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Seeing the invisible: Sexuality-related knowledge, attitudes and behavior of children and youth with disabilities in China

SHANGHAI INSITITUTE OF PLANNED PARENTHOOD RESEARCH (SIPPR)
UNESCO
HUMANITY & INCLUSION (HI)
2019

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Young people with disabilities have the same right to Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) as their peers without disabilities, but their needs and rights are often overlooked. This study examines the SRH status of young people with disabilities in China. In particular, the study explored the sexuality-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of young people with disabilities as well as their access to sexuality-related information, education and services. The findings of the study are intended to provide evidence to support decision-making by government agencies, educators, development workers and other relevant stakeholders regarding developing and implementing disability-inclusive SRH and sexuality education policies and programmes for young people in China.

The study, using quantitative and qualitative methods, was conducted in 2015 among unmarried young persons aged 12 to 24 living with visual, hearing, physical and intellectual disabilities, in both urban and rural areas. The analysis was based on data collected through 707 completed valid questionnaires, 20 group interviews and 35 individual interviews with young people with disabilities, and individual interviews with 60 parents and teachers, along with one case study.

Everybody Matters: Good practices for inclusion of people with disabilities in sexual and reproductive health and rights programmes

Van SLOBBE, Caroline
November 2017

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This publication provides introductory chapters from two activists who work to create better opportunities for people with disabilities in Nigeria and India. Subsequently, the challenges that organisations worldwide have encountered whilst improving the access to and knowledge of sexual and reproductive health and rights for people with disabilities are presented. Ways in which they managed to find solutions and the results achieved are reviewed. Some cases show the importance of a more personal approach whilst others emphasise the advantage of changing systems and policies. Different regions, types of disabilities and various SRHR-topics are reflected in these stories. All cases provide lessons learnt that contribute to a set of recommendations for improved responses. The closing chapter highlights the challenges, solutions, and ambitions that are presented and lead up to a concise overview of recommendations.  

Good practice examples include:

A shift in SRH programming (Nepal)

Breaking Barriers with performance art (Kenya)

Her Body, Her Rights (Ethiopia)

People with disabilities leading the way (Israel Family Planning Association)

Best Wishes for safe motherhood (Nepal)

It’s my body! (Bangladesh)

Calling a spade a spade (Netherlands)

Four joining forces (Colombia)

Change agents with a disability (Zimbabwe)

Tito’s privacy and rights (Argentina)

Sign language for service providers (Kenya)

The balanced counseling strategy plus : a toolkit for family planning service providers working in high HIV/STI prevalence settings

POPULATION COUNCIL
2011

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"This "is an interactive, client-friendly approach for improving counseling on family planning and prevention, detection, and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. The BCS+ was adapted from the Balanced Counseling Strategy, an evidence-based and well-researched tool for improving counseling on contraceptive methods. The BCS+ toolkit, developed and tested in Kenya and South Africa, provides the information and materials needed for health care facility providers to provide complete and high-quality family planning counseling to clients who live in areas with high rates of HIV and STIs.The BCS+ tools are generic and can be revised according to national and/or regional guidelines and different contexts
This second edition toolkit includes the following: * BCS+ Trainer’s Guide: Supervisors and others can use this to train health care facility directors and service providers on how to use the BCS+ for counseling family planning clients. * BCS+ User’s Guide: This guide focuses on how to implement the Balanced Counseling Strategy Plus. It can be distributed during training or used on its own with the BCS+ job aids. * BCS+ job aids comprising: - BCS+ algorithm that summarizes the 19 steps needed to implement the BCS+ during a family planning counseling session. These steps are organized into four stages: pre-choice, method choice, post-choice, and STI/HIV counseling. - BCS+ counseling cards that the provider uses during a counseling session. There are 26 counseling cards, the first of which contains six questions that the service provider asks to rule out the possibility a client is pregnant. Each of the next 16 cards contains information about a different family planning method. The next 3 cards provide advice on pregnancy and the postpartum period. The last 6 cards provide essential information for counseling on preventing, detecting, and treating STIs and HIV. - BCS+ method brochures on each of the 16 methods represented by the counseling cards. The brochures provide counseling to clients on the method they have chosen and then are given to clients for later reference. This means clients do not have to rely on their recollection of what was discussed with the provider. - WHO Medical Eligibility Criteria Wheel (offsite link) guides providers through medical conditions and medications that may be contraindications to use of particular contraceptive methods. The BCS+ tools are generic and can be revised according to national and/or regional guidelines and different contexts"
A video describing use of the BCS+ toolkit in South Africa also is available. To obtain Microsoft Word versions of BCS+ files to modify or revise according to your local setting, please contact the publisher

