Cluster munitions are large weapons deployed from the air or from the ground that scatter widely in smaller submunitions. They have been used extensively over the last 40 years in countries such as Vietnam, Cambodia, Iraq, Kosovo and Afghanistan. Between five per cent and 30 per cent of cluster munitions do not explode on impact. This hazardous unexploded ordnance, very often found in civilian zones, has serious consequences for communities, long after a conflict is over.
The Convention on Cluster Munitions was signed by 94 countries at the Oslo Signing Conference in December 2008. The Convention will enter into force when thirty states have ratified it. The treaty bans the use, production, stockpiling and transfer of cluster munitions and places obligations on countries to clear affected areas and destroy stockpiles. Another key provision of the treaty relates to victim assistance.
Survivors of cluster munitions incidents will often have serious blast or fragment injuries, requiring long -term treatment and rehabilitation. Cluster munition victims include all persons directly impacted by cluster munitions as well as their affected families and communities. The goal of victim assistance is to promote and respect the human rights, fundamental freedoms and inherent dignity of all cluster munitions victims. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities provides the most comprehensive framework to address these issues. The core elements of victim assistance are: emergency and long-tem medical care; physical rehabilitation; psychological support; social and economic inclusion; data collection, disability laws and policies.
This keylist draws together key policy documents, tools and information resources providing a comprehensive introductory resource on Cluster Munitions and Victim Assistance. We welcome your suggestions: please send comments or suggested additions to firstname.lastname@example.org.
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Introductory Resources (CMVA)
This report details information about the international treaty banning cluster munitions. It contains entries on 150 countries, including signatories to the 2008 Convention on Cluster Munitions, stockpiler countries, and affected states. It highlights governments’ policies and efforts to clear contaminated areas and meet the needs of cluster munition victims. It also mentions government practices with respect to the use, production, stockpiling, and transfer of cluster munitions. The report is useful for people interested in a comprehensive overview of the banning of cluster munitions
This booklet examines the challenges involved in providing assistance to landmine victims, many of whom cannot be provided with sufficient care because of poverty and a lack of health facilities. It also highlights the responsibilities of states to the Ottawa Convention and the new protocol on explosive remnants of war (ERW), and encourages increased efforts by both health-care systems and governments to support the victims
This report assesses both the military effectiveness of cluster bombs and the impact on civilians looking at their use in a number of conflicts including Loas, the Gulf War and Kosovo. It provides recommendations on changes to international law to prevent future civilian casualties. This document is useful for people interested in the military effectiveness and impact on civilians of cluster munitions
This paper gives a summary of the key obligations for states, and provides details regarding the signing and ratifying of the Convention on Cluster Munitions. This resource is useful for people interested in learning about the convention
This study draws attention to the human suffering caused by cluster weapons and landmines, which continue to kill long after intended use, due to functional failures of the design. More often then not, civilian adults and children are among the primary victims. This resource would be useful for anyone with an interest in disability, advocacy and the Treaty to Ban Landmines
The aim of this report is to define the use and impact of unexploded ordanance, advocate against their use and shed light on there unintended consequences. The second part of the report features detailed findings and recommendations for international humanitarian law
This transcript outlines what Richard Moyes of Landmine Action believes is required to reform policy on landmines and cluster munitions. He draws on current patterns of explosive violence to support his points and the legality and acceptability of explosive force in areas populated by civilians
This is the report of an Expert Meeting on humanitarian, miliatry, technical and legal chalenges to cluser munitions. It examines the complex problems that arise with the use of cluster munitions and discusses how to reduce their negative impact on civilians
This paper draws attention to the implications of the Convention on Cluster Munitions. More specifically, the purpose is the development of a normative presumption that the area-effect use of explosive weapons is indiscriminate and therefore unlawful
This report was produced for the UK Department for International Development's (DFID) Disability Knowledge and Research Programme. Disability statistics in low-income countries have so far largely comprised impairment-based prevalence figures. It is argued that prevalence in itself is of limited interest and that there is a need for data that can describe, analyse and compare the situation among individuals with disabilities, as well as contribute to increased knowledge about the link between disability and poverty. By using the conceptual scheme inherent in the ICF (international classification of functioning, disability and health) model, an alternative approach to disability statistics may be developed. As an alternative to dividing the population into disabled and non-disabled, activity limitation and/or restrictions in social participation can be measured as a continuous variable among all regardless of the presence of any impairment. We thus have two different approaches for developing disability statistics, and it is argued that they will both provide useful information
This publication is aimed at assisting national statistical offices and other producers of disability statistics to improve the collection, compilation and dissemination of disability data. The document addresses methodological issues in the area of disability by providing guidelines and principles related to data collection, through surveys and censuses and also on the compilation, dissemination and usage of data on disability.
