Resources search

Standard school eye health guidelines for low and middle-income countries

GILBERT, Clare
MINTO, Hasan
MORJARIA, Priya
KHAN, Imran
February 2018

Expand view

The purpose of these best practice guidelines is to provide direction to those planning and implementing eye health initiatives for schools, including policy makers, health care and educational authorities, health planners, eye care delivery organizations and professionals, in partnership with teachers, parents and children. In situations where resources for eye health are limited, decisions need to be made to ensure that programs not only address public health problems but are also implemented in a way that is effective, efficient and, wherever possible, sustainable. Systems for monitoring and plans for evaluation should also be developed at the outset. These practice guidelines provide an excellent learning resource for a module on school eye health that can be incorporated in optometry and ophthalmology residency curricula.  A section highlights some of the challenges in current school eye health initiatives and provides a framework in which school eye health is integrated into school health programs. Case studies are provided to emphasise the integrated approach and a 15-step approach, from situation analysis to monitoring and evaluation, is suggested. Practical recommendations for implementation are provided, including information on the equipment and technology required

 

This evidence-based document is based on best practice guidelines initially developed through a joint collaboration between Sightsavers International, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the Brien Holden Vision Institute

Ensuring universal access to eye health in urban slums in the Global South: the case of Bhopal (India).

PREGEL, Andrea
et al
October 2017

Expand view

In the context of its Urban Eye Health Programme in Bhopal (India), Sightsavers launched a pilot approach aimed at developing an Inclusive Eye Health (IEH) model and IEH Minimum Standards.

Accessibility audits were conducted in a tertiary eye hospital and four primary vision centres located within urban slums, addressing the accessibility of physical infrastructures, communication and service provision. The collection and analysis of disaggregated data inform the inclusion strategy and provide a baseline to measure the impact of service provision. Trainings of eye health staff and sensitisation of decision makers on accessibility, universal design, disability and gender inclusion are organised on a regular basis.

A referral network is being built to ensure participation of women, people with disabilities and other marginalised groups, explore barriers at demand level, and guarantee wider access to eye care in the community. Finally, advocacy interventions will be developed to raise awareness in the community and mainstream disability and gender inclusion within the public health sector.

Towards equitable access to medicines for the rural poor : analyses of insurance claims reveal rural pharmacy initiative triggers price competition in Kyrgyzstan

WANING, Brenda
et al
December 2009

Expand view

This article examines medicines price competition that ensued in a rural village in Kyrgyzstan after the opening of a small network of non-profit pharmacies created and managed by an NGO. While the rural pharmacies were created to increase access to medicines in villages where no pharmacies existed, the project had unexpected, substantial spillover effects, spurring medicines price reductions in pharmacies quite far away

Taxing essential medicines : a sick tax that hinders access to treatment

HEALTH ACTION INTERNATIONAL (HAI)
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
December 2009

Expand view

This issue of the bulletin includes articles about the taxes on medicines and access to medicines; a report of a survey about medicine prices and availability in Latin America and the Caribbean; and about poor access to diabetes care in the Philippines

The role of local manufacturers in improving access to essential medicines|Creating opportunities for the scale-up of local pharmaceutical production

MOHAMED, Nazeem
November 2009

Expand view

The local manufacturing of pharmaceuticals is a hotly contested issue in many countries. It runs to the heart of key concerns such as quality, availability, and price of medicines. Some of the arguments of the local manufacturers are set out in this article by one of the co-chairs of the Medicines Transparency Alliance Uganda Council and Chairman of the Uganda Pharmaceutical Manufacturer's Association (UPMA)

Survey of the quality of selected antimalarial medicines circulating in Madagascar, Senegal, and Uganda

UNITED STATES PHARMACOPEIA DRUG AND INFORMATION PROGRAM
November 2009

Expand view

This report focuses on three of 10 sub-Saharan countries that were covered by a study examining the quality of key antimalarial medicines. A total of 491 samples of anti-malarial medicines (both artemisinin-based combination therapy and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine products) were collected from the public sector, the regulated private sector and the informal market in these three countries. The study revealed a high failure rate among sampled antimalarials in all three countries, based both on Minilab and full-compendial or quality control laboratory testing

Special issue on access to medicines, pricing and generics

September 2009

Expand view

This issue has articles about medicine prices in Vietnam, Thailand and South Africa, generic medicines in Malaysia and Australia, anti-retroviral therapy in South Africa, and legislation and regulation in the retail pharmacy sector in low-income countries.
Southern Med Review : Vol 2, Issue 2

The push for local production, costs and benefits - a case study of Uganda’s Quality Chemicals|Africa Fighting Malaria policy paper

