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2018 Annual Disability Statistics Compendium

THE REHABILITATION RESEARCH AND TRAINING CENTER ON DISABILITY AND DEMOGRAPHICS (StatsRRTC)
January 2019

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The Annual Disability Statistics Compendium and its complement, the Annual Disability Statistics Supplement, are summaries of statistics about people with disabilities and about the government programs which serve them. The Compendium, available both in hard copy and online (at https://www.disabilitycompendium.org) presents key overall statistics on topics including the prevalence of disability, employment among persons with disabilities, rates of participation in disability income and social insurance programs, as well as other statistics. The Annual Disability Statistics Supplement, only available online (also at https://www.disabilitycompendium.org), presents tables with over 150 additional categorizations of data for each section highlighted in the Compendium. The 2018 Annual Disability Compendium and Supplement were reviewed and updated for accessibility this year. 

 

A companion Annual Report is available, providing graphic representations of key findings. The Annual Report highlights trend data related to specific tables in the Compendium and Supplement

Prevalence of disabilities and health care access by disability status and type among adults — United States, 2016

OKORO, Catherine
et al
August 2018

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In 2013, based on questions to assess five disability types (i.e., vision, cognition, mobility, self-care, and independent living), one in five U.S. adults reported a disability.

In 2016, using the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services six-question set, one in four (61 million) U.S. adults reported any disability; nearly 6% reported hearing disability. Adults with disabilities, particularly those aged 18–44 and 45–64 years, experienced disparities in health care access by disability type.

 

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018;67:882–887

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6732a3

Exploring the links between water, sanitation and hygiene and disability; Results from a case-control study in Guatemala

KUPER, Hannah
et al
June 2018

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A case-control study was conducted, nested within a national survey. The study included 707 people with disabilities, and 465 age- and sex-matched controls without disabilities. Participants reported on WASH access at the household and individual level. A sub-set of 121 cases and 104 controls completed a newly designed, in-depth WASH questionnaire.

“They Stay until They Die” A lifetime of isolation and neglect in institutions for people with disabilities in Brazil

RIOS-ESPINOSA, Carlos
et al
May 2018

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This report documents a range of abuses against children and adults with disabilities in residential institutions in Brazil. The research is based on direct observations during visits to 19 institutions (known in Brazil as shelters and care homes), including 8 for children, as well as 5 inclusive residences for people with disabilities. In addition, Human Rights Watch researchers interviewed 171 people, including children with disabilities and their families, adults with disabilities in institutions, disability rights advocates, representatives of non–governmental organizations, including disabled persons organizations, staff in institutions, and government officials.

 

Research was carried out between November 2016 and March 2018 in the states of São Paulo (including São Paulo and Campinas), Rio de Janeiro (including Rio de Janeiro, Duque de Caxias, Niteroi and Nova Friburgo), Bahia (Salvador) and Distrito Federal (including Brasilia and Ceilândia).

College for Students with Disabilities: A Guide for Students, Families, and Educators

Maryville University Online
March 2018

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Students with disabilities and their families have many pathways to achieve independence through higher education. First they need to know their rights and how to prepare for higher education.

There are many pathways to achieve independence through higher education, and Maryville University has created this helpful “Frequently Asked Questions” (FAQ) to give you an idea of what to expect as you research your options.

Measuring the prevalence of violence against women with disabilities

VAUGHAN, Cathy
et al
February 2018

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This short report summarises discussions during a meeting concerning what is known about violence against women with disabilities and the evidence gaps, with a focus on Asia and the Pacific. It includes a brief overview of the current situation and suggested ways forward for researchers, the kNOwVAWdata initiative and other regional and global initiatives to measure prevalence of violence against women with disabilities, and for relevant regional and national institutions

Disability inclusion policy brief - Gap analysis on disability-inclusive humanitarian action in the Pacific

SHERRER, Valerie
et al
January 2018

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This policy brief presents findings from a gap analysis of disability-inclusive emergency response in the Pacific. 

The two main focuses of the gap analysis were:

A review of the level that New Zealand based non-governmental organisations (NGOs) include persons with disabilities in their emergency responses. This analysis was based on a review of the two recent significant disaster responses - tropical cyclone Pam in Vanuatu and tropical cyclone Winston in Fiji. 

An assessment of the capacity of Organisations of Persons with Disabilities (DPOs) to engage in the humanitarian responses and capture their perception of current humanitarian practice in the region - both the challenges and good practices observed

The analysis focused on identifying practical lessons learned from recent humanitarian responses with a view to identifying priority actions that can improve disability inclusion within future Pacific disaster preparedness and responses. The gap analysis comprised a literature review, surveys, interviews and focus group discussions

Online collective identities for autism: The perspective of Brazilian parents

ANTUNES, Debora
DHOEST, Alexander
2018

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This paper aims to better understand the role of social media in the definition and spread of views on autism in Brazil. To do so, it explores the identities adopted by parents of autistic people in one of the biggest Brazilian online communities about the subject on Facebook, ‘Sou autista… conheça o meu mundo’ (I am autistic… get to know my world), whose members are mostly parents, mainly mothers of autistic people

 

Disability and the Global South, 2018 Vol.5, No. 1, 1273-1291

Inclusive education in the global South? A Colombian perspective: ‘When you look towards the past, you see children with disabilities, and if you look towards the future, what you see is diverse learners.’

