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PMI communication and social mobilization guidelines


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These guidelines are help in the development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of programmes to influence behaviours and mobilise communities to create long-term normative shifts towards desired behaviours and to sustain enabling behaviours around the four interventions of the Presidents Malaria Initiative. These are: * Increased demand for malaria services and products; * Acceptance of indoor residual spraying; * Improved adherence to treatment regimens and intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy during pregnancy; * Regular insecticide-treated nets use by the general population, focusing on vulnerable groups including pregnant women and children under five; * Prompt, appropriate treatment with Artemisinin-based combination therapies for children under five within 24 hours of onset of symptoms; and * Community involvement in malaria control

Hitting malaria where it hurts : household and community responses in Africa

August 2006

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This article explains why, in the face of increased funding for malaria programmes, the disease incidence shows little signs of abating. In sub-Saharan Africa nearly a million people die as a result of malaria. The article draws attention to the cultural, social and economic contexts in which communities deal with the consequences of malaria. Health systems, services and infrastructures are generally inadequate and fail to deliver proper care. Malaria can also be perceived as a mild illness and used to hide more stigmatising health problems. The paper advocates focusing on the 'normality' of malaria, and exploring the social and economic contexts that shape household and community responses to malaria

Participatory communication in malaria control : why does it matter?

DUNN, Alison
October 2005

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This paper reviews current approaches to malaria control, focusing on effective ways of engaging with local communities in participatory ways. It argues for considering human behaviour as well as mosquito behaviour in malaria control efforts. Engaging with people at community level is critical to developing interventions that are appropriate to the local context. Complex social and environmental factors, such as gender relationships, the cost of drugs, and the appropriateness of services mean that communication processes are vital, and will require sustained and coordinated international support and commitment

RBM communications assessment : challenges and opportunities in Ghana, Mali, Senegal, Tanzania and Uganda


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This report is from an assessment carried out between October 2002 and April 2003 in Ghana, Mali, Senegal, Tanzania and Uganda. It was part of a Roll Back Malaria Communications Assessment as an initial stage in the process to develop effective and inclusive national malaria communication strategies in RBM participating countries across Africa. It notes the challenges that are raised in the context of development communications in Africa: the absence of basic malaria communications strategies, poor visibility of National Malaria Control Programmes, and lack of regional coordination and information sharing to name a few. There are, however, many opportunities to develop better malaria communications listed in the report

Communication in participatory approaches to health care

DUNN, Alison

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This policy brief is concerned with the involvement of district-level health workers in participatory approaches at community level. Using participatory approaches improves healthworkers' communication skills and validates community knowledge. This emerged from a study carried out by the Malaria Knowledge Programme (MKP) in Ghana where it was clear that the interaction and communication that took place between health workers and community members provided opportunities for dialogue and building new relationships

The behavioural and social aspects of malaria and its control : an introduction and annotated bibliography

VIVEK, Pramila

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This publication highlights the importance of sociocultural factors in malaria control and makes clear that the fight against malaria and other infectious diseases is inseparable from the striving for socioeconomic and political equity. The authors show that human behaviour is related to risk for malaria, and that such behaviour is influenced by a range of cultural and social factors. It provides a valuable social science starting point for the design and evaluation of anti-malaria interventions. It provides a thorough analysis of the perception of malaria as a disease, then looks at the effect of human movement on malaria. A considerable gap remains between 'correct scientific knowledge' and the accepted practices and beliefs about malaria held by different groups of people, and one section discusses the difficulties imposed by the clash between 'northern' and traditional ways of responding to disease episodes, and demonstrates that the 'North' has much to learn from the 'South'. Also covered are attitudes towards the use of insecticide-impregnated bednets, gender issues such as the invisible role of women in determining the health-related practices of a household, and the manner in which people interact with each other, identify needs, and make decisions. Finally there is an extensive annotated bibliography of the social science literature on malaria

Community involvement in malaria control and prevention [Chapter 8] | Malaria control during mass population movements and natural disasters


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This chapter considers malaria control in displaced populations and in the context of complex emergencies, and places community participation (reflecting both understanding and acceptability of interventions) at the centre of both prevention and control of malaria. It finds that the sociocultural context surrounding displacement situations needs to be considered when designing malaria control interventions, and that treatment-seeking behaviours are complex and poorly understood in the context of complex emergencies. It offers suggestions in assessing needs and gathering information to inform project planning

Community involvement in rolling back malaria

MUHE, Lulu

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This Roll Back Malaria (RBM) publication focuses on community involvement in malaria control. Community based health initiatives enable the 'home to be the first hospital' and are the life support systems of people who are poor, isolated and living in rural areas. The publication sets out the main areas of community participation and RBM's efforts to ensure that the health care needs of those most at risk of malaria are met. RBM's action at community level is based on some principles of community participation; broadening partnership; building upon experience; developing community-level intervention channels; improving linkages between communities and the district health system; strengthening district capacity for RBM community actions; strengthening community self-monitoring and decision-making; and effective communications strategy

Lessons from malaria control activities in urban West Africa using a research-action-capacity building approach

et al
February 2001

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In the South, urban environmental and social management is often based on top-down approaches which use technologies and strategies not corresponding to the demands of the inhabitants and to their social, economic and ecological realities. This paper discusses how a community-based approach - Research Action Capacity Building (RAC) - can be valuable for malaria control and more specifically for the dissemination of insecticide treated bednets. Taking a bednet project in NDjamena, capital of Chad, as an example, the article investigates the potential and the limitations of this approach for mobilising and strengthening sustainable activities and capacity building at community level

Southern Africa malaria control


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Awareness of the burden of malaria needs to be raised particularly among national and international partners and communities. Innovative entry points and gate keepers into communities need to be identified and used, including schools, religious organisations, agricultural extension workers and returning migrants. This website dedicated to malaria control has a section called 'Advocacy, Community Mobilisation and Information, Education and Communication'. The main areas covered are current strategies, advocacy, IEC school based malaria control, ways forward and constraints. The premise is that advocacy, IEC and community based malaria control are essential parts of effective malaria control programmes


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