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Seeing the invisible: Sexuality-related knowledge, attitudes and behavior of children and youth with disabilities in China

SHANGHAI INSITITUTE OF PLANNED PARENTHOOD RESEARCH (SIPPR)
UNESCO
HUMANITY & INCLUSION (HI)
2019

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Young people with disabilities have the same right to Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) as their peers without disabilities, but their needs and rights are often overlooked. This study examines the SRH status of young people with disabilities in China. In particular, the study explored the sexuality-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of young people with disabilities as well as their access to sexuality-related information, education and services. The findings of the study are intended to provide evidence to support decision-making by government agencies, educators, development workers and other relevant stakeholders regarding developing and implementing disability-inclusive SRH and sexuality education policies and programmes for young people in China.

The study, using quantitative and qualitative methods, was conducted in 2015 among unmarried young persons aged 12 to 24 living with visual, hearing, physical and intellectual disabilities, in both urban and rural areas. The analysis was based on data collected through 707 completed valid questionnaires, 20 group interviews and 35 individual interviews with young people with disabilities, and individual interviews with 60 parents and teachers, along with one case study.

Everybody Matters: Good practices for inclusion of people with disabilities in sexual and reproductive health and rights programmes

Van SLOBBE, Caroline
November 2017

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This publication provides introductory chapters from two activists who work to create better opportunities for people with disabilities in Nigeria and India. Subsequently, the challenges that organisations worldwide have encountered whilst improving the access to and knowledge of sexual and reproductive health and rights for people with disabilities are presented. Ways in which they managed to find solutions and the results achieved are reviewed. Some cases show the importance of a more personal approach whilst others emphasise the advantage of changing systems and policies. Different regions, types of disabilities and various SRHR-topics are reflected in these stories. All cases provide lessons learnt that contribute to a set of recommendations for improved responses. The closing chapter highlights the challenges, solutions, and ambitions that are presented and lead up to a concise overview of recommendations.  

Good practice examples include:

A shift in SRH programming (Nepal)

Breaking Barriers with performance art (Kenya)

Her Body, Her Rights (Ethiopia)

People with disabilities leading the way (Israel Family Planning Association)

Best Wishes for safe motherhood (Nepal)

It’s my body! (Bangladesh)

Calling a spade a spade (Netherlands)

Four joining forces (Colombia)

Change agents with a disability (Zimbabwe)

Tito’s privacy and rights (Argentina)

Sign language for service providers (Kenya)

Promoting sexual and reproductive health for persons with disabilities : WHO/UNFPA guidance note

GROCE, Nora
et al
2009

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This resource addresses issues of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programming for persons with disabilities. SRH, in particular, deserves attention because these needs have been so widely and so deeply neglected. At the same time, however, the approaches discussed here apply broadly to all aspects of health programming for persons with disabilities. This note outlines a general approach to programming and does not address specific protocols for the SRH care and treatment of persons with disabilities It is intended for SRH experts and advocates within UNFPA and WHO as well as those in other development organisations and partners

Mental health aspects of women’s reproductive health : a global review of the literature

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
UNITED NATIONS POPULATIONS FUND (UNFPA)
2009

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This report presents information outlining "the ways in which mental health concerns intersect with women’s reproductive health. It includes a discussion of the bio-psycho-social factors that increase vulnerability to poor mental health, those that might be protective and the types of programmes that could mitigate adverse effects and promote mental health." This review is useful for public health professionals, planners, policy makers and programme managers to raise awareness of mental health aspects of women’s reproductive health

The effect of family size and composition on fertility desires, contraceptive adoption, and method choice in South Asia

JAYARAMAN, Anuja
MISHRA, Vinod
ARNOLD, Fred
March 2008

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This research looks at the influence of family size and composition on reproductive behaviour in three South Asian countries - Nepal, India, and Bangladesh - that are known for strong son preference. Data from recent Demographic and Health Surveys, was analysed to see whether the choice of contraceptive method adopted (modern versus traditional; temporary versus permanent) and desire for another child differed by parity and sex composition of surviving children

