"This paper sketches three progressively more inclusive ways to look at mainstreaming learning for development. The first emphasises improving feedback to development policy and planning, the second organisational learning and the third societal learning. For each of these, some of the main sources and developments are briefly highlighted. Next, a number of dilemmas are discussed that emerge from an increased emphasis on learning through evaluations. Finally, the question is asked how difficult, or even feasible, it is to match each of the different approaches with mainstream evaluation practice. Finally, the paper offers a number of challenges for further action and inquiry"