Existing beliefs and practices

Action to motivate parents and caregivers to encourage their children’s all-round development demands blending an understanding of traditional child-rearing practices with what is known globally about the best environments for optimal child development. Local beliefs and practices should be used as an entry point for dialogue aimed at enhancing the quality of care practices and provisions.

We welcome your feedback: please send comments or suggested additions to sourceassistant@hi-uk.org
 

Selected resources

Relationships & attachments

A family is for a lifetime

WILLIAMSON, Jan
December 2003

Expand view

A discussion on the need for family care for children living in HIV/AIDS affected communities followed by an annotated bibliography. This pulls together the best research and experience from practice to provide important guidance to responses at family levels. Community based responses are difficult to define and this identifies the need to find a consensus so as to provide a way forward for action. The discussion in the paper is a review of 80 documents about the provision of care for children lacking family care in countries affected by HIV/AIDS

Building resilience in children affected by HIV/AIDS

MALLMAN, Sr Silke-Andrea
2003

Expand view

This is a practical guide for caregivers and teachers consisting of a collection of ideas, theories, tasks and exercises that help understand the behaviour and feelings of children affected by HIV/AIDS. The handbook provides practical advice on how to support children who have experienced loss and death in order to help them to cope

Children in residential care and alternatives

MILES, Glenn
STEPHENSON, Paul
January 2001

Expand view

Residential Care and Alternatives is based on child development and protection principles. Tearfund is a Christian organisation and the document makes a number of references to Christian scripture and values. It could be a useful tool for helping Christian organisations that provide, or that are considering providing, residential care to explore better care alternatives or improving the quality of residential care

Children, HIV/AIDS and communication in South Africa : a literature review

FOX Susan
OYOSI Salome
PARKER Warren
May 2002

Expand view

This literature review covers key issues relating to children aged 3-12 and HIV/AIDS, including discrimination, grief, children's rights, and knowledge and understanding of HIV/AIDS. The impact on the child, family and community is discussed in detail, particularly in terms of the psycho-social impact of bereavement and how this impacts on the child at different stages in its development. Various community programmes within southern Africa are highlighted, which support children to develop life skills. The influence, role and practice of the media in working with and reaching children is addressed, and case studies of South African media projects such as Soul Buddyz and Takalani Sesame are provided

Local traditions

Community care, change and hope : local responses to HIV in Zambia

LUCAS, Sue
2004

Expand view

This case study documents a successful model for facilitating a strong community response to HIV and AIDS. The Salvation Army Change Programme in Ndola and Choma Districts in Zambia illustrates the facilitation process stimulating an appropriate local response to HIV and AIDS and essential component of human capacity development. The model builds on local strengths and resources, stimulating ordinary people to address the barriers that prevent them from using HIV and AIDS information and services to prevent new infections, compassionately care for those who are infected and mitigate the effects of the epidemic on families and the community. Only by addressing personal risk, stigma and the potential for personal and societal change will the demand for and use of voluntary counselling and testing, prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy services increase

Protecting the rights of young children affected and infected by HIV/AIDS in Africa : updating strategies and reinforcing existing networks

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)
June 2003

Expand view

This report attempts to identify strategies, lines of action and innovative approaches to respond to the needs of young children faced by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Key issues addressed in the workshop and report are around obstacles that prevent the provision of appropriate services, key issues that affect young children, and the cultural and religious causes of discrimination. It suggests principles that should be observed in programming in this area, ways of advocating for the needs of young children affected by HIV/AIDS, and ways of moving forward by developing an action plan

Parenting and parental interactions

Antiretroviral drugs for treating pregnant women and preventing HIV infection in infants : guidelines on care, treatment and support for women living with HIV/AIDS and their children in resource-constrained settings

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO)
2004

Expand view

Mother to child transmission is the most common cause of HIV infection in children. These guidelines provide updated information on WHO issued recommendations on the use of antiretroviral drugs for preventing mother to child transmission of HIV. These reassessments are within the context of rapidly expanding treatment programmes using simplified and standardised regimens. There has been experienced gained from treatment of mother to child transmission of HIV in resource poor settings as well as further evidence on the safety and effectiveness of various antiretroviral regimens. This document addresses issues of efficacy, safety, drug resistance and feasibility and intends to guide the selection of antiretroviral regimens. They may also be useful for health service providers as specific recommendations are provided for the most frequently encountered clinical situations