Interagency list of essential medical devices for reproductive health

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
et al
2008

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This interagency list is a tool to support planning for the selection, quality assurance and procurement of medical devices to implement Maternal and Newborn Health (MNH) interventions, which are defined as the "Essential care to women and their newborn during pregnancy, childbirth and postnatal period: up to six weeks after delivery." The objective is to propose an international consensus on a rational selection of essential medical devices for reproductive health according to their public health relevance based on efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness. Published by the WHO on behalf of John Snow Inc., PATH, Population Action International, United Nations Population Fund, and the World Bank, in collaboration with the United Nations Children's Fund and Medecins Sans Frontieres. The WHO and partnering organisations plan to update this list every two years

Unsafe abortion

id21
Ed
August 2007

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This edition of Health Focus looks at a major global health problem: the danger to women from abortions performed by people who lack the skills and/or are carried out in unhygienic circumstances. It includes reports on the health and economic costs of unsafe abortions, the reduction of abortion costs to health systems, and considers the need for a change in international abortion policy

Family planning choices for women with HIV

RICHEY, Catherine
SETTY, Vidya
August 2007

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This report looks at the need for health care providers to understand the impact of HIV on women’s reproductive health, fertility desires, and family planning needs so that they are better prepared to help clients with HIV make informed reproductive decisions

Glossary of sexual and reproductive health terms

INTERNATIONAL PLANNED PARENTHOOD FEDERATION (IPPF)
2007

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An issue as sensitive as sexual and reproductive health needs a careful and conscientious language. This glossary seeks to provide guidance in the choice of words we use and what we mean by them. It enables users to search hundreds of terms for up-to-date definitions

Family planning : a global handbook for providers

World Health Organization Department of Reproductive Health and Research (WHO/RHR)
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health/Center for Communication Programs (CCP), Info Project CCP
United States Agency for Inernational Development (USAID)
2007

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This is a quick-reference resource for health care workers at all levels. It reflects the family planning guidance developed by the WHO and expands on the coverage of 'The essentials of contraceptive technology' (CCP:1997) to address other needs of clients that come up during the course of family planning. Coverage includes different methods of contraception, sexually transmitted diseases, maternal and new born health, reproductive health issues, family planning provision and serving diverse groups; e.g. adolescents, men, and women near menopause . The handbook is one of the WHO's 'four cornerstones of family planning guidance'

Resources on youth reproductive health and HIV/AIDS

Interagency Youth Working Group [IYWG]
2007

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A global resource providing materials designed for working with young people (aged 10 - 24) in developing countries. The website includes; training materials, research tools, guidance on key programme areas and best practice, a database of recent resources and websites for youth. IYWG is a network of 10 NGOs, donors and cooperating agencies. The website is supported by the US Agency for International Development and the content is overseen by Family Health International

Cumulative index Reproductive Health Matters, 1993-2006

REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH MATTERS
2006

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"This CD-rom contains the cumulative index of Reproductive Health Matters from 1993 through 2006, including the journal, two books and a journal supplement. The index has three sections: author, subject and country/region. There is also an RHM publications list and a list of keywords. Each section is fully searchable"

Do children need education about sexuality and reproductive health?

2006

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TGPSH/TACAIDS produced this brochure for parents to explain the importance of education in reproductive health. Children have many questions about sexuality and the sources of their information may not be accurate, therefore reproductive health education should start early before young people become sexually active. The main aims of such education is to provide accurate information about sexuality, to help young people develop their own values and to help them develop responsible relationships and interpersonal skills. Information is provided on physical, emotional and social changes which happen to growing children. Schools can provide information and help to develop values at a time when children are open for guidance. Although reproductive health and sexuality are difficult topics for many parents, schools need support from parents too

The potential impact of community-based distribution programmes on contraceptive uptake in resource-poor settings : evidence from Ethiopia

TAWYE, Yenehun
et al
December 2005

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This article assesses the impact of community-based reproductive health services (CBRHS) and programmes on contraceptive use in Ethiopia. The 1993 National Population Policy provided a strong political backing to community-based contraceptive programmes, which grew in number and outreach to the community. The article shows that 'women living in areas covered by the CBRHS programme were three times more likely to use contraception than the average Ethiopian woman'. The study concludes that scaling up the programme nationwide would have the effect of doubling the national contraceptive prevalence rate

