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Database of disability and health information resources
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Assistive technologies in developing countries

ROHWERDER, Brigitte
March 2018

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This rapid review looks at examples of existing literature on the availability of assistive technologies and efforts to make these technologies more affordable and accessible in developing countries. Needs and access to assistive technologies are overviewed. The discussion of market characteristics of assistive technologies covers availability, affordability, quality, appropriate design, and awareness and demand.  Efforts to increase the affordability and accessibility of assistive technology are discussed covering: The Global Cooperation on Assistive Technology (GATE); the WHO Priority Assistive Products List; and EYElliance and eye health initiatives. Market shaping and community based approaches are discussed in this context.

 

This is a K4D helpdesk report. This report was commissioned by the UK Department for International Development (DFID)

Gender and disability intersectionality in practice: Women and girls with disabilities addressing discrimination and violence in Africa.

ADAMS, Lisa
et al
March 2018

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This new Making It Work report presents 9 good practices successfully addressing the prevention and response to violence and discrimination against women and girls with disabilities in Africa. It also contains key advocacy recommendations that can be used for disability and/or gender advocates in order to further promote the rights of women and girls with disabilities.

The practices were:

  • Gender-Based Violence prevention through a grassroots initiative led by women with disabilities (Rwanda)
  • Protecting urban refugee women and girls with disabilities from abuse and discrimination in Kenya
  • Advancing the access of deafblind women and girls to Sexual and Reproductive Health (Malawi)
  • Enhancing access to justice for GenderBased Violence survivors with intellectual challenges through integrated legal and psychosocial support service provision (Kenya)
  • Developing knowledge and empowerment through the Gender and Disability Inclusive Development Community of Practice (Cameroon)
  • Promoting a safer, Gender-Based Violence free environment for women and girls with disabilities in Lilongwe, Malawi
  • Restoring the dignity of women and girls with disabilities in the Plateau State of Nigeria
  • Forging a district community where women and girls with disabilities live dignified and empowered lives (Uganda)
  • Emerging Practice: Fostering peace and respect by bringing women and girls with disabilities concerns into a women’s organization (Kenya)

Where there is no psychiatrist A mental health care manual

PATEL, Vikram
HANLON, Charlotte
March 2018

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This is a practical manual about mental health care, aimed at community health workers, primary care nurses, social workers and primary care doctors, particularly in low resource settings. It describes more than 30 clinical problems associated with mental illness, using a problem-solving approach to guide the reader through their assessment and management. It addresses the lack of understanding of mental health among many health workers. Mental health issues as they arise in specific contexts are described - in refugee camps, in school health programmes, as well as in mental health promotion. The final section helps the reader to personalise for a particular location, for example, by entering local information on voluntary agencies, the names and costs of medicines and words in the local language for symptoms.

 

This product is an update of the first edition 2003. It is also available as Open Access.

Disability and inclusive education - A stocktake of education sector plans and GPE-funded grants

BANHAM, Louise
PAPAKOSTI, Elena
et al
March 2018

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This report was commissioned by the Global Partnership for Education’s Secretariat to take stock of how disability and inclusive education are included in education sector plans in 51 countries, including GPE-funded programs, such as education sector program implementation grants, program documents, implementation progress reports education sector analysis, if applicable, and other relevant GPE program documents.

This report documents progress and highlights the need to step up support to GPE partner countries on disability and inclusive education, to improve consideration of issues around disability and inclusion in education sector analysis and sector planning processes to better promote the achievement of GPE 2020 strategic goal 2, and to fulfill the transformative vision of Agenda 2030

Assistive products for children with disabilities guide

UNICEF
March 2018

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UNICEF has issued an Assistive Products guide which addresses needs in four impairment groups: mobility, vision, hearing, and communication.  It provides details of some assistive products currently available on the market and information on when and how they are to be used. It covers a range of devices, from low-tech (e.g., walking sticks, pencil grips) to more complex (e.g., specialized computer software/hardware or motorised wheelchairs). This publication provides practical information to guide UNICEF, partner agencies and Governments in procurement planning and provisioning of assistive products. The information is designed to help with decision-making on the most appropriate assistive products to meet programme objectives and realise the rights of children with disabilities. The selection of assistive products in this overview is based on the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) 2016 Assistive Products Priority List (APL). References to particular brands and models are only illustrative examples available at the time of publication and do not constitute an endorsement of the manufacturer by UNICEF. Indicative prices listed are in US dollars.

