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A new way to measure child functioning

UNICEF
WASHINGTON GROUP
May 2017

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"In recognizing the need for a set of questions that would produce internationally comparable data on children, the Washington Group formed a subgroup in 2009 that is chaired by the National Statistical Office of Italy (ISTAT). UNICEF joined the subgroup in 2011.

The first main activity of the subgroup was the development of a short set of questions to reflect current thinking on child functioning for inclusion in censuses and surveys. The new module uses the ICF-CY as the conceptual framework and relies on a functional approach to measuring disability.

The Washington Group/UNICEF Module on Child Functioning, finalized in 2016, covers children between 2 and 17 years of age and assesses functional difficulties in different domains including hearing, vision, communication/comprehension, learning, mobility and emotions. To better reflect the degree of functional difficulty, each area is assessed against a rating scale. The purpose is to identify the subpopulation of children who are at greater risk than other children of the same age or who are experiencing limited participation in an unaccommodating environment. The set of questions is intended for use in national household surveys and censuses"

The module is being translated into multiple languages. Supporting documentation, including a concept note, tabulation plan, templates for reporting, guidelines for interviewers and training materials are also available.

Key To Inclusion: New tool to measure child functioning

UNICEF
March 2016

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A video highlighting the critical importance of collecting data on child functioning, its feasibility and its powerful results. It addresses a new series of questions put together by UNICEF/Washington Group on Disability Statistics that go beyond labels and diagnoses to explore children’s actual experiences and the difficulties that they encounter in performing daily activities.

And every child is entitled to equal opportunity to realize their full potential. So say the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

But the hard truth is that millions of children with disabilities are deprived of opportunity.

CHILD AT RISK. The world’s most vulnerable children: who they are, where they live, and what puts them at risk

SOS CHILDREN'S VILLAGES INTERNATIONAL
2016

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An overview of the life situations and locations of the world’s most vulnerable children based on results from the SOS Children’s Villages Programme Monitoring Database is presented. Risk factors are outlined and the percentages of each factors are reported. The Child Vulnerability Index (CVI) is given for a large number of countries

Interventions for children affected by armed conflict: a systematic review of mental health and psychosocial support in low- and middle-income countries

JORDANS, Mark. J. D.
PIGOTT, Hugo
TOL, Wietse A
January 2016

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Over one billion children under the age of 18 live in countries affected by armed conflict. This systematic review replicates an earlier study, aiming to provide a comprehensive update of the most current developments in interventions for children affected by armed conflict. For the period 2009– 2015, a total of 1538 records were collected. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria, and the included interventions involve data from 4858 children. Two types of analysis were conducted. First, for an account of intervention descriptions, thematic analysis was used to summarise themes, with a specific focus on cultural adaptations. Second, all evaluation studies reporting quantitative data were categorised into level of evidence (1 = randomized controlled trials, all types; 2 = quasi-experimental design and controlled studies; 3 = non-controlled design; 4 = case studies) 

Current Psychiatry Reports, vol 18 (9), doi:10.1007/s11920-015-0648-z

For every child, a fair chance : the promise of equity

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (UNICEF)
November 2015

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“UNICEF’s commitment to equity – giving a fair chance in life to every child, everywhere, especially the most disadvantaged – is built on the conviction that it is right in principle and evidence that it is right in practice. This report makes the case for closing persistent gaps in equity…” The report identifies a number of persistent gaps in equity for children, ranging from health to nutrition, to social inclusion. The report concludes by making recommendations to close gaps in equity worldwide as well as projecting progress in achieving equity by 2030

The African report on violence against children

THE AFRICAN CHILD POLICY FORUM (ACPF)
September 2014

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This report reveals that Africa’s children are still subjected to levels of physical and emotional violence despite more than a decade of efforts by governments. The report “constitutes the most comprehensive study to date of the phenomenon in Africa and lays down the priorities for action at various levels that will be required to achieve better protection of children.  The report’s findings are principally informed by large scale surveys undertaken in Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Morocco, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe, and a review of more than 75 studies and reports. It reveals that a distinctive range of social, cultural and economic factors can combine to increase the risk of African children facing increased levels of physical and emotional violence in domestic settings, at schools, in institutions and in the workplace. These risks may be exacerbated in times of political upheaval and conflict, and girls are particularly vulnerable”

The state of the world's children 2014 in numbers : every child counts

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (UNICEF)
January 2014

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This report highlights the critical role data and monitoring play in realising children’s rights. It presents an updated compendium of statistics and data (which has been produced thirty years after the initial report) relating to the position of children throughout the world but particularly within the Global South. The data indicators cover a vast range: from demography, health and education, to rate of progression, child mortality, and disparities by household wealth. It emphasises that credible data, disseminated effectively and used correctly, make change possible to target interventions that help right the wrong of exclusion by identifying needs, supporting advocacy, gauging progress and holding duty bearers to account

Violating children's rights : harmful practices based on tradition, culture, religion or superstition

INTERNATIONAL NGO COUNCIL ON VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN
October 2012

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"This short report is designed to complement other current activities in the UN system that are focusing on harmful practices and children and will hopefully lead to more effective action...The report first looks at the definition and scope of harmful traditional, cultural and religious practices violating children’s rights. Section 3 outlines the human rights context for their prohibition and elimination. Section 4 lists practices identified through a call for evidence issued by the International NGO Council earlier in 2012 and additional desk research. It also provides some examples of legal and other measures already taken to challenge and eliminate them. Section 5 provides recommendations for action by states, UN and UN-related agencies, INGOs, NGOs, national human rights institutions and others"
Briefing paper

