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World malaria report 2009

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2009

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This report summarises information received from 108 malaria endemic countries and other sources and updates the analysis presented in the 2008 Report. It highlights progress made in meeting the World Health Assembly (WHA) targets for malaria to be achieved by 2010 and 2015, and new goals on malaria elimination contained in the Global Malaria Action Plan (2008)

PMI communication and social mobilization guidelines

PRESIDENT'S MALARIA INITIATIVE (PMI)
2008

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These guidelines are help in the development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of programmes to influence behaviours and mobilise communities to create long-term normative shifts towards desired behaviours and to sustain enabling behaviours around the four interventions of the Presidents Malaria Initiative. These are: * Increased demand for malaria services and products; * Acceptance of indoor residual spraying; * Improved adherence to treatment regimens and intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy during pregnancy; * Regular insecticide-treated nets use by the general population, focusing on vulnerable groups including pregnant women and children under five; * Prompt, appropriate treatment with Artemisinin-based combination therapies for children under five within 24 hours of onset of symptoms; and * Community involvement in malaria control

A community-based health education programme for bio-environmental control of malaria through folk theatre (Kalajatha) in rural India

GHOSH, Susanta K
et al
December 2006

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Kalajatha is a popular, traditional art form of folk theatre depicting various life processes of a local socio-cultural setting. It is an effective medium of mass communication in the Indian sub-continent especially in rural areas. Using this medium, an operational feasibility health education programme was carried out for malaria control. This study was carried out under the primary health care system involving the local community and various potential partners

Hitting malaria where it hurts : household and community responses in Africa

INSTITUTE OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES (IDS)
August 2006

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This article explains why, in the face of increased funding for malaria programmes, the disease incidence shows little signs of abating. In sub-Saharan Africa nearly a million people die as a result of malaria. The article draws attention to the cultural, social and economic contexts in which communities deal with the consequences of malaria. Health systems, services and infrastructures are generally inadequate and fail to deliver proper care. Malaria can also be perceived as a mild illness and used to hide more stigmatising health problems. The paper advocates focusing on the 'normality' of malaria, and exploring the social and economic contexts that shape household and community responses to malaria

Insecticide resistance and malaria control : current trends in research

KULKARNI, Manisha
April 2006

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This article outlines current trends in malaria research. Recent research studies, here briefly reviewed, have focused on the molecular scale of resistance in Anopheles, geographical scale of resistance in Africa, impact of insecticide-treated nets (ITN) in host-seeking vectors, implications of resistance for malaria control, pyrethroids and alternative insecticides, and on new initiatives to fast track the development of improved insecticides

Participatory communication in malaria control : why does it matter?

DUNN, Alison
October 2005

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This paper reviews current approaches to malaria control, focusing on effective ways of engaging with local communities in participatory ways. It argues for considering human behaviour as well as mosquito behaviour in malaria control efforts. Engaging with people at community level is critical to developing interventions that are appropriate to the local context. Complex social and environmental factors, such as gender relationships, the cost of drugs, and the appropriateness of services mean that communication processes are vital, and will require sustained and coordinated international support and commitment

An online operational rainfall-monitoring resource for epidemic malaria early warning systems in Africa

GROVER-KOPEC, E
et al
2005

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Malaria Early Warning Systems are advocated as a means of improving the opportunity for preparedness and timely response to malaria epidemics. Rainfall is one of the major factors triggering epidemics in warm semi-arid and desert-fringe areas. Consequently, rainfall monitoring forms one of the essential elements for the development of integrated Malaria Early Warning Systems for sub-Saharan Africa, as outlined by the World Health Organization. The Roll Back Malaria Technical Resource Network on Prevention and Control of Epidemics recommended that a simple indicator of changes in epidemic risk in regions of marginal transmission, consisting primarily of rainfall anomaly maps, could provide immediate benefit to early warning efforts. In response to these recommendations, the Famine Early Warning Systems Network produced maps that combine information about dekadal rainfall anomalies, and epidemic malaria risk, available via their Africa Data Dissemination Service. These maps were later made available in a format that is directly compatible with HealthMapper, the mapping and surveillance software developed by the WHO's Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response Department. A new monitoring interface has recently been developed at the International Research Institute for Climate Prediction (IRI) that enables the user to gain a more contextual perspective of the current rainfall estimates by comparing them to previous seasons and climatological averages. These resources are available at no cost to the user and are updated on a routine basis

Strategic communications [Appendix 4] | Rolling back malaria : the global strategy and booster program

THE WORLD BANK
2005

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This short appendix discusses strategic communication, an important component of the Global Strategy and Programme of Action for Malaria Control. Roll Back Malaria partners held a communications and advocacy meeting in September 2004 to develop a comprehensive strategy in support of malaria control, providing a context for the World Bank to renew its operational and communications strategy simultaneously. It sets out goals, audiences, messages and key communications strategies