Linkages and integration of sexual and reproductive health, rights and HIV : seizing opportunities for universal access

INTERNATIONAL HIV/AIDS ALLIANCE
February 2009

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This guide..."is intended to provide an introduction to [sexual and reproductive health rights] SRHR-HIV linkages and integration. Based on international evidence and the experience of the International HIV/AIDS Alliance, it provides an overview of the importance of linking SRHR and HIV, and looks at what factors can promote or inhibit effective linkages

Mental health aspects of women’s reproductive health : a global review of the literature

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
UNITED NATIONS POPULATIONS FUND (UNFPA)
2009

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This report presents information outlining "the ways in which mental health concerns intersect with women’s reproductive health. It includes a discussion of the bio-psycho-social factors that increase vulnerability to poor mental health, those that might be protective and the types of programmes that could mitigate adverse effects and promote mental health." This review is useful for public health professionals, planners, policy makers and programme managers to raise awareness of mental health aspects of women’s reproductive health

Promoting sexual and reproductive health for persons with disabilities : WHO/UNFPA guidance note

GROCE, Nora
et al
2009

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This resource addresses issues of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programming for persons with disabilities. SRH, in particular, deserves attention because these needs have been so widely and so deeply neglected. At the same time, however, the approaches discussed here apply broadly to all aspects of health programming for persons with disabilities. This note outlines a general approach to programming and does not address specific protocols for the SRH care and treatment of persons with disabilities It is intended for SRH experts and advocates within UNFPA and WHO as well as those in other development organisations and partners

The effect of family size and composition on fertility desires, contraceptive adoption, and method choice in South Asia

JAYARAMAN, Anuja
MISHRA, Vinod
ARNOLD, Fred
March 2008

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This research looks at the influence of family size and composition on reproductive behaviour in three South Asian countries - Nepal, India, and Bangladesh - that are known for strong son preference. Data from recent Demographic and Health Surveys, was analysed to see whether the choice of contraceptive method adopted (modern versus traditional; temporary versus permanent) and desire for another child differed by parity and sex composition of surviving children

Interagency list of essential medical devices for reproductive health

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
et al
2008

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This interagency list is a tool to support planning for the selection, quality assurance and procurement of medical devices to implement Maternal and Newborn Health (MNH) interventions, which are defined as the "Essential care to women and their newborn during pregnancy, childbirth and postnatal period: up to six weeks after delivery." The objective is to propose an international consensus on a rational selection of essential medical devices for reproductive health according to their public health relevance based on efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness. Published by the WHO on behalf of John Snow Inc., PATH, Population Action International, United Nations Population Fund, and the World Bank, in collaboration with the United Nations Children's Fund and Medecins Sans Frontieres. The WHO and partnering organisations plan to update this list every two years

Family planning choices for women with HIV

RICHEY, Catherine
SETTY, Vidya
August 2007

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This report looks at the need for health care providers to understand the impact of HIV on women’s reproductive health, fertility desires, and family planning needs so that they are better prepared to help clients with HIV make informed reproductive decisions

Unsafe abortion

id21
Ed
August 2007

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This edition of Health Focus looks at a major global health problem: the danger to women from abortions performed by people who lack the skills and/or are carried out in unhygienic circumstances. It includes reports on the health and economic costs of unsafe abortions, the reduction of abortion costs to health systems, and considers the need for a change in international abortion policy

Glossary of sexual and reproductive health terms

INTERNATIONAL PLANNED PARENTHOOD FEDERATION (IPPF)
2007

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An issue as sensitive as sexual and reproductive health needs a careful and conscientious language. This glossary seeks to provide guidance in the choice of words we use and what we mean by them. It enables users to search hundreds of terms for up-to-date definitions

Family planning : a global handbook for providers

World Health Organization Department of Reproductive Health and Research (WHO/RHR)
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health/Center for Communication Programs (CCP), Info Project CCP
United States Agency for Inernational Development (USAID)
2007