Facts for life

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
et al
2010

Expand view

This resource consists of 14 chapters filled with practical information about how to ensure children’s rights to survival, growth, development and well-being. The topics address pregnancy, childbirth, major childhood illnesses, child development, early learning, parenting, protection, and care and support of children. The messages it contains are based on human rights, particularly the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. The resource aims to provide families and communities with the information they need to save and improve the lives of children. Parents, grandparents, other caregivers and young people can refer to this practical source of information for answers to their questions related to childbearing and getting children off to the best start in life. The website includes a link to an interactive site for posting comments, sharing experiences and materials and discussing relevant issues

Family and community practices that promote child survival, growth and development : a review of the evidence

HILL, Zelee
KIRKWOOD, Betty
EDMOND, Karen
2004

Expand view

This technical review paper presents the evidence for twelve key practices, identified by UNICEF and WHO to be of key importance in providing good home-care for the child to prevent or treat the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness conditions, in order to ensure survival, reduce morbidity, and promote healthy growth and development. The twelve key practices are: immunisation, breastfeeding, complementary feeding, micronutrients, hygiene, treated bed nets, food and fluids, home treatment, care-seeking, adherence, stimulation, and antenatal care. The paper has 3 objectives: 1. To summarise the available evidence 2. to identify gaps in knowledge 3. To make recommendations concerning next steps and priority-setting for both programme action and research

HIV and infant feeding

WORLD ALLIANCE FOR BREASTFEEDING ACTION (WABA)

Expand view

This section of WABA's website provides resources and information on key issues such as what interventions should be put in place to prevent transmission of HIV through breastfeeding, while also protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding for the majority of children who benefit from it. It also tries to address the question of how to decide which children would be at greater risk from being breastfed. An additional difficulty is the need to encourage HIV-positive mothers to choose either exclusive replacement feeding or exclusive breastfeeding, since neither is common in low-income populations

HIV and infant feeding : a compilation of programmatic evidence

KONIZ-BOOHER, Peggy
et al
July 2004

Expand view

This paper tries to deepen understandings of the biological and programmatic implications of the transmission of HIV through breastfeeding which have previously been hampered by insufficient study and difficulties of interpretation. It is a careful look at the findings of programmatic approaches. The project attempted to find, summarise and analyse reports on a wide variety of relevant programmes conducted since 1998 UNICEF guidelines were issued. The programmes range from small community research projects to national programmes. The compilation addresses numerous controversial topics and constraints, including human resources, confused mothers, stigma and discrimination, spillover of replacement feeding, free or subsidised infant formula, family economics and the difficulty in providing integrated HIV testing, informed choice counselling, community support, logistics and follow-up care for mothers and infants

HIV and infant feeding : a report of a WABA-UNICEF Colloquium

GREINER, Ted
Ed
2003

Expand view

This report covers the main dilemmas and debates around HIV/AIDS and infant feeding practices. There is some focus on antiretrovirals and prevention of mother to child transmission, but sessions featured in the report mainly cover technical and progammatic issues, and the sharing of field experiences. The key themes are the issues of if and how to breastfeed, and confusion over unclear messages about infant feeding practices. Increasing access to information and voluntary counselling and testing is covered as well as community involvement and the perspective and role of breastfeeding supportive NGOs. Lessons learned are drawn upon and details of each working group on various subjects are documented. Research, monitoring and evaluation priorities are looked at, and there is a presentation of knowledge gaps and challenges for the future

Parenting young children|Parenting

CENTRE FOR COMMUNITY CHILD HEALTH
2007

Expand view

This brief explores the factors that influence parenting practices and child development, and examines the features of effective parental support

WABA position on HIV and breastfeeding

WORLD ALLIANCE FOR BREASTFEEDING ACTION (WABA)
1998

Expand view

This is a position paper on HIV and breastfeeding. It makes broad statements on the situation of breastfeeding mothers in the light of HIV. It states that it is concerned that recent changes in WHO, UNICEF and UNAIDS policy regarding breastfeeding and HIV as these changes appear to put major stress on the use of infant formula and less on alternative feeding methods. Recommendations are then made which indicate what some of these alternatives are

Women, children, and HIV

FRANCOIS XAVIER BAGNAUD (FXB) CENTER
CENTER FOR HIV INFORMATION (CHI)

Expand view

This site contains a library of practically applicable materials on mother and child HIV infection including preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT), infant feeding, clinical care of women and children living with HIV infection, and the support of orphans. The goal of the site is to contribute to an improvement in the scale and quality of international HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and treatment programs for women and children by increasing access to authoritative HIV/AIDS information. Its aims are to disseminate state of the art clinical information and training resources on MTCT and related topics. It also communicates the best practices in preventing MTCT and caring for infected children. It aims to disseminate prevention of MTCT program resource materials, clinical information and training resources on perinatally acquired pediatric HIV infection. It is browseable and searchable through a basic 'free-text' search box. The site also features an up-to-date news section.

