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Malaria Centre report 2004-05

LONDON SCHOOL OF HYGIENE AND TROPICAL MEDICINE
2005

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This report describes the scientific research undertaken on malaria by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in collaboration with research partners in other countries in 2004-2005. The quality and range of the studies reflect recent advances in the understanding of malaria and control strategies and cut across traditional scientific boundaries to include, for instance, economic and social aspects. Key areas of investigation include: epidemiology; immunology and vaccination; parasite biology; clinical trials; drug development; vector control; social and economic studies; capacity development

An online operational rainfall-monitoring resource for epidemic malaria early warning systems in Africa

GROVER-KOPEC, E
et al
2005

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Malaria Early Warning Systems are advocated as a means of improving the opportunity for preparedness and timely response to malaria epidemics. Rainfall is one of the major factors triggering epidemics in warm semi-arid and desert-fringe areas. Consequently, rainfall monitoring forms one of the essential elements for the development of integrated Malaria Early Warning Systems for sub-Saharan Africa, as outlined by the World Health Organization. The Roll Back Malaria Technical Resource Network on Prevention and Control of Epidemics recommended that a simple indicator of changes in epidemic risk in regions of marginal transmission, consisting primarily of rainfall anomaly maps, could provide immediate benefit to early warning efforts. In response to these recommendations, the Famine Early Warning Systems Network produced maps that combine information about dekadal rainfall anomalies, and epidemic malaria risk, available via their Africa Data Dissemination Service. These maps were later made available in a format that is directly compatible with HealthMapper, the mapping and surveillance software developed by the WHO's Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response Department. A new monitoring interface has recently been developed at the International Research Institute for Climate Prediction (IRI) that enables the user to gain a more contextual perspective of the current rainfall estimates by comparing them to previous seasons and climatological averages. These resources are available at no cost to the user and are updated on a routine basis

Mapping malaria risk in Africa

MAPPING MALARIA RISK IN AFRICA / ATLAS DU RISKE DE LA MALARIA EN AFRIQUE (MARA/ARMA)
December 2004

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This site presents maps of malaria risk and endemicity (the presence of malaria) in Africa, drawing on published and unpublished data, and through spatial modelling of malaria distribution, seasonality and endemicity. Many factors, especially endemicity, affect the choice of control methods. In the absence of such data it is impossible to rationalize the allocation of limited resources for malaria control. This site presents an opportunity to rethink endemicity and how we may map malaria risk in order to better support planning and programming of malaria control

Approaches to treating malaria anaemia

BATES, Imelda
July 2004

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This article forms part of the research conducted by the Malaria Knowledge Programme at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. The article considers the prevalence and causes of anaemia in patients with malaria. It looks at diagnosis, treatment and blood transfusions and the prevention of anaemia through clinical detection and the use of bednets to prevent malaria

RBM communications assessment : challenges and opportunities in Ghana, Mali, Senegal, Tanzania and Uganda

SHUFFELL, Sara
2004

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This report is from an assessment carried out between October 2002 and April 2003 in Ghana, Mali, Senegal, Tanzania and Uganda. It was part of a Roll Back Malaria Communications Assessment as an initial stage in the process to develop effective and inclusive national malaria communication strategies in RBM participating countries across Africa. It notes the challenges that are raised in the context of development communications in Africa: the absence of basic malaria communications strategies, poor visibility of National Malaria Control Programmes, and lack of regional coordination and information sharing to name a few. There are, however, many opportunities to develop better malaria communications listed in the report

Malaria control in schools : protecting children and teachers, protecting the next generation

SOUTHERN AFRICA MALARIA CONTROL (SAMC)
2004

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This short paper is aimed at schools, teachers, and pupils. It considers the problem of malaria in schools in southern Africa, how malaria and education are linked and strategies for malaria control in schools. There is a list of tools for schools that want to engage with the problem of malaria, and also a list of partners such as national malaria control programmes, ministries, UN agencies and NGOs that can provide support to school based malaria control. Steps for schools to take are suggested, along with malaria materials that are currently available for southern African schools

Improving management of childhood malaria in Nigeria and Uganda by improving practices of patent medicine vendors

GREER, George
et al
2004

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"A number of studies from Sub-Saharan African (SSA) have shown that between 15 and 82 per cent of the population choose to first consult private drug shops and informal providers for advice about and assistance with treatment of childhood illnesses. It has also been found for private shops that a large percentage of the drugs provided or dosages given, or both, are inappropriate, indicating the need for innovative and effective approaches to achieve rational prescribing practices. The Ministries of Health in Nigeria and Uganda, in collaboration with partners, designed approaches to utilize private providers for delivery of basic child survival strategies and products to those populations less served by the public sector. These two distinct exploratory models built on lessons from similar efforts in SSA and elsewhere to develop approaches suited to the present situations in Nigeria and Uganda. This report describes the design, implementation, and results of those interventions"

Gender perspectives in malaria management

DUNN, Alison
2004

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Gender roles and relations within the household are of crucial importance to the management of childhood malaria. Women's access to resources and their bargaining power within the household have a significant influence on their treatment seeking behaviour for children with malaria. The Malaria Knowledge Programme (MKP) supported district level government workers to conduct a situation analysis using qualitative and participatory research methods to explore gender perspectives. This contributes to a growing body of knowledge of the importance of using gender analysis in malaria management