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This is a quick-reference resource for health care workers at all levels. It reflects the family planning guidance developed by the WHO and expands on the coverage of 'The essentials of contraceptive technology' (CCP:1997) to address other needs of clients that come up during the course of family planning. Coverage includes different methods of contraception, sexually transmitted diseases, maternal and new born health, reproductive health issues, family planning provision and serving diverse groups; e.g. adolescents, men, and women near menopause . The handbook is one of the WHO's 'four cornerstones of family planning guidance'

Resources on youth reproductive health and HIV/AIDS

Interagency Youth Working Group [IYWG]
2007

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A global resource providing materials designed for working with young people (aged 10 - 24) in developing countries. The website includes; training materials, research tools, guidance on key programme areas and best practice, a database of recent resources and websites for youth. IYWG is a network of 10 NGOs, donors and cooperating agencies. The website is supported by the US Agency for International Development and the content is overseen by Family Health International

Adolescence in Pakistan : sex, marriage and reproductive health. The findings of research carried out into awareness of sexual and reproductive health and rights in Pakistan

HAMDANI, Insha
LEE-JONES, Louise
SADLER, Alan
February 2006

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Report of research into awareness of sexual and reproductive health and rights in Pakistan. The results of the research show that respondents had little SRH information to help them through the changes of adolescence, and cultural barriers exacerbate the problem. Girls were more likely to experience social restrictions and their options were limited, reflecting traditional cultural values. As a result of their participation in the research, however, many agreed that more information about menstruation could be beneficial to them

Do children need education about sexuality and reproductive health?

2006

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TGPSH/TACAIDS produced this brochure for parents to explain the importance of education in reproductive health. Children have many questions about sexuality and the sources of their information may not be accurate, therefore reproductive health education should start early before young people become sexually active. The main aims of such education is to provide accurate information about sexuality, to help young people develop their own values and to help them develop responsible relationships and interpersonal skills. Information is provided on physical, emotional and social changes which happen to growing children. Schools can provide information and help to develop values at a time when children are open for guidance. Although reproductive health and sexuality are difficult topics for many parents, schools need support from parents too

Saving lives when pregnancy ends early [whole issue]

2006

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This issue focuses on post-abortion care, which may include medical treatment, emergency care and emotional support. The health care skills required are complex and range from manual vacuum aspiration to prevention of blood loss and treatment of infection. Midwives and health workers, however, need more than medical competency, including a capacity to listen to women, to understand the causes of unsafe abortion practices, to share knowledge and mobilise the community to demand life-saving care for all women. Also contains a training guide on how health workers can reduce deaths from unsafe abortions. The guide is designed for a two-hour workshop with a group of five to ten health workers

Cumulative index Reproductive Health Matters, 1993-2006

REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH MATTERS
2006

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"This CD-rom contains the cumulative index of Reproductive Health Matters from 1993 through 2006, including the journal, two books and a journal supplement. The index has three sections: author, subject and country/region. There is also an RHM publications list and a list of keywords. Each section is fully searchable"

The potential impact of community-based distribution programmes on contraceptive uptake in resource-poor settings : evidence from Ethiopia

TAWYE, Yenehun
et al
December 2005

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This article assesses the impact of community-based reproductive health services (CBRHS) and programmes on contraceptive use in Ethiopia. The 1993 National Population Policy provided a strong political backing to community-based contraceptive programmes, which grew in number and outreach to the community. The article shows that 'women living in areas covered by the CBRHS programme were three times more likely to use contraception than the average Ethiopian woman'. The study concludes that scaling up the programme nationwide would have the effect of doubling the national contraceptive prevalence rate

CBD research in Muheza district : final report for Tanzanian German Programme to Support Health (TGPSH)/GTZ

SIMBA, Daudi O
November 2005

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This study was done to determine the extent to which Community Based Distribution (CBD) reaches the poor compared with health facilities. It found that contraceptive prevalence rate in the CBD area was 32 per cent, more than double the national figures for rural areas. People from all wealth categories had equal access to contraceptive services from CBD agents. It is therefore likely that the presence of CBD agents increases the access of the poor to family planning services. Interestingly, adolescents, men, and Catholics were more likely to use CBD services to access contraceptives, than older women and people from other religions

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