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Rehabilitation in health systems: guide for action

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO)
May 2019

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There is great variation across countries regarding the rehabilitation needs of the population, characteristics of the health system and the challenges that face rehabilitation. For this reason, it is important for each country to identify their own priorities and develop a rehabilitation strategic plan. A rehabilitation strategic plan should seek to increase the accessibility, quality and outcomes of rehabilitation.

To assist countries to develop a comprehensive, coherent and beneficial strategic plan, WHO has developed Rehabilitation in health systems: guide for action. This resource leads governments through a four-phase process of (1) situation assessment; (2) strategic planning; (3) development of monitoring, evaluation and review processes; and (4) implementation of the strategic plan. This process utilizes health system strengthening practices with a focus on rehabilitation.

The Rehabilitation in health systems: guide for action provides practical help that directs governments through the four phases and twelve steps. The process can take place at national or subnational level. Typically phases 1 to 3 occur over a 12-month period, while phase 4 occurs over the period of the strategic plan, around 5 years. The four phases and accompanying guidance are outlined below

WHO Global disability action plan 2014-2021

WHO Disability and Rehabilitation Team
2014

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The WHO global disability action plan 2014-2021 is a significant step towards achieving health and well-being and human rights for people with disabilities. The action plan was endorsed by WHO Member States in 2014 and calls for them to remove barriers and improve access to health services and programmes; strengthen and extend rehabilitation, assistive devices and support services, and community-based rehabilitation; and enhance collection of relevant and internationally comparable data on disability, and research on disability and related services. Achieving the objectives of the action plan better enables people with disabilities to fulfil their aspirations in all aspects of life.

Increasing access to health workers in remote and rural areas through improved retention|Global policy recommendations

DOLEA, Carmen
et al
2010

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These guidelines aim to help national policy makers address the challenge of ensuring there are sufficient numbers of qualified health workers in remote and rural areas to be able to deliver effective health services and improve health outcomes. The guidelines outline the principles for creating national policy; evidence-based recommendations to improve the attraction, recruitment and retention of health workers to remote and rural areas; and measuring and evaluating the impact of rural retention policies

Alleviating the burden of responsibility : men as providers of community-based HIV/AIDS care and support in Lesotho

NEWMAN, Constance
September 2009

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This is an overview of a study of men as providers of HIV and AIDS care and support in Lesotho to help address the problems of occupational segregation with regards to human resources for health. Such inequality ..."impedes the development of robust health workforces. In the era of HIV/AIDS, this makes for inequities, inefficiencies and missed opportunities by creating barriers to health workforce entry and limiting the possible pool of formal and nonformal health workers. In Lesotho, as in many other countries, the HIV and AIDS care burden falls on the shoulders of women and girls in unpaid, invisible household and community work. This gender inequity in [human resources for health] needs to be addressed to ensure fair and sustainable responses to the need for home- and community-based HIV/AIDS care and support"

Quest for quality : interventions to improve human resources for health among faith-based organisations

ADJEI, George A
et al
February 2009

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"Traditionally, faith-based health organisations have been important health care providers in many remote and other under-serviced areas. Currently, these facilities bear the brunt of the competition for scarce human resources. It is important for faith-based organisations to learn from recent experiences and from the creative ways in which colleagues seek to retain their health workers and improve quality of human resource management. [As part of a]"...linking and learning programme, some faith-based umbrella organisations in Tanzania, Ghana, Uganda, and Malawi have joined forces to share their experiences in confronting the human resources crisis: by developing retention schemes, offering in-service training, task shifting, developing the planning and management skills of their staff, better coordination of salary and incentive structures with the public systems, and the development of lobbying instruments for national and international use"

The health worker shortage in Africa : are enough physicians and nurses being trained?

KINFU, Yohannes
et al
February 2009

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"The health worker shortage in sub-Saharan Africa derives from many causes, yet the dynamics of entry into and exit from the health workforce in many of these countries remain poorly understood. This limits the capacity of national governments and their international development partners to design and implement appropriate intervention programmes. This paper provides some of this information through the first systematic estimates of health worker inflow and outflow in selected sub-Saharan African countries"

Scaling up the stock of health workers : a review

DUSSAULT, Gilles
et al
2009

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This paper synthesises some of the published and grey literature on the process of scaling up the health workforce - also known as human resources for health (HRH) - with a particular focus on increasing the number of trained providers of health services. It concentrates on low- and middle-income countries, although some literature on richer countries is included

Handbook on monitoring and evaluation of human resources for health : with special applications for low- and middle-income countries

DAL POZ, Mario R
Ed
2009

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This handbook aims strengthen the technical capacity of health managers, researchers and policy makers, to monitor and evaluate their health workforce accurately . It brings together an analytical framework for strategy options for improving the health workforce information and evidence base, as well as country experiences to highlight approaches that have worked

Report on the second expert consultation on increasing access to health workers in remote and rural areas through improved retention

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2009

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This report presents a synthesis of the presentations and discussions held in plenary and working groups at the second full expert meeting of a WHO programme to increase access to health workers in remote and rural areas through improved retention. The provisional agenda, list of presentations, and the list of participants are given in thre three Annexes

The Kampala declaration and agenda for global action

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
GLOBAL HEALTH WORKFORCE ALLIANCE
2008

