarity by:

  • Mobilizing for education: so that every child, boy or girl, has access to quality education as a fundamental human right and as a prerequisite for human development. 
  • Building intercultural understanding: through protection of heritage and support for cultural diversity. UNESCO created the idea of World Heritage to protect sites of outstanding universal value. 
  • Pursuing scientific cooperation: such as early warning systems for tsunamis or trans-boundary water management agreements, to strengthen ties between nations and societies. 
  • Protecting freedom of expression: an essential condition for democracy, development and human dignity.

Today, UNESCO believe that it has to create holistic policies that are capable of addressing the social, environmental and economic dimensions of sustainable development.

United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD)

Switzerland

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Palais des Nations
1211 Geneva 10

The United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD) is an autonomous UN agency engaging in multidisciplinary research on the social dimensions of contemporary problems affecting development. Through its research, UNRISD stimulates dialogue and contributes to policy debates on key issues of social development within and outside the United Nations system. Poverty eradication, the promotion of democracy and human rights, gender equity, environmental sustainability and the effects of globalization are overarching concerns in UNRISD's work

World Health Organization (WHO)

Switzerland

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Avenue Appia 20
CH-1211 Geneva 27

Charged to act as the world's directing and coordinating authority on suggestions of human health, WHO has developed a host of networks and mechanisms for generating data, applying facts to problems and recommending solutions that will lead to sustained improvements in health. The WHO resource centre is open to the public