Education and disability: Analysis of data from 49 countries

UNESCO
March 2018

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Persons with a disability are among the population groups most likely to suffer from exclusion from education but data that permit an analysis of the links between disability and education remain scarce. This paper examines educational disparities linked to disability based on data from 49 countries and territories for five education indicators:

● Proportion of 15- to 29-year-olds who ever attended school

● Out-of-school rate (primary school age, lower secondary school age)

● Completion rate (primary education, lower secondary education)

● Mean years of schooling of the population 25 years and older

● Adult literacy rate (population 15 years and older)

 

The education indicators were calculated with data from three sources, collected between 2005 and 2015: Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) sponsored by USAID, School-to-Work Transition Surveys (SWTS) by ILO, and population census data compiled by IPUMS-International. Comparability of the data across countries is limited because only some of the surveys and censuses used questions developed by the Washington Group on Disability Statistics to identify persons with a disability. The accuracy of the indicator estimates is also affected by sampling and non-sampling errors in the data, the small sample size of many of the surveys that were analysed, and the relatively small proportion of persons with disabilities in each country’s population. Moreover, because of the scarcity of national data, it is currently not possible to generate statistics on the status of persons with disabilities with regard to education that are regionally or globally representative.

Information Paper No.49

 

Deafness and hearing loss

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
March 2018

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A short factsheet about deafness and hearing loss covering key facts, causes (congenital and acquired), impact (functional, social and economic), prevention, identification and management and WHO response. 

Disability Equality: In Theory and Practice. Social Inclusion, volume 6, issue 1 (2018)

PRIESTLEY, Mark
WADDINGTON, Lisa
Eds
March 2018

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This special issue of this journal includes the following papers:

  • Achieving Disability Equality: Empowering Disabled People to Take the Lead
  • Dis-Equality: Exploring the Juxtaposition of Disability and Equality
  • Leveraging Employer Practices in Global Regulatory Frameworks to Improve Employment Outcomes for People with Disabilities
  • Equality of What? The Capability Approach and the Right to Education for Persons with Disabilities
  • Reasonable Accommodation as a Gateway to the Equal Enjoyment of Human Rights: From New York to Strasbourg
  • Disability, Access to Food and the UN CRPD: Navigating Discourses of Human Rights in the Netherlands
  • Rehabilitation as a Disability Equality Issue: A Conceptual Shift for Disability Studies?
  • Inclusions and Exclusions in Rural Tanzanian Primary Schools: Material Barriers, Teacher Agency and Disability Equality
  • Education, Work, and Motherhood in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Review of Equality Challenges and Opportunities for Women with Disabilities
  • Social Inclusion through Community Living: Current Situation, Advances and Gaps in Policy, Practice and Research


 

Humanitarian inclusion standards for older people and people with disabilities

ADCAP
TILL, Celia
et al
February 2018

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The Humanitarian inclusion standards for older people and people with disabilities provide guidance across all areas and at all stages of emergency response to ensure older people and people with disabilities are not left out.

The standards consist of nine key inclusion standards, including identification, safe and equitable access, knowledge and participation, and learning. Alongside these, there are seven sector-specific inclusion standards, which include protection, shelter, health, and water, sanitation and hygiene.

Each standard comes with key actions, guidance, tools and resources, and case studies illustrating how older people and people with disabilities have been included in humanitarian responses.

The sector-specific standards provide guidance in three key areas: data and information management, addressing barriers to inclusion, and participation of older people and people with disabilities.

By implementing the key action points provided, organisations will build up a greater evidence base, deliver more inclusive programmes, and be able to better demonstrate impact on the lives of those most at risk during humanitarian crises.

The standards can be used as guidance during programme development, implementation and monitoring, and as a resource for training and advocacy.

Addressing the rising prevalence of hearing loss

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO)
February 2018

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Hearing loss is the fourth highest cause of disability globally, with an estimated annual cost of over 750 billion dollars. These facts are well known and have contributed to growing global consciousness on the need for accessible hearing care in all regions of the world. Looking forward however, the demand for hearing care is likely to grow significantly in coming decades. This report highlights the potential escalation of hearing loss to the middle of the century, and focusses on the factors responsible for hearing loss and the means to address them. 

WHO estimates in 2008 found that 360 million people worldwide live with disabling hearing loss, including 32 million children and 180 million older adults. The most recent estimations place this figure at over 466 million people with disabling hearing loss in 2018. The main areas of the world affected by disabling hearing loss are the South Asian, Asia Pacific and Sub-Saharan African regions, with a prevalence rate almost four times that of the high income regions.

 

Measures to address these concerns deal with: prevention of infections in mothers and babies; chronic ear infections; noise exposure; and ototoxic hearing loss.

 

Public health aspects are highlighted. 

Guidance on disability inclusion for GBV (gender based violence) partners in Lebanon: outreach, safe identification, and referral of women, children and youth with disabilities

WOMEN'S REFUGEE COMMISSION
UNICEF LEBANON
February 2018

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This guidance, and the associated toolkit, are designed to support frontline workers, community volunteers, and mobilizers and their supervisors who are working in GBV prevention and response to foster inclusion of persons with disabilities in their community activities. It includes guidance, key actions and tools to improve accessibility of existing community processes and activities relating to GBV. This resource has been developed based on the findings of a needs assessment conducted in 2017 which confirmed that women, children and youth with disabilities in Lebanon and their caregivers are facing a range of GBV-related risks.

