This working paper looks at how social capital may help mothers to know, think, do and feel more or differently, and how this, as a result, could impact positively on children's welfare. Young Lives have been involved in a cross-country review and measurement of social capital manifestations and this paper draws on some of the findings, reviewing current debates, describing YL's methodology and providing a comparative analysis of social capital in relation to various aspects of child wellbeing, including nutritional status, health performance and educational attainments
This paper outlines debates about social capital in the socio-politcal context of Indian society, describes patterns of social capital, explores the linkage between maternal social capital and chronic malnutrition and reflects on policy implications
Tackling disadvantage and setting strong foundations for learning begins in the earliest years. This fifth edition of the Education For All Global Monitoring Report calls upon countries to expand and improve comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for the most disadvantaged children. Such interventions are crucial to improving children's present well-being and future development.through adequate health, nutrition, care and stimulation. Yet the evidence suggests that young children in greatest need, who also stand to gain the most, are unlikely to have access to these programmes. The report argues the even in the context of limited public resources, designing national policies for early childhood carries benefits for the country's entire education system
The African region has the highest rates of neonatal mortality in the world, and has shown the slowest progress so far in reducing neonatal deaths. New policies, however, seem to provide opportunities to accelerate progress for maternal, newborn and child health. Section 1 presents an overview of neonatal deaths, and lives that could be saved in Africa in order to guide policy and programme priority setting. Section 2 explores the the continuum of care through pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, childbirth and the postnatal period, highlighting current gaps in coverage of care and opportunities to address these gaps at all levels - family and community care, outreach services, and primary and referral care facilities. Section 3 contains an overview of the current situation for 9 key programmes related to newborn health. Section 4 discusses lessons learned and existing gaps between new policies and their implementation. Section 5, finally, contains a summary of relevant data for decision making for 46 countries in sub-Saharan Africa regarding maternal, newborn and child health status and policy. This accessible and comprehensive tool will be of use to policy makers, health and community workers and programme managers
"This global monitoring report focuses on the first Education for All goal, which calls upon countries to expand and improve early childhood care and education - a holistic package encompassing care, health and nutrition in addition to education. Disadvantaged children stand to benefit the most, yet too few developing countries, and too few donor agencies, have made early childhood a priority." Additional features on the CD-ROM: 1. The report in ten questions 2. Highlights and overview of the 2007 report 3. 2007 summary report 4. Background research papers commissioned for the report 5. Over 90 country profiles on early childhood care and education
"The aim of the study was to look at how children responded to the experience of starting school and how they had adapted after six months of the start of their first term. In total, one hundred and five children (53 boys and 52 girls) and one of their parents signed up for the study. In addition, 76 teachers agreed to take part and provide information relating to adjustment to school. The first issue that we explored was that of physical stress responses of children before, during and after starting school, which we measured by collecting saliva samples in the morning and evening at specific time points throughout the study. Secondly, we set out to look at the relationship between these responses and children’s behaviour, on their ability to learning and on their physical health (common cold and flu)"
This strategy calls for accelerated and sustained action for child survival in the Western Pacific Region of the WHO and the East Asia and Pacific Region of UNICEF. It focuses on children from birth to five years of age. The strategy calls for one coordination mechanism for planning child survival actions at country level; one national plan; one monitoring and evaluation process; a focus on advocacy and communication; and financial resources to accelerate and sustain progress
This website summarises the milestones of child development containing simple and essential information about the development of infants (aged 0-1), toddlers (aged 1-3) and pre-school children (aged 3-5). The site also holds information about attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Social stories in teacher-made books written for children on topics relevant to an individual can provide assistance for those toddlers and preschool-age children who need help in the transition process
This summary is based on the CHANGE Maternal Survival Toolkit, available online at: www.changeproject.org and on CD-ROM. It explores ways of influencing behaviours and encouraging use of health services and health professionals during childbirth and the postpartum period. A number of factors can prevent pregnant women from accessing skilled care, often putting themselves and the child at risk. They include availability of health services and high costs but also, and crucially, local culture, family and community behaviours and traditional practices. The CHANGE Project's approach and this document stress locally appropriate, behaviour-based interventions that integrate what is happening in homes, communities and health facilities. This tool is aimed at organisations and individuals working in the field of mother and child health, and willing to look at maternal and child survival issues from a behaviour change perspective
A publicity brochure explaining the concept of Child-to-Child and its application in programmes around the world
In 1990, the Innocenti Declaration on the Protection, Promotion and Support of Breastfeeding set an international agenda on breastfeeding and the recognition ofthe right of the infant to nutritious food enshrined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. This publication reviews the context of the Innocenti Declaration and analyzes the achievements that have been realized towards the targets that were established in 1990. It describes the continuing and new challenges that exist to optimal feeding of infants and young children, and suggests a way forward towards the global aim of ensuring universal enjoyment of children’s right to adequate nutrition.