KAMENOPOULOU, Leda
2018

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Research conducted on inclusion in education is reported focusing on the capital, Bogotá. The research foci were a) inclusive education in practice, b) teacher preparation for inclusive education, and c) local understanding of inclusive education. 

 

Disability and the Global South, 2018 Vol.5, No. 1, 1192-1214

Guatemala National Disability Study ENDIS 2016 Report

DONICIO Carlos
GRECH Shaun
Islay MACTAGGART
Jonathan NABER
Dr Ana Rafaela SALAZAR DE BARRIOS
Gonna ROTA,
Sarah POLLACK
April 2017

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The Guatemala National Disability Study (ENDIS 2016) was undertaken to address a need for up to date reliable data on disability in Guatemala.

Through a population based survey:

* To estimate the national disability prevalence among adults and children in Guatemala, and to provide regional estimates for 5 broad regions

* To disaggregate the prevalence of disability in Guatemala by age, sex, type of functional limitation and socio-economic status

* To explore the impact of disability on: poverty, quality of life, participation, health and opportunities to go to school and to work amongst children and adults respectively

Through a qualitative study:

* To explore cultural, ideological, and social interpretations and responses to disability; provide insight into the disability and poverty relationship; and examine social, political, and economic dimensions operating within this relationship.

Human rights and disability: A manual for national human rights institutions

CROWTHER, Neil
QUINN, Gerard
REKAS, Abigail
March 2017

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(Updated Dec 2018)

This Manual is designed to provide practical guidance for national human rights institutions (NHRIs) that are actively working to advance the human rights of persons with disabilities, as well as those NHRIs that are seeking to strengthen their efforts in this area. This Manual provides practical guidance and recommendations about how the role and functions of NHRIs can be directed to provide better protection for persons with disabilities, to promote greater awareness and respect for their rights, and to monitor the progress made and obstacles encountered in advancing their rights.

There are three parts to the manual.

  • Part I: The concepts - the human rights framing of disability
  • Part II: The law - international human rights law and disability (CRPD and others)
  • Part III: The practice - what NHRIs can do to contribute to the process of change

 

 

Forecasting Zika Incidence in the 2016 Latin America Outbreak Combining Traditional Disease Surveillance with Search, Social Media, and News Report Data

MCGOUGH Sarah F.
BROWNSTEIN John S.
HAWKINS, Jared B.
SANTILLANA Mauricio
et al
January 2017

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"In the absence of access to real-time government-reported Zika case counts, we demonstrate the ability of Internet-based data sources to track the outbreak. Our model predictions fill a critical time-gap in existing Zika surveillance, given that early interventions and real-time surveillance are necessary to curb mosquito transmission. Official Zika case reports will likely continue to be delayed in their release; thus, it is important that health and government officials have access to real-time and future estimates of Zika activity in order to allocate resources according to potential changes in outbreak dynamics. The methodologies presented here may be expanded to any country–and perhaps finer spatial resolutions–to identify changes in Zika transmission for public health decision-makers."

Forecasting Zika Incidence in the 2016 Latin America Outbreak Combining Traditional Disease Surveillance with Search, Social Media, and News Report Data

MCGOUGH, Sarah F.
BROWNSTEIN, John S.
HAWKINS, Jared B.
et al
January 2017

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"Over 400,000 people across the Americas are thought to have been infected with Zika virus as a consequence of the 2015–2016 Latin American outbreak. Official government-led case count data in Latin America are typically delayed by several weeks, making it difficult to track the disease in a timely manner. Thus, timely disease tracking systems are needed to design and assess interventions to mitigate disease transmission."

Association between Zika virus infection and microcephaly in Brazil, January to May, 2016: preliminary report of a case-control study

DE ARAUJO, Thalia Velho Barreto
et al
December 2016

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The microcephaly epidemic, which started in Brazil in 2015, was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by WHO in 2016. Preliminary results of a case-control study investigating the association between microcephaly and Zika virus infection during pregnancy are reported. A case-control study was carried out in eight public hospitals in Recife, Brazil. Cases were neonates with microcephaly. Two controls (neonates without microcephaly), matched by expected date of delivery and area of residence, were selected for each case.