Young children's learning and wellbeing

Approaches to caring for children orphaned by AIDS and other vulnerable children : essential elements for a quality service

LOENING-VOYSEY, Heidi
WILSON, Theresa
February 2001

Expand view

This research study examines responses to the care of orphaned children. The goal of the study is to develop policy recommendations for the care of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in South Africa. It complements a partner study into the cost effectiveness of care. Here quality care is that which meets the needs of children in a culturally acceptable way and enables them to realise their rights. It examines a variety of approaches to care from formal to non-formal ways and examples, and case studies are looked at in order to evaluate quality. Conclusions and recommendations are made around the continuum of approaches for the care of OVC, the capacity of households to care for OVC, mobilising communities to care for OVC, and providing a safety net for OVC

Assessment and improvement of care for AIDS-affected children under age 5

LUSK, Diane
HUFFMAN, Sandra L
O'GARA, Chloe
June 2000

Expand view

Firstly statistical information about children under five affected by HIV/AIDS is documented along with the consequences of inadequate care for under five year olds. The special problems facing vulnerable children are addressed using age specific categories, including health and psychosocial concerns. Also examined are some cultural beliefs and traditions that impact upon children under five living in AIDS affected communities, including how orphans are perceived and treated. Who cares for under fives is also addressed, along with a critique of orphanages and alternative programmatic suggestions. The authors also review some assessment tools for the care of vulnerable children for feeding, health care and childrearing practices, and the time restraints of caregivers. There are some useful practical questions that can be put to communities and households in AIDS affected areas to assess the impact upon young children. Recommendations are then made as to appropriate strategies

Beyond survival : integrated delivery care practices for long-term maternal and infant nutrition, health and development

CHAPARRO, Camila
LUTTER, Chessa
December 2007

Expand view

This report reviews current knowledge of the immediate and long-term nutritional and health benefits of: delayed umbilical cord clamping; immediate and continued skin-to-skin contact between mother and infant; and immediate initiation of exclusive breastfeeding and aims to to illustrate that these three practices can be feasibly and safely implemented together for the benefit of both mother and infant

Caribbean Early Childhood Development and HIV/AIDS

UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES
2002

Expand view

This website was established by the University of the West Indies to make Caribbean-relevant information on early childhood available to the countries that the University of the West Indies serves. The website is targeted at practitioners, parents, policy makers, researchers, the media or other persons and organisations interested in Caribbean early childhood, parenting and family development issues. The aim of the site is to increase the sharing of information, strategies, resources and overall communication on early childhood, parenting and the family within the Caribbean. The website provides information on national Early Childhood Development (ECD) Associations and their plans of action, parenting initiatives, research, and publications and products available on early childhood development issues in the region. There is a section devoted to HIV AIDS and ECD, but only a few reports on this topic are currently available

Challenging assumptions : breastfeeding and HIV/AIDS

PROGRAM FOR APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY IN HEALTH (PATH)
March 2008

Expand view

This policy brief considers the risks of HIV transmission from mother to child through breastfeeding, and the benefits of breast milk in preventing child malnutrition and morbidity and mortality in the first two years of life

ChildCareExchange.com

Expand view

This website is a useful resource for publications, conferences, documents and websites to do with childcare and is targeted at educators and caregivers. Although it is US-based, it does cover global issues. The key publication, Childcare Information Exchange is available through the website which also contains a list of early childhood organisations

ChildrenFIRST : a journal on issues affecting children and their carers [whole issue]

DESMOND, Cosmas
Ed
August 2001

Expand view

This issue of ChildrenFIRST is devoted to a workshop on family support that was held in Cape Town in June 2001. The workshop intended to share knowledge and experiences of working with families in different social and cultural contexts. It contains articles on the importance of male involvement in Early Childhood Development (ECD) and a useful list of ECD suppliers and family support resources

Early childhood development

WORLD BANK

Expand view

The early child development (ECD) website is a knowledge source designed to assist policy makers, programme managers, and practitioners in their efforts to promote the healthy growth and integral development of young children. It lists details of the key players in the field of ECD, contains downloadable resources including documents, reports and websites, and has a regional focus on Africa, the Caribbean and Latin America. The website contains sections on the World Bank's ECD and HIV/AIDS initiative in sub-Saharan Africa as well as tools and manuals developed by the World Bank's ECD team