This is a publication produced by the United Nations Children's Fund and is a statistical analysis of birth registration. Birth registration is a fundamental human right and an essential means of protecting a child's identity. This objective of this study is to present available empirical evidence to understand which factors are associated with children who obtain a birth certificate. By analysing levels of birth registration in the context of other health, education and poverty indicators, the study points to opportunities to integrate advocacy and behaviour change campaigns for birth registration with early childhood care and immunisation. By linking birth registration to early childhood care programmes, a legal hurdle can become a helpful referral to promote improved health, education and protection for disadvantaged children and their caretakers. Particular references to ethnic groups and minorities appear on page 12 and on page 22
This study will examine the effect of age entering kindergarten on academic performance and school readiness
This paper describes the patterns of income diversification of Peruvian households with young children (aged between 6 and 18 months) interviewed during the first phase of the Young Lives study. It "aims to link income diversification strategies to the livelihood asset base and the external context of these households. In addition, it examines the relationship between these income diversification strategies and child wellbeing"
"This paper summarizes the importance of improving maternal and reproductive health, the progress made to date and lessons learned, and the major challenges confronting programs today. The paper highlights the progress that some countries, including very poor ones, have made in reducing maternal mortality, but cautions that progress in many countries remains slow. Relying on evidence from the most recent research and survey information, the paper also analyzes the key determinants and evidence on effective interventions for attaining the maternal health MDG. The paper finds that key interventions to improve maternal and reproductive health and reduce maternal mortality include the following mutually reinforcing strategies: (a) mobilizing political commitment and fostering an enabling policy environment; (b) investing in social and economic development such as female education, poverty reduction, and improvements in women’s status; (c) providing family planning services; (d) ensuring quality antenatal care, skilled attendance during childbirth, and availability of emergency obstetric services for pregnancy complications; and (e) strengthening the health system and community involvement. The paper emphasizes that carrying out interventions remains a challenge in environments where political commitment, policies, as well as institutions and health systems, are weak. The paper concludes with guiding lessons from some of the countries that have successfully improved maternal health and with a discussion of some of the difficulties of measuring maternal mortality and morbidity outcomes"
This report has been produced by the Task Force on Child Health and Maternal Health. It identifies technical interventions needed to address the problems of high rates of maternal mortality, continued child deaths due to preventable illnesses, unmet need for sexual and reproductive health services, and weak and fragile health systems. The report also asserts that policymakers must act now to change the fundamental societal dynamics that currently prevent those most in need from accessing quality health care
The goal of the Lancet Neonatal Survival Series is to provide information that will affect policy globally. The papers also provide a framework for practical action in countries so that these interventions reach families in greatest need. New information is given regarding critical factors related to neonatal deaths, where and why newborns die and assessments of the effectiveness and costs of interventions for newborn care. Practical steps are given to strengthen health care now in countries such as Ethiopia where 135,000 babies die every year, yet only five percent of women have a skilled care attendant during childbirth
This paper presents the findings and recommendations of research, funded by USAID, to understand better the growing gap between Africa and the rest of the world in achieving the UN Millennium Development Goals that relate to child health. It aims to provide an analysis of child health trends in order to identify how USAID could improve its contribution to improving child health in Africa
This article reports the results of a study to evaluate the effect of home-based neonatal care on birth asphyxia and to compare the effectiveness of trained traditional birth attendants and village health workers in using mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, tube-mask or bag-mask interventions
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