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Association between Zika virus infection and microcephaly in Brazil, January to May, 2016: preliminary report of a case-control study

DE ARAUJO, Thalia Velho Barreto
et al
December 2016

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The microcephaly epidemic, which started in Brazil in 2015, was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by WHO in 2016. Preliminary results of a case-control study investigating the association between microcephaly and Zika virus infection during pregnancy are reported. A case-control study was carried out in eight public hospitals in Recife, Brazil. Cases were neonates with microcephaly. Two controls (neonates without microcephaly), matched by expected date of delivery and area of residence, were selected for each case.

The Lancet Infectious Diseases,  Vol. 16, No. 12, pp. 1356–1363, Dec 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(16)30318-8

Intellectual property rights and access to ARV medicines : civil society resistance in the global south|Brazil, Colombia, China, India, Thailand

REIS, Renata
TERTO, Veriano Jr
PIMENTA, Maria Cristina Pimenta
Eds
2009

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This book looks at "...the recent history and the many struggles related to advocacy for access to [antiretroviral] medicines of engaged civil society. Through the experiences of five middle-income countries - Brazil, China, Colombia, India, and Thailand." It presents "...the perspective of local civil society organisations about the national impact of intellectual property protection and access to medications. "These five countries were chosen due to their accumulated experience in this field, their capacity to produce generic medication, their activist efforts, and the exchange of ideas and information that already exists between them"

Neglected tropical diseases : hidden successes, emerging opportunities

World Health Organization [WHO]
2006

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This report looks at neglected tropical diseases. These diseases particularly affect poor and disadvantaged people with limited access to health services and have a low profile and status in public health priorities. Despite the challenges involved, some progress has been made through interventions around particular diseases in certain countries. This report highlights some of those successes

Civil society perspectives on TB policy in Bangladesh, Brazil, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Thailand

Public Health Watch, Open Society Institute
2006

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This publication contains an overview of the common themes and funding resulting from five country reports, and the five reports themselves. The World Health Organization has designated all five as TB-high burden countries. The research findings show a low level of awareness about TB, and TB and HIV co-infection; about how TB is transmitted and how it can be cured; and about the link between poverty and TB; as well as low media coverage of TB and a lack of strong communication strategies for national TB programmes. It also contains country-specific recommendations

Addressing violence against women in HIV testing and counselling

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2006

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This is a summary and recommendations from an international consultation co-convened by the WHO departments of Gender, Women and Health (GWH) and of HIV & AIDS to identify and review promising strategies or good practices to support women who may fear or experience violence as a consequence of HIV testing and/or HIV status disclosure; and develop recommendations to guide programmes and policies related to HIV testing and counselling, in light of current strategies to expand access to these and related services

USAID project profiles : children affected by HIV/AIDS

UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (USAID)
January 2005

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This document presents profiles of 114 projects (90 country-specific, 12 regional, and 12 global) funded by USAID. It includes a section on USAID projects that support access to education in Africa. The project profiles include the names of implementing organisations, funding periods and amounts, objectives, strategies, key accomplishments, priority activities for the year ahead, and materials and tools available to other projects that can help meet the needs of children and youth affected by HIV and AIDS. The diversity of these projects demonstrates the US government's efforts to meet the wide variety of needs of children and youth affected by HIV and AIDS. Approaches vary in both strategy and scale. The vast majority of projects work with communities to identify opportunities that strengthen existing resources without undermining local ownership. In many places, communities are already mobilised and have systems in place to identify, protect, and provide basic necessities to the most vulnerable children. USAID supports the strengthening and monitoring of these existing activities

Access to antiretroviral drugs in Brazil

GALVAO, Jane
December 2002

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Since 1996, the Brazilian Ministry of Health has guaranteed free and universal access to antiretroviral treatment for people living with HIV/AIDS. Implementation of this policy has had political, financial, and logistical challenges. This article investigates the history and context of antiretroviral policy in Brazil, the logistics of the drugs distribution, and the government's strategies for acquisition of the drugs. Many antiretrovirals used in Brazil are produced domestically; the remainder, including some of the most expensive drugs, are purchased from abroad. Although the Brazilian policy of antiretroviral distribution has had notable success, it remains threatened by the high cost of acquisition of drugs, which has led to disputes with international pharmaceutical companies over prices and patents. Whether or not the Brazilian model of guaranteeing access to antiretroviral treatment for people living with HIV/AIDS can be applied in other countries or regions, much can be learned from the country's experience

Hooked on tobacco

CHRISTIAN AID
DEPARTMEMENTO DE ESTUDOS SOCI-ECONOMICOS RURAIS (DESER)
February 2002

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A report into the plight of tobacco farmers in Brazil. The report finds that British American Tobacco's (BAT) power is disadvantaging contract famers in Brazil. It raises serious concerns about the health and safety of farmers and their families, especially in relation to their exposure to pesticides. It also looks at the exploitative relationship between the farmers and BAT's subsidiary in Brazil

Working together : the global search for an AIDS vaccine. An anthology of IAVI Report articles

KAHN, Patricia
Ed
2002

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This anthology consists of seven articles on HIV vaccine research from the IAVI Report, the newsletter of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative. Several focus on advocacy and the experience of AIDS activists in vaccine development in Brazil and South Africa. Others approach vaccine research from a scientific perspective, looking at trials with drug users, experience of women in vaccine trials and development in Kenya and HIV transmission by breastfeeding. The final article reports on the Global Economic Forum Discussion on global AIDS vaccine delivery

HIV/AIDS and communication for behavior and social change : programme experiences, examples, and the way forward

SINGHAL, Arvind
June 2001

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The purpose of this workshop was to: map out strategies for implementation of communication programmes for behaviour and social change; strengthen links between communication programmes and priority issues in HIV and AIDS in developing countries; and increase technical soundness in communication programmes, projects and strategies of organisations working on HIV and AIDS prevention, care and treatment. Several recommendations about the role of communication for behaviour and social change in HIV and AIDS programmes emerged from the workshop’s deliberations

Brazil's HIV/AIDS treatment programme

TREATMENT ACTION CAMPAIGN (TAC)
February 2001

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It is estimated that 540,000 Brazilians have HIV/AIDS, with the highest prevalence among the poor. However, Brazil treatment programmes have been comparatively successful and AIDS mortality rates have decreased significantly. This fact sheet attempts to explain the reasons for the success but also assesses weaknesses and unresolved issues of the Brazilian programme

Spatial patterns of leprosy in an urban area of central Brazil

MARTELLI, C M T
et al
1995

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Reported is the spatial variation of leprosy in an urban area of Brazil and its correlation with socioeconomic indicators. From November 1991 to October 1992 a total of 752 newly diagnosed leprosy patients who were attending all outpatient clinics in Golania city, central Brazil, were indentified. A database of leprosy cases was set up linking patients' addresses to 64 urban districts. Leprosy cases were detected in 86 of the districts and three risk strata were identified. The highest risk area for leprosy was in the outskirts of the city and detection rates increased on moving from more developed to poorer areas. The risk of detecting leprosy cases was 5.3-fold greater (95CL: 3.8-7.4) in the outskirst of the town than in the central zone.
Discussed are the methodological issues related to leprosy case ascertainment, completeness and reliability of information, and the interpretation of the spatial distribution of leprosy per unti area. High lighted also are the lack of deprosy control activities in primary health care units and the usefulness of geographical analysis in planning health services.

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