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The interaction of malnutrition and neurologic disability in Africa

KERAC, Marko
et al
March 2014

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Malnutrition and neurodisability are both major public health problems in Africa. This review highlights key areas where they interact. These areas of interaction include maternal malnutrition, toxin ingestion, macronutrient malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies - all of which cause or are caused by neurodisability, The article concludes that there is an urgent need for nutrition and disability programmes to work more closely together

Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, Volume 21, Issue 1

Stronger together : nutrition-disability links and synergies|Briefing note

GROCE, Nora
CHALLENGER, Eleanor
KERAC, Marko
2013

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Malnutrition can lead to disability, and disability can also lead to malnutrition. This paper will focus mainly on under-nutrition causing disability and disability causing or contributing to under-nutrition. Both nutrition and disability are key human rights issues. There is increasing knowledge about optimal nutrition-related practices and implementation of often low cost interventions to tackle issues of malnutrition in children. It is essential that governments, international actors and service providers consider and include the needs of children with disabilities in these efforts to ensure that children with disabilities have equitable access to nutrition in order to allow them to grow and thrive

Challenging assumptions : breastfeeding and HIV/AIDS

PROGRAM FOR APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY IN HEALTH (PATH)
March 2008

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This policy brief considers the risks of HIV transmission from mother to child through breastfeeding, and the benefits of breast milk in preventing child malnutrition and morbidity and mortality in the first two years of life

Improving nutrition as a development priority : addressing undernutrition in national policy processes in sub-Saharan Africa

BENSON, Todd
2008

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This report examines the findings of a qualitative institutional study on nutrition in four countries in Ghana, Mozambique, Nigeria, and Uganda. The focus is twofold: first, to seek a general understanding as to why it is difficult for undernutrition to be targeted as a national development priority; and secondly to examine in more detail the four interrelated elements of the policy processes that are relevant to addressing undernutrition in each country. These are: policy making structures, political actors, the narrative of undernutrition that informs the policy choice and the timing of policy change

Sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency : progress since the 1990 World Summit for Children

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
2008

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This report has three purposes. First, it reviews the global and national efforts to eliminate IDD during the past two decades. And it shows how governments, the salt industry and communities, with UNICEF support, have made great progress in eliminating iodine deficiency through universal salt iodization. Second, it captures the lessons learned and best practices in the elimination of IDD in various countries. Third, it proposes an agenda against IDD as a vital step towards preventing adverse effects on international development and human potential

Infant and young child feeding in emergencies : making it happen, proceedings of a regional strategy workshop

EMERGENCY NUTRITION NETWORK (ENN)
et al
2008

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Young child feeding in emergencies is often poorly managed and supported, yet is a crucial component of an adequate emergency response and an important intervention to save lives and prevent malnutrition. This four day workshop aimed to reach consensus on how to protect and support Infant and young child Feeding in Emergencies (IFE) in the region. The particular focus was on emergency preparedness and the early humanitarian response on IFE

Evidence on the long-term effects of breastfeeding : systematic reviews and meta-analyses

HORTA, Bernardo L
BAHL, Rajiv
MARTINES, Jose
VICTORA, Cesar G
2007

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"The primary objective of this series of systematic reviews was to assess the effects of breastfeeding on blood pressure, diabetes and related indicators, serum cholesterol, overweight and obesity, and intellectual performance...
Reviewers' conclusions: The available evidence suggests that breastfeeding may have long-term benefits. Subjects who were breastfed experienced lower mean blood pressure and total cholesterol, as well as higher performance in intelligence tests. Furthermore, the prevalence of overweight/obesity and type-2 diabetes was lower among breastfed subjects. All effects were statistically significant, but for some outcomes their magnitude was relatively modest."

Community-based management of severe acute malnutrition : a joint statement by the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, the United Nations System Standing Committee on Nutrition and the United Nations Children's Fund

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
et al
2007

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This statement advocates a community-based approach to the management of severe malnutrition, combined with a facility-based approach for those malnourished children with medical complications. It outlines actions that countries can take and suggests how WHO, WFP, SCN, UNICEF and other partners can support these actions

The guidebook nutritional anaemia

BADHAM, Jane
ZIMMERMANN, Michael B
KRAEMER, Klaus
2007

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This guidebook offers a comprehensive summary of the critical issues from prevalence data and statistics, to economics, through to diagnosis, functional consequences and background information on each of the micronutrients believed to be directly or indirectly involved in anemia

Better breastfeeding, healthier lives [whole issue]

March 2006

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This issue looks at the merits of breastfeeding and suggests ways for programmes and providers to help women improve breastfeeding practices. Breastmilk offers infants and young children complete nutrition and early protection against illness, increasing their chances of survival. National governments need to devise and implement comprehensive strategies to promote optimal practices and advise women about the benefits of breastfeeding. Includes an outline of Madagascar's policy approach and a discussion on breastfeeding as a contraceptive option

1990 - 2005 Celebrating the Innocenti declaration on the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding

INNOCENTI RESEARCH CENTRE, UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
2005

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In 1990, the Innocenti Declaration on the Protection, Promotion and Support of Breastfeeding set an international agenda on breastfeeding and the recognition ofthe right of the infant to nutritious food enshrined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. This publication reviews the context of the Innocenti Declaration and analyzes the achievements that have been realized towards the targets that were established in 1990. It describes the continuing and new challenges that exist to optimal feeding of infants and young children, and suggests a way forward towards the global aim of ensuring universal enjoyment of children’s right to adequate nutrition.

Nutrition and health [whole issue]

CHIN SECRETARIAT
Ed
May 2004

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This issue of CHIN News focuses on nutrition and health in India. Nutrition plays a key role in the physical, emotional and mental development of human beings. In mosts parts of the world, inequity, poverty, underdevelopment and unequal distribution and poor access to food and healthcare leads to severe impoverishment. The articles contained in this issue outline the challenges this poses, and policies and programmes that are attempting to address the challenges

ProPAN: process for the promotion of child feeding

PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION (PAHO)
April 2004

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This manual describes a step-by-step process, which begins with the quantitative identification of nutritional and dietary problems, and also with the collection of qualitative information on why these problems occur, and ends with the design of and evaluation plan for an intervention to address the problems identified. It is intended for Ministries of Health, non-governmental organisations, and bilateral and international organisations interested in improving infant and young child feeding (from birth to 24 months) to prevent early childhood malnutrition. It includes steps on how to collect, analyse, and integrate both quantitative and qualitative information, provides guidance on how to design an intervention, and reviews evaluation strategies

Guiding principles for feeding infants and young children during emergencies

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2004

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The guiding principles presented here are intended to serve as a starting point for organizing sustained pragmatic interventions that will ensure appropriate feeding and care for infants and young children at all stages of an organized emergency response. Responsible national authorities and concerned international and nongovernmental organizations are invited to use these guiding principles as a basis for training personnel responsible for emergency preparedness and response, and for reacting directly on behalf of needy populations during emergencies. Meeting the specific nutritional requirements of infants and young children, including promoting and supporting optimal feeding practices, should be a routine part of any emergency relief response. Indeed, it should be at the centre of efforts to protect the right of affected children to food, life and a productive life

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