These regional reports are the primary focus of the International Disability Rights Monitor (IDRM) project and have been compiled by local IDRM researchers. Each report focuses upon several key areas such as legal protections, education, employment, accessibility, and health and housing services for people with disabilities. The reports include a detailed report on each country and a report card that compares the progress made by countries across the region. Reports are available on the Americas, Asia and Europe, as well as two thematic reports, in downloadable pdf format. They are useful for people interested in research on disability and development
This guidebook seeks to serve as a reference book to assist people and organizations trying either to create a mine/Explosive Remnants of War victim information system or enhance an existing system. It consists of data, surveys and interviews from a broad range of resources across countries and regions affected by landmine use. It includes case studies from Azerbaijan and Bosnia and Herzegovina
This website highlights the activities of the Landmine Monitor, an initiative providing research for the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) and the Cluster Munition Coalition (CMC). It contains updated information about the Mine Ban Treaty and the Convention on Cluster Munitions. Links are provided to several publications including the annual Landmine Monitor, cluster munition reports, country specific factsheets and maps. This website is useful for people seeking current information about Mine Ban Treaty and Convention on Cluster Munition initiatives
Disability Laws and Policies
This toolkit raises awareness around the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and aims to mobilise support for its ratification. It is a practical guide divided into 3 sections, covering general information about the convention; ratification advocacy tools; and media tools. Essentially this is a step-by-step guide for planning a ratification campaign in different contexts, containing sample letters, publicity materials and other useful resources. The handbook would be of use to anyone with an interest in promoting disability rights
DPI, an international cross-disability human rights organization has put together this practical toolkit to support implementation campaigns for the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The toolkit supports a previous DPI 'Ratification Toolkit', also available free online. The toolkit is an accessible and practical guide for anyone interested in disability rights and social development. It provides a clear introduction to the aims of the Convention along with practical suggestions for translating this treaty into policy, planning and practice. Each section of the toolkit comes with exercises designed to support understanding of the Convention and how it can be applied to different contexts
This document was created for the Convention on Cluster Munitions Conference (Oslo, December 2008). It provides a list of reference documents to implement victim assistance programmes in line with the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
This website provides information about Making it Work (MIW), a global multi-stakeholder initiative to promote effective implementation of the Convention for the Right of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). The initiative aims to collect and exchange examples of good practice and to use this to influence policy development in line with the CRPD. The MIW website highlights general information about the initiative and specific information about exisitng MIW projects and reports. It provides access to a series of user-friendly tools and resources to support practitioners working in the field of disability and development. The MIW Guidelines are available in downloadable pdf format in English, French and Spanish. A resource library is provided with links to CRPD-related information, disability and development topics and a news archive. This website is a useful tool for anyone working on disability rights issues
This website offers suggestions on how to include people with disabilities in national poverty reduction strategies (PRS). It comprises an impressive range of general background information, links, resources and tools on key issues regarding PRS, disability and project and process management, in addition to tools on advocacy and lobbying
This report provides recommendations to support stakeholders involved in creating and updating national action plans on victim assistance throughout the period 2010-2014. The recommendations are in accordance with the Cartagena Action Plan and other international humanitarian and human rights standards. The report provides a background on victim assistance and highlights recommendations using six key elements. This report is useful for countries affected by mines/explosive remnants of war (ERW), survivors, disabled persons’ organisations (DPO) and other civil society representatives, international organisations and countries committed to international cooperation
This website is about the UN's disability programmes and focuses on rights, international standards and declarations, such as the World Programme of Action. Thematic issues covered include accessibility, promoting the rights of disabled people, mainstreaming disability and development, and building the capacity of disabled people's organisations. There are also links to disability databases and other disability organisations
This article discusses the Ottawa Convention’s victim assistance obligations. It is useful for people interested in victim assistance policies and laws. Updated 2016.