Family and community interventions for children affected by AIDS

RICHTER, Linda
MANEGOLD, Julie
PATHER, Riashnee
2004

Expand view

This report, based on over 400 documents, reviews the available scientific and programmatic information on interventions aimed at children, families, households and communities. Specifically, the report considers: home-based child-centred development programmes focussing on health and nutrition; psychosocial care and management of inherited assets; interventions directed at supporting families and households to cope with the HIV/AIDS problem and interventions directed at building the capacities of communities to provide long-term care and support for children and households. It also contains an annotated bibliography of available literature in this area in Section 2. The main emphasis of the report is on intervention principles rather than on actual program implementation details as it is widely understood that interventions need to be tailored for each particular situation. There is no specific focus on very young children but interventions to support children, families and communities run into each other with inevitable overlaps

Great expectations

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO)
November 2004

Expand view

The subject of World Health Day 2005 is maternal and child health. In the lead up to World Health Day on 7 April 2005, six mothers-to-be living in different countries of the world are sharing their experiences of pregnancy and childbirth. The six unique stories reflect a common theme, the central importance of child health to families, communities and societies and aim to raise awareness of the challenges faced on a global level in improving maternal and newborn health

Heinemann HIV/AIDS teaching support site

Heinemann Publishers

Expand view

This site is a source of information and resources for children of both younger and older age groups. These books and resources are produced to support adults who are working in education, both inside and outside the classroom, to equip children to know and think about HIV and AIDS and how it affects people. There are fiction reviews, information books and curriculum material. Lower primary through to upper secondary levels are covered and aim to give children the knowledge, skills and values they need to tackle HIV and AIDS.
For younger children, there is a series of 3 books.
1. Go Away Dog by David Donald about a grumpy grandmother, a puppy and the importance of care and friendship in a time of sickness.
2. Respect and Care by Glynis Clacherty that looks at respect and care and co-operation amongst children as they confront sickness and loss.
3. Lerato’s Story by Glynis Clacherty which is a lively photo story about a young child who is HIV positive told through the eyes of her sister

Helping children in the time of HIV and AIDS

CHLDREN'S INSTITUTE
2004

Expand view

The information and recommendations in this clear, accessible publication come from an in-depth multi-site qualitative research study conducted by the Children’s Institute between 2001 and 2003. The research explored the life experiences of children in communities heavily affected by HIV and AIDS. It also looked at the experiences of their caregivers and service providers. This brief publication is aimed at individuals and organisations and considers which children to help, who should help, how to strengthen community responses, and related fundamental questions about starting to take action to help children

HIV risk exposure in young children : a study of 2-9 year olds served by public health facilities in the Free State, South Africa

SHISANA, Olive
MEHTAR, Shaheen
2005

Expand view

South Africa has, until now, focused its HIV prevention efforts on youth and adults, and now needs to expand its focus to include children. Much is already known about mother to child transmission, which is the dominant mode of HIV transmission among children. However, little investigation has been done into the potential for horizontal transmission of HIV on the population below reproductive age. This report focuses on children aged 2-9 years and, using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, presents evidence on the potential for HIV transmission in dental, maternity and paediatric service in public health facilities. A new finding concerns the practice of shared breastfeeding

HIV/AIDS : issues affecting the young child

EDWARDS, Morris
2002

Expand view

This PowerPoint presentation looks at the impact and scale of HIV/AIDS on the young, and the health and social aspects of HIV/AIDS. The focus on very young chldren focuses on the prevention of mother-to-child transmission. The presentation also makes recommendations for advocacy to ensure the non-discrimination of children living with HIV/AIDS and their access to health care, education and social services and benefits

HIV/AIDS : what about very young children?

DUNN, Alison
March 2005

Expand view

This paper presents the results of research into the question of how to include very young children in programming and policy responses in HIV/AIDS affected communities. The third in a dedicated sub-series of working papers devoted to young children and HIV/AIDS, it shows how young children impacted by HIV/AIDS often seem to be almost invisible in the wider HIV/AIDS field, although no affected group is more vulnerable, more deserving or has greater potential to benefit from proper programming

Integrating food and nutrition into HIV and AIDS strategies

MCDERMOTT, Peter
2005

Expand view

This is a slide presentation which considers the role of food and nutrition in the context of HIV and AIDS. It notes the vicious cycle of malnutrition, HIV and poverty and the effects of HIV and AIDS on nutrition, household food security and food production. HIV and AIDS also have an impact on the agricultural sector and examples are shown from Kenya, Zambia and Malawi. Increased malnutrition can lead to adults needing more access to quality health care but not getting it, increased caring for sick adults means less time for childcare, and children drop out of school to help with household labour. Finally, UNICEF support to nutrition and HIV and AIDS is shown along with their current operational approach. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Food Program (WFP) approach is also considered

