The aim of this study was to identify key governance issues that need to be addressed to facilitate the integration of mental health services into general health care in the six participating "Emerald" countries (Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda). The study adopted a descriptive qualitative approach, using framework analysis. Purposive sampling was used to recruit a range of key informants, to ensure views were elicited on all the governance issues within the expanded framework. Key informants across the six countries included policy makers at the national level in the Department/Ministry of Health; provincial coordinators and planners in primary health care and mental health; and district-level managers of primary and mental health care services. A total of 141 key informants were interviewed across the six countries. Data were transcribed (and where necessary, translated into English) and analysed thematically using framework analysis, first at the country level, then synthesised at a cross-country level.
Universal health coverage (UHC) for inclusive and sustainable development synthesises the experiences from 11 countries—Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, France, Ghana, Indonesia, Japan, Peru, Thailand, Turkey, and Vietnam—in implementing policies and strategies to achieve and sustain UHC. These countries represent diverse geographic and economic conditions, but all have committed to UHC as a key national aspiration and are approaching it in different ways. The UHC policies for each country are examined around three common themes: (1) the political economy and policy process for adopting, achieving, and sustaining UHC; (2) health financing policies to enhance health coverage; and (3) human resources for health policies for achieving UHC. The path to UHC is specific to each country, but countries can benefit from experiences of others and avoid potential risks
"The health worker shortage in sub-Saharan Africa derives from many causes, yet the dynamics of entry into and exit from the health workforce in many of these countries remain poorly understood. This limits the capacity of national governments and their international development partners to design and implement appropriate intervention programmes. This paper provides some of this information through the first systematic estimates of health worker inflow and outflow in selected sub-Saharan African countries"
A "review of different documents on human resource for health in Ethiopia was undertaken. Generally there is shortage in number of different groups of professionals, maldistribution of professionals between regions, urban and rural setting, and governmental and non governmental/private organizations. A number of measures are being taken to alleviate these problems. The implications of these for human resource development by 2015 are explored briefly"
In 1998 the Ethiopian government scaled up the response to HIV/AIDS by forging a multi-sectoral and multi-level partnership with various stakeholders. A national policy on HIV/AIDS was enacted in August 1998. This resulted in a Strategic Framework for the National Response to HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia for 2001-2005. This monitoring and evaluation framework was developed to strengthen the multi-sectoral response to HIV/AIDS, to systematically track progress and evaluate the effects of the national response, and to meet the international reporting requirements for funds secured to fight HIV/AIDS in the country. It covers basic monitoring and evaluation concepts, an implementation strategy, national level indicators and resource requirements
Examines the effects of a decade of health sector reforms in Ethiopia. Identifies the high cost of drugs as the major barrier to healthcare for the vast majority. Findings include the fact that most people do not use the public healthcare system, largely due to drug shortages, which mean people buy drugs from private pharmacies. The potential of 'Special Phramacies' however, has been overstated, since they exclude the majority, contributing to a two-tier health system. Exemption mechanisms are weak or not working in most places, so do not protect the poor. Roughly one-third of households sacrifice other essential spending to seek treatment, contributing to further indebtedness. Recommendations include: the need to increase levels of public funding of the health sector (Ethiopia would have to spend 100-133 per cent of its total budget to meet World Bank and WHO minimum health funding targets). Invest more heavily in alternative sources of funding through a range of risk pooling and health insurance initiatives - particularly look at the feasibility of community health insurance schemes, possibly linked to local savings societies. Strengthen equity priorities within a national user fee policy, with a priority to strengthen exemption systems or differential charging, perhaps using livelihood based assessments of ability to pay
This book provides an examination of indigenous knowledge and what it can offer a sustainable development strategy, and offers a guide to collecting, using, and assessing indigenous knowledge. Includes a review of case studies in Indonesia, Ecuador, Ethiopia, and Venezuela
Contains short case accounts of lessons learned from participatory reviews (part of the annual reflection process of the Accountability Learning and Planning System (ALPS) in Bangladesh, Burundi, Nigeria, Kenya, India, Ethiopia and Haiti
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