Gender mainstreaming in health : the possibilities and constraints of involving district-level field workers

DUNN, Alison
2004

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This policy brief concerns the involvement of district-level workers in local-level practical approaches to mainstreaming gender. This involvement is central to facilitating change and informing health strategies. MKP led a project in Ghana to facilitate district-level health management teams and district-level field workers to conduct qualitative and participatory research on gender aspects of access to health care for malaria. The results have informed strategies to improve gender equity in health at the community level

Communication in participatory approaches to health care

DUNN, Alison
2004

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This policy brief is concerned with the involvement of district-level health workers in participatory approaches at community level. Using participatory approaches improves healthworkers' communication skills and validates community knowledge. This emerged from a study carried out by the Malaria Knowledge Programme (MKP) in Ghana where it was clear that the interaction and communication that took place between health workers and community members provided opportunities for dialogue and building new relationships

Improving the quality of malaria diagnosis and laboratory services in resource-poor countries

DUNN, Alison
2004

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This policy brief is concerned with improving laboratory services and promoting accurate diagnosis of malaria at community level. Such measures would both save lives and prevent wastage of valuable resources. Increasing levels of resistance to cheap, first-line antimalarials means that many poor countries must promote new, more expensive treatment in the form of Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies (ACTs). The need for improved diagnostic tools that can be used at community level has never been greater. Since 1999, the Malaria Knowledge Programme (MKP) has been working in Malawi and Ghana to increase the effectiveness of laboratory systems and diagnostics for malaria and other common health problems

Malaria over-diagnosis in Africa

HEALTHLINK WORLDWIDE
2004

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'In Africa, 70 per cent of fever cases in children are diagnosed in the home and treated with traditional remedies or drugs bought from local shops. These fevers are presumed to be due to malaria, but comparison of accurately diagnosed cases of malaria with presumed cases of malaria reveal shockingly high rates of over-diagnosis'

Urban malaria in Africa

DUNN, Alison
2004

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This policy brief considers the rising problem of urban malaria. Malaria can no longer be considered as just a rural issue in Africa. A significant and increasing proportion of the African population live in towns and cities. As urban centres continue to grow, the scale and impact of urban malaria is increasing. Despite this threat, control of the problem is feasible: urban malaria is uniquely amenable to prevention and control as the existing health, planning, agricultural and governance structures present opportunities for collaborative approaches that can include both the community and the substantial private sector. A potential disaster can be averted

The quality of anti-malarials : a study in selected African countries

MAPONGA, Charles
ONDARI, Clive
May 2003

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This was a pilot study to assess the quality of anti-malarials in selected African countries, and to determine whether the quality of these products was related to the level of the distribution chain at which the samples were collected. The data from this study indicate significant problems of substandard anti-malarial products circulating within the drug distribution chains in the African region. It therefore recommends that quality surveillance systems be set up within drug regulatory authorities in the region and that support be given to manufacturers to improve compliance with good manufacturing practices

Act now to get malaria treament that works to Africa

COX, Ingrid
HAKAGONGAS, Laura
MAYBAUM, Jennifer
April 2003

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This report calls on international donors to join with African countries in implemeting World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on the treatment of malaria. WHO recommends that African countries facing resistance to classical antimalarials introduce drug combinations containing artemisinin derivatives - artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). This report defines the malaria problem, looks at what works in malaria treatment and outlines what needs to be done to make ACT work in reality

Participatory malaria prevention and treatment (PMPT) tool kit

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF). Mozambique
2003

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A tool kit to assist project managers in implementing malaria prevention and treatment projects using community capacity development techniques. The tool kit lists a number of useful techniques for determining if malaria is a problem in the community; identifying symptoms, determining treatment behaviours and more

The Africa malaria report

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
2003

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This report takes stock of the malaria situation and of continuing efforts to tackle the disease in Africa

The behavioural and social aspects of malaria and its control : an introduction and annotated bibliography

HEGGENHOUGEN, H Kristian
HACKETHAL, Veronica
VIVEK, Pramila
2003

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This publication highlights the importance of sociocultural factors in malaria control and makes clear that the fight against malaria and other infectious diseases is inseparable from the striving for socioeconomic and political equity. The authors show that human behaviour is related to risk for malaria, and that such behaviour is influenced by a range of cultural and social factors. It provides a valuable social science starting point for the design and evaluation of anti-malaria interventions. It provides a thorough analysis of the perception of malaria as a disease, then looks at the effect of human movement on malaria. A considerable gap remains between 'correct scientific knowledge' and the accepted practices and beliefs about malaria held by different groups of people, and one section discusses the difficulties imposed by the clash between 'northern' and traditional ways of responding to disease episodes, and demonstrates that the 'North' has much to learn from the 'South'. Also covered are attitudes towards the use of insecticide-impregnated bednets, gender issues such as the invisible role of women in determining the health-related practices of a household, and the manner in which people interact with each other, identify needs, and make decisions. Finally there is an extensive annotated bibliography of the social science literature on malaria

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