This report looks at how non-governmental organisations (NGOs) can help school systems in developing countries become more inclusive. It shares experience of developing tools and approaches that have improved education for the most excluded children in society. Taking examples from 13 countries around the world it describes case study programmes that: target specific groups of vulnerable children; build inclusive school communities; promote change throughout an education system; and address financial barriers to inclusive education. This report will be of interest to policy-makers, managers and advisers in government, donors and NGOs, and to education students
This booklet provides young people's perspectives of inclusive education based upon the findings of Young Voices, an inclusive education project in primary, secondary and vocational schools in Uganda and Tanzania. Students with and without disabilities participated in the Young Voices activities. The booklet highlights the issues raised about inclusive education policy, attitudes, behaviour, resource allocation and environmental issues. It contains students’ photos, drawings and quotations to illustrate their responses. It is useful for people interested in inclusive education issues in Eastern Africa
Emergency and long-term medical care
This book deals with practical advice on health care for women with disabilities. It has been developed in partnership with health care professionals and disabled women in over 42 countries. It covers the key issues of disability in the community; accessible health care; mental health; sexual health; family planning; and child birth. The book is written in a practical and accessible style, suitable for anyone with an interest in disability, social development and women's health issues. In particular, the book offers a valuable insight into 'real-life' personal experiences of disabled women
These guidelines provide a series of resource tables for essential trauma care that detail the human and physical resources that should be in place to assure optimal care of the injured patient at a range of health facilities throughout the world. The health facilities range from rural health posts, to small hospitals staffed by general practitioners, to hospitals staffed by specialists, to tertiary care centres. They also offer a series of recommendations on methods to promote such standards including training, performance improvement, trauma team organisation and hospital inspection.
The guidelines are a collaboration between the World Health Organization, the International Society of Surgery and the International Association for the Surgery of Trauma and Surgical Intensive Care
This manual provides guidance for policymakers on the issue of prehospital trauma care systems. The main areas covered include the organisation of the prehospital trauma care system, capacity development, data collection, transportation and communication, as well as ethical and legal considerations
This publication list provides links to resources available on the Trauma Care Foundation (TCF) website. TCF operates rural trauma systems for victims of injuries from wars, mine field and cluster bombs in Cambodia, Iraq, Afghanistan, Nepal and Vietnam. Related research articles and publications are provided for the following subtopics: prehospital care and triage; postinjury malaria; delivery life support; and trauma surgery. This site is useful for people seeking information about trauma care and surgery in developing countries
This expansive facilitator's guide deals with psychosocial interventions concerning multiple causes of trauma such as HIV and AIDS and post-conflict situations. The guide offers technical advice to the implementor which is usefully augmented by diagrams, ideas for games and other useful interventions
This manual is a guide to psychosocial interventions to help people cope with the emotional effects of disasters. Some are direct responses to the trauma of disasters, while others are longer-term responses. Even more than the physical effects of disasters, the emotional effects cause long-lasting suffering, disability and loss of income
This is a practical manual about mental health care, aimed at community health workers, primary care nurses, social workers and primary care doctors. It describes more than 30 clinical problems associated with mental illness, using a problem-solving approach to guide the reader through their assessment and management. It addresses the lack of understanding of mental health among many health workers
Regional or Country Specific
This factsheet offers concise information on the degree to which African countries have used cluster munitions and their current level of involvement in the Oslo process
This report addresses key questions related to the landmine removal process. They include: who carries out demining and what was their record during the conflict? Who benefits politically from the aid given to support mine action? Who act as ‘middlemen’ between international donors and the local deminers and to what uses do they put their profit?