CBD research in Muheza district : final report for Tanzanian German Programme to Support Health (TGPSH)/GTZ

SIMBA, Daudi O
November 2005

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This study was done to determine the extent to which Community Based Distribution (CBD) reaches the poor compared with health facilities. It found that contraceptive prevalence rate in the CBD area was 32 per cent, more than double the national figures for rural areas. People from all wealth categories had equal access to contraceptive services from CBD agents. It is therefore likely that the presence of CBD agents increases the access of the poor to family planning services. Interestingly, adolescents, men, and Catholics were more likely to use CBD services to access contraceptives, than older women and people from other religions

Who do the CBD reach? A study for the Tanzanian German Programme to Support Health (TGPSH)

KIBUGA, Kate Forrester
July 2005

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The GTZ-supported CBD (Community Based Distribution) agents are volunteers at village level in Tanga region of Tanzania, who provide information on sexual and reproductive health topics, and distribute contraceptives in their neighbourhoods, thus increasing access to family planning services and reproductive health information. This study examined whether CBD reached poorer people and whether poverty influences the choice made in sourcing contraceptives. A participatory methodology was used - CBD agents drew maps of their neighbourhood, marking every house, determining the wealth status of each household, and indicating each house using their services. Poorer people are effectively reached by CBD, but the average wealth group makes greater use of it. However, poorer people are more likely to use CBD than to go to the health facilities. CBD agents found the maps a useful tool for monitoring their work, but there were doubts as to their accuracy for this study. CBD agents may have inflated the number of clients, or omitted houses with no clients

A client-centered approach to reproductive health : a trainer's manual

POPULATION COUNCIL
February 2005

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'The Population Council has developed a novel framework for training providers to deliver client-centered reproductive health services. The essence of the approach is to bring about behaviour change in providers by making them more receptive and responsive to client needs. Further, providers are taught to treat clients with respect and dignity, to assess their reproductive health needs holistically within the context of their household circumstances, and to negotiate solutions that clients are able to implement. Known by the acronym SAHR, this approach involves four interconnected steps: Salutation, Assessment, Help, and Reassurance. Through operations research, SAHR was successfully tested in Pakistan in 2000-02. The training manual describes the SAHR approach and is meant to facilitate training of reproductive health providers in how to offer client-centered services. The manual is written in fairly generic terms and can be used, with slight modifications, in any setting or country. The manual has three sections. Section One, the introduction, is an overview of the contents. Section Two, the trainer's guide, comprises the training modules. Each module describes the individual components of client-provider interaction and includes learning objectives, key learning points, a schedule, and a list of materials required. Trainer notes and step-by-step instructions for each activity are included within each module. Section Three contains support materials to help trainers prepare for the sessions.'

The WHO Reproductive Health Library

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO). Special Programme of Research, Development & Research Training in Human Reproduction
2005

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This CD-ROM is targetted at health care professionals and assists them in understanding research evidence, making decisions about best practice, and establishing implementation procedures to assure the change. It contains editorials, articles on research, research synthesis and methodology, summaries of beneficial and harmful forms of care, systematic reviews and commentaries, implementation aids, registers of funding agencies and NGOs involved in reproductive health, and links to websites about research and research synthesis. This edition includes 13 new Cochrane Reviews (bringing the total to 101), and corresponding commentaries and practical recommendations. This issue includes a new video on 'Vacuum extraction for assisted vaginal delivery'.

Impact of sex and HIV education programs on sexual behaviors of youth in developing and developed countries

KIRBY, Douglas
LARIS, B A
ROLLERI, Lori
2005

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This paper discusses findings from a review of 83 evaluations of sex and HIV education programmes. The analysis found substantial positive impact on sexual behaviours in more than two-thirds of the evaluations and identified 17 characteristics of the most effective curricula used in the programmes evaluated. More information on this review is available, including links to data sheets on each of the 83 evaluations. [Publisher's abstract, amended]

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