TAYLOR, James
et al
September 2009

Expand view

This research report considers the challenges faced by a local pharmaceutical firm - Quality Chemicals - in Uganda, which was started up as a 'solution' to reducing the high cost of medicines and improving access to medicines. "...many burdens and barriers to access continue to seriously hinder the success of such enterprises. Indirect government subsidies to exporters selling into African markets, and pressure by donors and lobbyists on innovator producers to offer developing countries subsidised prices, actually undermine the competitiveness and viability of these nascent firms. Furthermore, the focus on drug pricing and local production can actually undermine the overall aim to increase access to medicines"

Medicines use in primary care in developing and transitional countries : fact book summarizing results from studies reported between 1990 and 2006

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
May 2009

Expand view

Irrational use of medicines is one of the most serious global public health problems we face today. Improving use requires regular monitoring and application of effective interventions, both of which are often not done, particularly in many lower income countries. To address this issue, WHO created a database of medicines use in in primary care settings in developing and transitional countries. Quantitative information has been extracted from 679 studies conducted in 97 countries and on 386 interventions (from 313 studies). The medicines use database has allowed the first systematic quantitative review of studies measuring medicines use in developing and transitional countries and the results are now presented

Keeping it real : combating the spread of fake drugs in poor countries

HARRIS, Julian
STEVENS, Philip
MORRIS, Julian
May 2009

Expand view

This paper is about substances that are sold as medicines yet are not what they purport to be. Some of these substances are deliberately mislabeled, i.e. counterfeit. Others may have been inadvertently mislabelled or the pills contaminated during manufacture. Others may originally have been exactly as they claim, but due to poor storage have degraded and are consequently substandard. The paper is composed of four parts. The first looks at the scope of the problem in less developed countries; the second examines the health impacts of fake medicines; the third section considers the main causes of the problem; and the final section offers some possible solutions

Malaria treatment in Nigeria : the role of patent medicine vendors

OLADEPO, Oladimeji
et al
March 2009

Expand view

"This scoping study provides a quick assessment of the malaria treatment markets and the role played by patent medicine vendors in Nigeria, and offers ways to improve the regulation and provision of anti-malarial drugs. It documented the sources of drugs in the three states and people’s problems in getting access to appropriate treatment for malaria"

Safe medicines project - phase II : the Zambian case study

AFRICA FIGHTING MALARIA
March 2009

Expand view

This bulletin reports on the results of a study in which a range of antimalarial drugs were procured from private pharmacies, shops and kiosks within the urban and peri-urban areas of Lusaka, Zambia and tested to measure the active pharmaceutical ingredient content against internationally acceptable standards

WHO model list of essential medicines for children

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
March 2009

Expand view

The medicines in this model list are intended for use for children up to the age of 12. There is a core list of minimum medicine needs for a basic health care system, listing the most efficacious, safe and cost-effective medicines for priority conditions. Priority conditions are selected on the basis of current and estimated future public health relevance, and potential for safe and cost-effective treatment. There is also a complementary list of essential medicines for priority diseases, for which specialised diagnostic or monitoring facilities, and/or specialist medical care, and/or specialist training are needed

Measuring transparency to improve good governance in the public pharmaceutical sector : Jordan

NUSEIRAT, Adi
2009

Expand view

"This report presents the findings of the first phase of the [World Health Organization's] national Good Governance for Medicines programme in Jordan. The assessment aims to obtain a picture of the level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption in the public pharmaceutical sector using WHO’s assessment instrument. In Jordan, the assessment looked at six functions: medicines registration, inspection of pharmaceutical establishments, promotion, selection, procurement and distribution"

Measuring transparency to improve good governance in the public pharmaceutical sector : Lebanon

HAMRA, Rasha
RAIDY, Collette
NAOUS, Maha
2009

Expand view

"This report presents the findings of the first phase of the [World Health Organization's] national Good Governance for Medicines programme in Lebanon. The assessment aims to obtain a picture of the level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption in the public pharmaceutical sector using WHO’s assessment instrument. In Lebanon, the assessment looked at six functions: medicines registration, inspection of pharmaceutical establishments, promotion, selection, procurement and distribution"

Measuring transparency to improve good governance in the public pharmaceutical sector : Syrian Arab Republic

AL MARDINI, Amer
AL HAKEEM, Souheila
2009

Expand view

"This report presents the findings of the first phase of the [World Health Organization's] national Good Governance for Medicines programme in the Syrian Arab Republic. The assessment aims to obtain a picture of the level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption in the public pharmaceutical sector using WHO’s assessment instrument. In the Syrian Arab Republic, the assessment looked at eight functions: medicines registration, licensing of pharmaceutical establishments, inspection of pharmaceutical establishments, promotion, selection, clinical trials, procurement and distribution"

Pages

E-bulletin

Source e-bulletin on Disability and Inclusion

Subscribe to updates