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Managing epidemics - Key facts about major deadly diseases

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO)
2018

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The manual is structured in three parts.

  • Part One “Epidemics of the 21st century” provides vital insights on the main features of the 21st century upsurge and the indispensable elements to manage them.
  • Part Two “Be in the know. 10 key facts about 15 deadly diseases” contains key information about 15 diseases (Ebola Virus Disease, Lassa Fever, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Yellow Fever, Zika, Chikungunya, Avian and Other Zoonotic Influenza, Seasonal Influenza, Pandemic Influenza, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, Cholera, Monkeypox, Plague, Leptospirosis and Meningococcal Meningitis). This section provides tips on the interventions required to respond to epidemics of all these diseases.
  • Part Three “Tool boxes” gives an overview and summarized guidance on some other important topics, including: the role of WHO, the International Coordinating Group, laboratory diagnosis and shipment of infectious diseases substances, and vector control.

 

The handbook enables the three levels of WHO – its Headquarters, Regional Offices and Country Offices to work efficiently together by building the foundations of a shared conceptual and thinking framework, which includes common terminology. 

Forecasting Zika Incidence in the 2016 Latin America Outbreak Combining Traditional Disease Surveillance with Search, Social Media, and News Report Data

MCGOUGH, Sarah F.
BROWNSTEIN, John S.
HAWKINS, Jared B.
et al
January 2017

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"Over 400,000 people across the Americas are thought to have been infected with Zika virus as a consequence of the 2015–2016 Latin American outbreak. Official government-led case count data in Latin America are typically delayed by several weeks, making it difficult to track the disease in a timely manner. Thus, timely disease tracking systems are needed to design and assess interventions to mitigate disease transmission."

Zika Virus Infection as a Cause of Congenital Brain Abnormalities and Guillain–Barré Syndrome: Systematic Review

KRAUER, Fabienne
RIESEN, Maurane
REVEIZ, Ludovic
et al
January 2017

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"The World Health Organization (WHO) stated in March 2016 that there was a scientific consensus that the mosquito-borne Zika virus was a cause of the neurological disorder Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) and of microcephaly and other congenital brain abnormalities based on rapid evidence assessments. Decisions about causality require systematic assessment to guide public health actions. The objectives of this study were to update and reassess the evidence for causality through a rapid and systematic review about links between Zika virus infection and (a) congenital brain abnormalities, including microcephaly, in the foetuses and offspring of pregnant women and (b) GBS in any population, and to describe the process and outcomes of an expert assessment of the evidence about causality."

Association between Zika virus infection and microcephaly in Brazil, January to May, 2016: preliminary report of a case-control study

DE ARAUJO, Thalia Velho Barreto
et al
December 2016

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The microcephaly epidemic, which started in Brazil in 2015, was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by WHO in 2016. Preliminary results of a case-control study investigating the association between microcephaly and Zika virus infection during pregnancy are reported. A case-control study was carried out in eight public hospitals in Recife, Brazil. Cases were neonates with microcephaly. Two controls (neonates without microcephaly), matched by expected date of delivery and area of residence, were selected for each case.

The Lancet Infectious Diseases,  Vol. 16, No. 12, pp. 1356–1363, Dec 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(16)30318-8

Zika virus

HESPERIAN HEALTH GUIDES
February 2016

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A short introduction to the Zika virus and pregnancy. This resources details the signs of the Zika virus and the difference between Zika virus, dengue, chikungunya, or malaria are outlined. How the mosquito spreads the disease, the prevention of mosquito bites, ways in which communities can prevent mosquito illnesses and removal of mosquito breeding sites from around the house and community are also covered

 

Note: resource is available online and in downloadable pdf formats

Strengthening community and primary health systems for tuberculosis. A consultation on childhood TB integration

UNICEF
2016

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An estimated one million children between the age of 0-14 fall ill with tuberculosis (TB) every year, over 67 million children are infected and might develop active disease at any time. In 2013, the WHO with key partners launched the Roadmap for Childhood TB, outlining ten key actions to improve outcomes for children affected by TB, including improved data, development of child-friendly tools for diagnosis and treatment, engagement of key stakeholders at all levels of the system, and the development of integrated family- and community-centred strategies to provide comprehensive and effective services at the community level. A consultation on childhood TB integration took place in New York on June 1 and 2, 2016 to stimulate further the dialogue. The meeting addressed 7 topics: perspectives on childhood TB; country discussions on integration; integrating childhood TB interventions into service delivery; an opportunity for TB risk assessment at the community level: TB/HIV adapted integrated community case management (iCCM); childhood TB integration at the national, district, and community level; and financing childhood TB integration 