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This resource contains both the Kampala declaration and an agenda for global action to "guide the initial steps in a coordinated global, regional and national response to the worldwide shortage and mal-distribution of health workers, moving towards universal access to quality health care and improved health outcomes. It is meant to unite and intensify the political will and commitments necessary for significant and effective actions to resolve this crisis, and to align efforts of all stakeholders at all levels around solutions"

Guidelines: Incentives for health professionals

WELLER, Bridget
2008

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Staff costs dominate health services expenditure and ongoing shortages in the availability of health professionals present a real and direct threat to the continued delivery and development of health care services. Incentives, both financial and non-financial, provide one tool that governments and other employer bodies can use to develop and sustain a workforce with the skills and experience to deliver the required care. Financial incentives (wages and conditions, performance-linked payments and others) and nonfinancial incentives (career and professional development, workload management, flexible working arrangements, positive working arrangements and access to benefits and supports) are both discussed. The characteristics of an effective incentive scheme and the development of an incentive package are described. 

Informal pay and the quality of health care : lessons from Tanzania

MAESTAD, Ottar
MWISONGO, Aziza
September 2007

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This brief draws on a qualitative study among health workers in Tanzania to describe the nature of informal payments that are taking place in the health sector, and their potential impacts on access to and the quality of health care. Particular attention is devoted to the policy implications

Developing human resources for health

DEUTSCHE GESELLSCHAFT FUR TECHNISCHE ZUSAMMENARBEIT (GTZ)
June 2007

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This booklet ..."describes the dire shortage of human resources (HR) in the health systems of low and middle income countries and the special challenges posed by this crisis. It touches on ways of addressing shortages of qualified staff and gives several examples of how countries can use technical support to build stronger a health workforce"

Human resources for health research : the key to successful sustainable health system improvements

IJSSELMUIDEN, Carel
May 2007

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"This paper reflects on human resources for health research (HRHR) a largely ignored but increasingly important component of the overall strategy to improve the quality, quantity, and stability of human resources for health (HRH) in developing countries. This is an area for this the ‘declarations’ still have to be developed. Indeed, it is hoped that this contribution will assist in achieving more recognition for this small, but key component of successful sustainable health system improvement"

Human resource development for health in Ethiopia : challenges of achieving the millennium development goals

GIRMA, Samuel
et al
2007

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A "review of different documents on human resource for health in Ethiopia was undertaken. Generally there is shortage in number of different groups of professionals, maldistribution of professionals between regions, urban and rural setting, and governmental and non governmental/private organizations. A number of measures are being taken to alleviate these problems. The implications of these for human resource development by 2015 are explored briefly"

Improving health, connecting people : the role of ICTs in the health sector of developing countries|A framework paper

CHETLEY, Andrew
Ed
May 2006

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This paper gives a snapshot of the types of information and communication technology (ICT) interventions being used in the health sector, and the policy debates involving ICTs and health. It draws on the experiences of both the North and South, but focuses on applicability in the South to identify the most effective and relevant uses of ICTs. It describes the major constraints and challenges faced in using ICTs effectively in the health sector of developing countries, draws out good practices for using ICTs in the health sector, identifies major players and stakeholders, and highlights priority needs and issues of relevance to policy makers. The paper also looks at emerging trends in technologies that are likely to shape ICT use in the health sector, and identifies gaps in knowledge. It is aimed at policy makers, international donors, local practitioners, and others who are involved in the development or management of programs in the health sector in developing countries

ICT in the health sector : literature review

DAVIES, Jackie
March 2006

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This literature review presents a brief survey of the materials that have been selected for presentation as part of the InfoDev supported ‘ICT & Health’ research project. These materials are presented online as a searchable annotated bibliography: http://asksource.ids.ac.uk/cf/keylists/keylist2.cfm?topic=ict&search=QL_infodevHealthComm05JD

Working together for health : the world health report 2006

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
2006

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"The 'World Health Report 2006 - Working together for health' contains both an expert assessment of the current crisis in the global health workforce and an ambitious set of proposals to tackle it over the next ten years, starting immediately"

Health care access of the very poor in Kenya

SOHANI, Salim B
2005

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This paper reviews a model of health care delivery for the poorest, developed in Kenya. "It illustrates that a pro-poor health system can be developed if the true representatives of the poorest are enabled to participate in health care delivery, and good governance and proper systems are established...With the active involvement of the community in a mutually supportive manner, the utilisation of services and access to basic health care for the poorest can be improved"

Participation of African social scientists in malaria control : identifying enabling and constraining factors

NGALAME, Paulyne M
et al
December 2004

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This article discusses research examining the enabling and constraining factors that influence African social scientists' involvement in malaria control. Findings showed that most participants did not necessarily seek malaria as a career path. Having a mentor who provided research and training opportunities, and developing strong technical skills in malaria control and grant or proposal writing facilitated career opportunities in malaria. A paucity of jobs and funding and inadequate technical skills in malaria limited the type and number of opportunities available to social scientists in malaria control. Understanding the factors that influence job satisfaction, recruitment and retention in malaria control is necessary for better integration of social scientists into malaria control. However, given the wide array of skills that social scientists have and the variety of deadly diseases competing for attention in sub-Saharan Africa, it might be more cost effective to employ social scientists to work broadly on issues common to communicable diseases in general rather than solely on malaria

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