This report highlights three components of Handicap International's Mine Risk Education project in Angola. The first involves networking in the Angolan context and the associated lessons, constraints and the strengths. The second, is a discussion on the evolution of the community-based approach in Angola. Lastly, this report discusses the strengths and weaknesses of partnerships made with local NGOs
This report consists of a detailed assessment of the use of cluster munitions in Kosovo. More specifically, it draws on data sets to examine the claims and counterclaims of humanitarian organisations and of user governments. It concludes with an analysis of how key governments responded to lessons learned from cluster munition use and there impact in Kosovo
This resource examines the type of munitions that comprise ERW (unexploded remnants) in Sri Lanka and the short- and long-term impact on the lives of individuals and communities. The aim is to advocate against the use by presenting the humanitarian and economic risks
This report investigates the use of cluster bombs in Afghanistan, by the United States. This work argues that despite advances that have improved the accuracy and targeting of cluster bombs they still predominantly and unjustly impact civilians. This report also examines the after effect of cluster munitions and offers a set of legislative recommendations
The aim of this report is to advocate against the use of cluster munitions by highlighting the damage they have caused in Lebanon. The purpose is to emphasise the inadequacy of current international humanitarian law as a mechanism for effectively controlling the impact of cluster munitions
This report concerns mine risk education in Somalia. It provides the basis for a more enhanced understanding of the selected communities in Somalia and could be used to guide and adapt the planning and design of locally appropriate mine risk education programmes
This document is a transcript of a presentation advocating for the prohibition of submunitions. It highlights the rise in casualties caused by unexploded organic and submunitions despite clearance activities in Laos and Cambodia
Includes references to over 24,000 materials about international rehabilitation research conducted outside the USA. Most of the references include abstracts or links to the full text of the material. The database offers a detailed search facility allowing users to select broad, narrow or related search terms from a detailed thesaurus, as well as specify geographical region, language, or year of publication of materials. A very useful database, materials indexed are mainly articles from a wide range of journals including 'Disability and Rehabilitation', 'Asia and Pacific Journal on Disabilty', and 'International Journal of Rehabilitation Research'. In addition to indexing from mainstream journals and internet sites, CIRRIE also includes citations to resources not readily available to U.S. researchers
This well-known manual contains a wealth of information that is crucial for therapists, professionals and community groups. It deals comprehensively with all common childhood disabilities including polio, cerebral palsy, juvenile arthritis, blindness and deafness. It provides clear, detailed information and easy-to-implement ideas for rehabilitation at the village level, the development of skills, making low-cost aids and the prevention of disabilities
This handbook looks at the activities used in the GTZ (German Agency for Technical Co-operation) pilot project called "Rehabilitation through sports activities for children and young people in war-affected countries". The project aimed to strengthen disabled children both physically and mentally by promoting their rehabilitation, social integration and capacity for self help. The handbook provides basic guidelines for the implementation of sports and games as a means of rehabilitation and integration, building on the experiences from workshops in Angola and Cambodia, which tested 12 games. It includes an evaluation sheet that can be adapted and used
This article describes the challenges of providing landmine victims and other disabled persons in developing countries with the support and services they need to recover. The author explains that a holistic approach to rehabilitative care is necessary and applies this principle to community-based rehabilitation
This paper aims to close the gap in knowledge and culture between the disability and the micro finance communities. Resource-based theory is applied to analyse when microcredit for disabled persons is an appropriate tool and when it is not. General recommendations are provided for the inclusion of disabled entrepreneurs, as well as lists of recommendations that are both easy to understand and to apply for micro fiance institutions, disabled people's organisations and donors. This paper is useful for academics, professionals and organisations interested in micro finance for people with disabilities in developing countries