Triple jeopardy : tackling the discrimination facing girls and women with leprosy

GRIFFEY, Harriet
Eds
March 2015

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This report examines the triple discrimination situation faced by women and girls with leprosy in developing countries, because of their gender, the disabilities that can result from the disease and the impact of its stigma. Studies also show that in some countries they are less likely than men to be diagnosed early, and so are at greater risk of developing a lifelong disability. This report shows what can be done to achieve access to treatment and a better outcome for girls and women affected by leprosy

Social participation of diabetes and ex-leprosy patients in the Netherlands and patient preference for combined self-care groups

DE VRIES, Henry JC
DE GROOT, Roos
VAN BRAKEL, Wim H
August 2014

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This study compared the social constraints of diabetic patients and ex-leprosy patients and investigated combined self-care groups for ex-leprosy patients and diabetic patients. The physical complications and social problems in ex-leprosy and diabetic patients with neuropathy are similar. Despite the fact that diabetic patients preferred disease-specific, homogeneous self-care groups, the authors believe that the option of combined groups is a promising strategy. Therefore, further research is warranted into the acceptance and impact of self-care groups as a strategy to reduce social constraints by diseases causing neuropathy 

Frontiers in Medicine, Vol 1

Treatment of tuberculosis guidelines

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2010

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These guidelines aim ..."to help national tuberculosis (TB) control programmes in setting TB treatment policy to optimise patient cure: curing patients will prevent death, relapse, acquired drug resistance, and the spread of TB in the community. Their further purpose is to guide clinicians working in both public and private sectors." This new edition of the guidelines integrates the detection and treatment of both HIV infection and multi-drug resistant TB

The epidemic divide

HEALTH AND CARE DEPARTMENT, INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT SOCIETIES (ICRC)
July 2009

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The burden of epidemics of infectious diseases on the social and economic development of poorer countries is growing, but is not being sufficiently addressed. This paper argues that to reduce the impact of epidemics involves addressing complex issues that include prevention of disease, empowering communities, better access to health services at the community level, availability of health personnel and better infrastructure (especially for water and sanitation)

Playgroup resource book : for children aged 3-5 years and 6-12 years

FAMILY HEALTH INTERNATIONAL (FHI) CAMBODIA
May 2009

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This book is designed to allow those facilitating the playgroup sessions the flexibility to pick and choose activities, games, songs and group lessons that are suited to the children they are working with, the time and materials available to them, and their geographical location and setting. Play can be especially important for orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) because the physical and emotional trauma they may face makes them more vulnerable to sadness and ill-health than other children. Non-structured and structured play become very important support activities for OVC because of all they can do to improve a child’s physical and emotional well-being

Tuberculosis : a global threat

FISCHER, Christine
2007

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This briefing gives an overview of tuberculosis (TB), transmission, diagnosis, treatment, the links with poverty, multi-drug resistance, TB and AIDS, TB research, and drug research

Training manual : strengthening training outreach and prevention for the on going avian influenza

CARE VIETNAM
2007

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The manual is designed to increase the capacity of local authorities and organisations to apply effective and appropriate measures to prevent new avian influenza outbreaks and to help prevent an influenza pandemic in humans, by providing them with avian influenza knowledge and communication skills. It is intended for use by local animal health and public health workers and Women’s Union representatives at provincial and district levels

The relationship between detection delay and impairment in leprosy control : a comparison of patient cohorts from Bangladesh and Ethiopia

VAN VEEM, Natasja H J
MEIMA, Abraham
RICHARDUS, Jan H
December 2006

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"It is acknowledged that longer delays between first symptoms and diagnosis result in increased impairment in newly detected leprosy patients. However, it is unclear whether detection delay in relation to impairment can be used as a general or absolute performance indicator of leprosy control programmes. It is unknown whether similar delays always result in similar proportions of impairment. Therefore, the present study examined the quantitative relationship between delay and impairment in two different patient populations"
Leprosy Review, Vol 77, Issue 4

TB control in China

HEALTHLINK WORLDWIDE
February 2006

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This paper considers findings from EQUI-TB's work in China. Using a range of methods, researchers uncovered critical challenges facing TB control in China, including economic and social barriers, how to support vulnerable people including rural-to-urban migrants and delays in diagnosis and treatment

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