Standard school eye health guidelines for low and middle-income countries

GILBERT, Clare
MINTO, Hasan
MORJARIA, Priya
KHAN, Imran
February 2018

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The purpose of these best practice guidelines is to provide direction to those planning and implementing eye health initiatives for schools, including policy makers, health care and educational authorities, health planners, eye care delivery organizations and professionals, in partnership with teachers, parents and children. In situations where resources for eye health are limited, decisions need to be made to ensure that programs not only address public health problems but are also implemented in a way that is effective, efficient and, wherever possible, sustainable. Systems for monitoring and plans for evaluation should also be developed at the outset. These practice guidelines provide an excellent learning resource for a module on school eye health that can be incorporated in optometry and ophthalmology residency curricula.  A section highlights some of the challenges in current school eye health initiatives and provides a framework in which school eye health is integrated into school health programs. Case studies are provided to emphasise the integrated approach and a 15-step approach, from situation analysis to monitoring and evaluation, is suggested. Practical recommendations for implementation are provided, including information on the equipment and technology required

 

This evidence-based document is based on best practice guidelines initially developed through a joint collaboration between Sightsavers International, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the Brien Holden Vision Institute

Measuring the prevalence of violence against women with disabilities

VAUGHAN, Cathy
et al
February 2018

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This short report summarises discussions during a meeting concerning what is known about violence against women with disabilities and the evidence gaps, with a focus on Asia and the Pacific. It includes a brief overview of the current situation and suggested ways forward for researchers, the kNOwVAWdata initiative and other regional and global initiatives to measure prevalence of violence against women with disabilities, and for relevant regional and national institutions

The impact of an inclusive education intervention on teacher preparedness to educate children with disabilities within the Lakes Region of Kenya

CAREW, Mark
DELUCCA, Marcella
GROCE, Nora
KETT, Maria
February 2018

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There has been little empirical study within low- and middle-income countries on how to effectively prepare teachers to educate children with disabilities. This paper reports on the impact of an intervention designed to increase teaching self-efficacy, improve inclusive beliefs, attitudes and practices, and reduce concerns around the inclusion of children with disabilities within the Lakes region of Kenya. A longitudinal survey was conducted with in-service teachers (matched N = 123) before and after they had participated in a comprehensive intervention programme, delivered in the field by Leonard Cheshire Disability. Results showed that the intervention increased teaching self-efficacy, produced more favourable cognitive and affective attitudes toward inclusive education, and reduced teacher concerns. However, there was little evidence regarding the impact on inclusive classroom practices. The increase in teaching self-efficacy over the intervention period was also found to predict concerns over time. Results are discussed in terms of implications for international efforts, as well as national efforts within Kenya to promote inclusive education.

International Journal of Inclusive Education, vol.23, no.3, Feb 2018
https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2018.1430181

Disability and vocational rehabilitation in rural settings

HARLEY, Debra
et al
2018

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A graduate student textbook offered in 39 chapters, each with different authors and subjects. Abstracts, test questions and citations are freely available on-line. Full text is charged for. The book surveys rehabilitation and vocational programs aiding persons with disabilities in remote and developing areas in the U.S. and abroad. Contributors discuss longstanding challenges to these communities, most notably economic and environmental obstacles and ongoing barriers to service delivery, as well as their resilience and strengths. Considerations are largely of the US but there is a chapter on each of Asia and Pacific region, Australasia, Canada, Mexico, India, Turkey, Colombia and the UK. 

 

Caregivers' views on stigmatisation and discrimination of people affected by leprosy in Ghana

ASAMPONG, Emmanuel
DAKO-GYEKE, Mavis
ODURO, Razak
January 2018

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In Ghana, the social interpretation of leprosy regardless of the language, culture and tradition engenders stigmatisation and discrimination that leads to social rejection and exclusion of persons who have been cured of the disease. Often, these persons are cared for by relatives who happen to live with them in a confined place. From the views of these caregivers, this paper identifies areas of stigmatising and discriminatory tendencies against people affected by leprosy who reside in a Leprosarium in Accra. A qualitative interview with semi-structured interviews were conducted for twenty caregivers.

Wheelchair Service Provision Course

LOWE, Rachel
RAU, Barbara
2018

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This MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) aims to provide a basic theoretical understanding of wheelchair mobility and to develop an understanding of the theoretical principles, skills and knowledge underlying the management skills and knowledge in the management of wheelchair service delivery.  Starting on 3 September 2018 and lasting for 4 weeks, it will involve around 4-6 hours of work each week (depending on your learning style)

This course is aimed at Physiotherapy and Physical Therapy professionals, clinicians, students and assistants. It will introduce the role of the wheelchair in mobility, explore assessment and the roles of the multidisciplinary team in wheelchair service delivery, as well as provide a theoretical understanding of management techniques and related clinical considerations. It will not teach practical skills or lead to any clinical qualification. 

 

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