Manual : psycho-social support of orphans

MADÖRIN, Kurt
1999

Expand view

This manual is a tool for trainers to train concerned community members to assist distressed children, and to facilitate their interventions on the level of awareness, knowledge, skills and behaviour in relation to orphans. Its stated objective is to enhance the capacity of adults to listen and talk to orphans and children of terminally ill parents, and to understand their situation and their needs. In this way the community improves its capacity to cope with some of the consequences of AIDS. In the manual there are 16 modules that rely on participatory methods, each with detailed instructions for the facilitator and a handout for participants. The manual was produced by the Humuliza (Community Based Mental Health for Orphans) project team

ProPAN: process for the promotion of child feeding

PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION (PAHO)
April 2004

Expand view

This manual describes a step-by-step process, which begins with the quantitative identification of nutritional and dietary problems, and also with the collection of qualitative information on why these problems occur, and ends with the design of and evaluation plan for an intervention to address the problems identified. It is intended for Ministries of Health, non-governmental organisations, and bilateral and international organisations interested in improving infant and young child feeding (from birth to 24 months) to prevent early childhood malnutrition. It includes steps on how to collect, analyse, and integrate both quantitative and qualitative information, provides guidance on how to design an intervention, and reviews evaluation strategies

The journey of life : a community workshop to support children

REGIONAL PSYCHOSOCIAL SUPPORT INITIATIVE (REPSSI)
June 2004

Expand view

'The Journey of Life' is a community workshop curriculum to support children. This workshop seeks to address the increasing psychological and social needs of children affected by HIV/AIDS, war, and displacement. Its objective is to raise community awareness of the problems that children face growing up in a time of HIV/AIDS, war, and family disintegration. 'The Journey of Life' assists the community to identify children in need of social, emotional, intellectual, spiritual, and physical support. Through dialogue and reflection the community better understands how to use available resources in solving the problems that children encounter and to strengthen the resilience of their children. The workshop covers the areas of meeting children's needs; understanding children's problems; identifying children who need help; building children's strengths; and community mobilisation. The workshop manual can be used without additional training, though further training has been found to be helpful. A Facilitator's Guide accompanies the workshop

The state of Asia-Pacific's children 2008 : child survival

COSSEY, Megan
2008

Expand view

This report complements UNICEF’s ‘State of the World’s Children 2008’. It provides an overview of child survival in the Asia-Pacific region, including progress towards the related Millennium Development Goals; causes of child deaths in the region; and creating a supportive environment for child survival strategies. It considers ways to improve child survival in the region, for example creating demand within a community; health financing and an equity approach to health-care provision; and strengthening data collection and monitoring

Understanding community responses to the situation of children affected by AIDS : lessons for external agencies. Draft paper prepared for the UNRISD project HIV/AIDS and Development

FOSTER, Geoff
March 2002

Expand view

This is a key report that documents community responses and coping mechanisms towards the HIV/AIDS pandemic in relation to children affected by AIDS (CABA) and orphans and vulnerable children (OVC). Fostering families are under enormous strain and local initiatives at the community level have been little studied or documented, and few organisations have sought to encourage their development. The paper analyses some of these initiatives and encourages external agencies to support them through building the capacity of local responses rather than imposing external solutions

Understanding the needs of orphans and other children affected by HIV and AIDS in Africa : the state of the science

BIRDTHISTLE, Isolde
April 2004

Expand view

To date, responses to the needs of orphans and vulnerable children have not typically been guided by research, though a body of empirical evidence related to the impact of HIV and AIDS on children is growing. USAID/AFR/SD and the SARA project commissioned a review of 48 selected studies to summarize the findings that represent the most current understanding of children's vulnerability due to AIDS. The review captures what is known and not yet known about the impact of HIV and AIDS on the survival, health, education, social, and emotional needs of children; identifies the content gaps and methodological limitations of existing research; suggests priorities for future research; and informs programmatic and political responses

WHO/UNICEF regional child survival strategy : accelerated and sustained action towards MDG 4

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO) WESTERN PACIFIC REGION
UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF) EAST ASIA AND PACIFIC REGION
2006

Expand view

This strategy calls for accelerated and sustained action for child survival in the Western Pacific Region of the WHO and the East Asia and Pacific Region of UNICEF. It focuses on children from birth to five years of age. The strategy calls for one coordination mechanism for planning child survival actions at country level; one national plan; one monitoring and evaluation process; a focus on advocacy and communication; and financial resources to accelerate and sustain progress