Tackle malaria today : give tomorrow a chance

MEEK, Sylvia
WHITTY, Christopher
LINES, Jo
et al
2005

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Every year malaria causes up to three million deaths, and if attempts to control the pandemic fail, drug-resistant malaria will spread even further. This report provides key statistics about the disease and makes a case for an effective and internationally coordinated response to the crisis, which should include drugs development, use of insecticide, increased funding, investment in the delivery systems and human resources and the involvement of the private sector

World malaria report 2005

ROLL BACK MALARIA
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
2005

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A comprehensive report on the spread of malaria worldwide, including detailed profiles of countries' efforts to control the disease through treatment and prevention

Mapping malaria risk in Africa

MAPPING MALARIA RISK IN AFRICA / ATLAS DU RISKE DE LA MALARIA EN AFRIQUE (MARA/ARMA)
December 2004

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This site presents maps of malaria risk and endemicity (the presence of malaria) in Africa, drawing on published and unpublished data, and through spatial modelling of malaria distribution, seasonality and endemicity. Many factors, especially endemicity, affect the choice of control methods. In the absence of such data it is impossible to rationalize the allocation of limited resources for malaria control. This site presents an opportunity to rethink endemicity and how we may map malaria risk in order to better support planning and programming of malaria control

Approaches to treating malaria anaemia

BATES, Imelda
July 2004

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This article forms part of the research conducted by the Malaria Knowledge Programme at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. The article considers the prevalence and causes of anaemia in patients with malaria. It looks at diagnosis, treatment and blood transfusions and the prevention of anaemia through clinical detection and the use of bednets to prevent malaria

Gender mainstreaming in health : the possibilities and constraints of involving district-level field workers

DUNN, Alison
2004

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This policy brief concerns the involvement of district-level workers in local-level practical approaches to mainstreaming gender. This involvement is central to facilitating change and informing health strategies. MKP led a project in Ghana to facilitate district-level health management teams and district-level field workers to conduct qualitative and participatory research on gender aspects of access to health care for malaria. The results have informed strategies to improve gender equity in health at the community level

Communication in participatory approaches to health care

DUNN, Alison
2004

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This policy brief is concerned with the involvement of district-level health workers in participatory approaches at community level. Using participatory approaches improves healthworkers' communication skills and validates community knowledge. This emerged from a study carried out by the Malaria Knowledge Programme (MKP) in Ghana where it was clear that the interaction and communication that took place between health workers and community members provided opportunities for dialogue and building new relationships

Improving the quality of malaria diagnosis and laboratory services in resource-poor countries

DUNN, Alison
2004

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This policy brief is concerned with improving laboratory services and promoting accurate diagnosis of malaria at community level. Such measures would both save lives and prevent wastage of valuable resources. Increasing levels of resistance to cheap, first-line antimalarials means that many poor countries must promote new, more expensive treatment in the form of Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies (ACTs). The need for improved diagnostic tools that can be used at community level has never been greater. Since 1999, the Malaria Knowledge Programme (MKP) has been working in Malawi and Ghana to increase the effectiveness of laboratory systems and diagnostics for malaria and other common health problems

RBM communications assessment : challenges and opportunities in Ghana, Mali, Senegal, Tanzania and Uganda

SHUFFELL, Sara
2004

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This report is from an assessment carried out between October 2002 and April 2003 in Ghana, Mali, Senegal, Tanzania and Uganda. It was part of a Roll Back Malaria Communications Assessment as an initial stage in the process to develop effective and inclusive national malaria communication strategies in RBM participating countries across Africa. It notes the challenges that are raised in the context of development communications in Africa: the absence of basic malaria communications strategies, poor visibility of National Malaria Control Programmes, and lack of regional coordination and information sharing to name a few. There are, however, many opportunities to develop better malaria communications listed in the report

Malaria control in schools : protecting children and teachers, protecting the next generation

SOUTHERN AFRICA MALARIA CONTROL (SAMC)
2004

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This short paper is aimed at schools, teachers, and pupils. It considers the problem of malaria in schools in southern Africa, how malaria and education are linked and strategies for malaria control in schools. There is a list of tools for schools that want to engage with the problem of malaria, and also a list of partners such as national malaria control programmes, ministries, UN agencies and NGOs that can provide support to school based malaria control. Steps for schools to take are suggested, along with malaria materials that are currently available for southern African schools

Improving management of childhood malaria in Nigeria and Uganda by improving practices of patent medicine vendors

GREER, George
et al
2004

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"A number of studies from Sub-Saharan African (SSA) have shown that between 15 and 82 per cent of the population choose to first consult private drug shops and informal providers for advice about and assistance with treatment of childhood illnesses. It has also been found for private shops that a large percentage of the drugs provided or dosages given, or both, are inappropriate, indicating the need for innovative and effective approaches to achieve rational prescribing practices. The Ministries of Health in Nigeria and Uganda, in collaboration with partners, designed approaches to utilize private providers for delivery of basic child survival strategies and products to those populations less served by the public sector. These two distinct exploratory models built on lessons from similar efforts in SSA and elsewhere to develop approaches suited to the present situations in Nigeria and Uganda. This report describes the design, implementation, and results of those interventions"

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