Booklet 1 : understanding children’s wellbeing

SAVE THE CHILDREN
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Reference Centre for Psychosocial Support
May 2012

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"This booklet can be used as a stand-alone resource or as part of the children’s resilience programme. It has been written for parents, teachers, community workers, trainers - both those people who are directly caring for children and those who are supporting or training others in their work with children. It looks at psychosocial support and child protection, and describes how activities in the children’s resilience programme can be used both within formal school settings and out of school in all kinds of child friendly spaces"
Part of "The children’s resilience programme : psychosocial support in and out of school" by the IFRC Reference Centre for Psychosocial Support and Save the Children

After the millennium development goals

SAVE THE CHILDREN
April 2012

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This paper highlights Save the Children’s focus on ensuring that the post-2015 framework accounts for the needs and rights of all children. The paper presents some of the current questions and options being debated, reflects on the organisation’s experience with the MDGs and then outlines six essential criteria for any new development framework. This criteria includes attention to equity, participation, protection, accountability and sustainability, as well as clear roles and responsibilities for all actors, including the private sector

Minimum standards for child protection in humanitarian action

THE CHILD PROTECTION WORKING GROUP (CPWG)
2012

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"These standards are intended for use by those working on child protection or related areas of humanitarian action...The Minimum Standards for Child Protection in Humanitarian Action follow the structure of the Sphere standards. Each standard is accompanied by key actions, measurements (including indicators and targets), and guidance notes. Child protection in emergencies includes specific activities by child protection actors, whether national or community-based, and/or by humanitarian staff supporting local capacities. It also includes activities in other humanitarian sectors. The Minimum Standards therefore contain 26 standards: (a) 6 general standards to address child protection needs (b) 8 standards to ensure a quality child protection response (c) 4 standards to develop adequate child protection strategies and (d) 8 standards to ensure mainstreaming of child protection in other sectors"

Child poverty and inequalities : new perspectives

ORTIZ, Isabel
DANIELS, Louise Moreira
ENGILBERTSDOTTIR, Solrun
Eds
2012

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"This volume is a compilation of recent thinking on the issue of child poverty and inequalities. It draws on over two years of UNICEF’s collaboration with innovative and leading thinkers on these matters. Papers in this volume discuss child poverty measurement, trends in global poverty and inequality, outcomes for children, and policies to address them"

Case management practice within Save the Children child protection programmes

MCCORMACK, Christine
November 2011

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"The purpose of this study is to look at the level of understanding and practice of case management within Save the Children’s child protection programmes. The study is divided into three parts. The first part illustrates and explains the fundamental components of a good case management system/process, drawing upon good practice in developed countries - which is also relevant and practicable to developing and emergency contexts. The second part looks at the organisation’s understanding and practice in case management, highlighting examples of promising practice (in line with recommended best practice as detailed in Part 1). The final part identifies actions that should be taken by Save the Children to improve the quality of case management work for the benefit of children, families and communities with which the organisation works"

Five years on : a global update on violence against children

COWELL, Katherine
BARKER, Jo
October 2011

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"This report summarizes the state of violence against children in the five years since the release of the UN Study. It is neither comprehensive nor exhaustive, but it is illustrative of the continued pervasiveness of violence in children’s lives"

Ethnographic study of community-based child protection mechanisms and their linkage with the national child protection system of Sierra Leone

THE COLUMBIA GROUP FOR CHILDREN IN ADVERSITY
July 2011

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"Community-based child protection mechanisms (CBCPMs) are used widely by non-governmental organisations and communities to address and protect children from violence, exploitation, abuse, and neglect. The research in this study reviews the effectiveness and sustainability of CBCPMs and aims to strengthen the link between CBCPMs and the national child protection system"

Disaster risk reduction and education

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (UNICEF)
May 2011

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This resource outlines UNICEF's approach to disaster risk reduction in schools, arguing that they present a potent environment to embed disaster reduction principles and planning in a community. The resource provides evidence from a number of UNICEF programmes around the world detailing community responses to disasters that UNICEF helped to facilitate. Finally, the piece closes with an argument for education of children in disaster risk reduction processes given children are capable of understanding and contributing to effective DRR planning processes. This is linked to the fundamental rights of children, particularly the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child Articles 6 (life, survival, development), 12 (respect for children's views), and 28 (right to education)

Adolescence : beyond the stereotypes

VOICES OF YOUTH
2011

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This report highlights the state of the world from a young perspective by reflecting on adolescents’ experiences and providing insights into their lives. The report contains essays and messages written by adolescents highlighting the impact of racial and other discriminations. This resource is useful for people interested in adolescents’ perspectives of the world

Standards for child protection : tool 1

KEEPING CHILDREN SAFE COALITION
2011

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"These standards can ensure that agencies develop practices that keep children safe from harm. They offer practical guidance to agencies on what they need to put in place to meet their responsibilities to protect children. They also provide a basis for determining local standards and how these will be met and measured. At the end of this document there is a useful tool for assessing and monitoring performance against the standards. These standards are Tool 1 of the Keeping Children Safe: Toolkit for Child Protection. The other supporting tools include a training pack, a guide on how to implement the standards and a DVD"

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