The Lancet Infectious Diseases,  Vol. 16, No. 12, pp. 1356–1363, Dec 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(16)30318-8

Expanding the circle: monitoring the human rights of indigenous, first nations, aboriginal, Inuit and Métis people with disabilities in Canada

RIOUX Marcia
November 2016

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Expanding the Circle is a project undertaken by Disability Rights Promotion International (DRPI) that focuses on expanding the conversation about what access to human rights looks like for Indigenous, First Nations, Aboriginal, Inuit and Métis people with disabilitiesin Canada. DRPI has engaged indigenous peoples in many of its projects including New Zealand and Bolivia. It is important that the Canadian indigenous experience be added to this search for knowledge where the rights of people have been neglected. Indigenous, First Nations, Aboriginal, Inuit and Métis people experience disproportionately high levels of disability compared to other Canadians. Indigenous, First Nations, Aboriginal, Inuit and Métis people with disabilities historically, and at present, experience exclusion and various forms of discrimination. This discrimination may take place at the level of individual interactions, but people may also experience discrimination at a higher, systemic level, by their needs not properly being addressed in laws, policies and budgets. This project uses an intersectional point of view, to understand the experiences of people with disabilities who are also Indigenous, First Nations, Aboriginal, Inuit and Métis and considers the unique challenges and victories this population experiences in accessing rights. 

 

Expanding the Circle considers the rights outlined in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), in conversation with the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People (UNDRIP). International human rights legislation not only focuses on specific rights, but also highlights five general human rights principles. These key principles: dignity; autonomy; participation, inclusion and accessibility; non-discrimination and equity; and respect for difference were considered in relation to areas of people’s lives: social participation; health; education, work and privacy and family life, information & communications; access to justice; and income security and support services. This report combines two aspects of this project, first-hand experience through interviews, as well as an analysis that is based on a review of laws, policies, programmes and budgets to have a larger context to understand people’s lived experiences.

Visual health screening by schoolteachers in remote communities of Peru : implementation research.

LATORE-ARTEARRGA, Sergio
et al
September 2016

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An assessment was carried out of the adaptation and scaling-up of an intervention to improve the visual health of children by training teachers in screening in the Apurimac region, Peru. In a pilot screening programme in 2009–2010, 26 schoolteachers were trained to detect and refer visual acuity problems in schoolchildren in one district in Apurimac. To scale-up the intervention, lessons learnt from the pilot were used to design strategies for: (i) strengthening multisector partnerships; (ii) promoting the engagement and participation of teachers and (iii) increasing children’s attendance at referral eye clinics. Implementation began in February 2015 in two out of eight provinces of Apurimac, including hard-to-reach communities. An observational study of the processes and outcomes of adapting and scaling-up the intervention was made. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were made of data collected from March 2015 to January 2016 from programme documents, routine reports and structured evaluation questionnaires completed by teachers. Partnerships were expanded after sharing the results of the pilot phase. Training was completed by 355 teachers and directors in both provinces, belonging to 315 schools distributed in 24 districts. Teachers’ appraisal of the training achieved high positive scores. Outreach eye clinics and subsidies for glasses were provided for poorer families. 

 

Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Volume 94, Number 9, September 2016, 633-708

http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.15.163634

Preventing the Zika virus: Understanding and controlling the Aedes mosquito

LOGAN, James
August 2016

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This free online course begins by considering the science behind the outbreak to try to understand where the Zika virus has come from, its symptoms, and its effect on infected individuals. The biology of the Aedes mosquitoes is explored. A range of methods employed to control the Aedes mosquito are highlighted. There is opportunity to exchange thoughts and ideas through course discussion with those on the front line in South America. Subtitles in Spanish and Portuguese are provided.

Assessing fiscal policies from a human rights perspective

Center for Economic and Social Rights
July 2016

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"The study undertaken by the Center for Economic and Social Rights (CESR) and the Instituto Centroamericano de Estudios Fiscales (ICEFI) aimed to contribute to a broader reflection on the role of fiscal policy in complying with a state’s economic, social and cultural rights (ESCR) obligations. Despite being a middle-income country with the largest economy in Central America, Guatemala’s social indicators were alarming; with more than half the population living below the national poverty line and one in seven Guatemalans living in extreme poverty. The persistence of systemic inequality and discrimination could be partially explained by the legacy of almost 40 years of armed conflict, which did not end until the signing of the Peace Accords in 1996. Nevertheless, the stark contrasts between rich and poor suggested that the dismal state of ESC rights could not be attributed to limited state resources, but to the way in which they were distributed, this highlighted the need to hold the state accountable for its efforts to generate and manage resources equitably and in accordance with its human rights obligations.... Methodological case study on the use of available resources to realize economic, social and cultural rights in Guatemala

Who is being left behind in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America? 3 reports from ODI

LYNCH, Alainna
BERLINER, Tom
MAROTTI, Chiara
BHAKTAL Tanvi
RODRIGUEZ TAKEUCHI Laura
et al
February 2016

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The commitment to ‘leave no one behind’ has been a key feature of all the discussions on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Here are three papers setting out the first step to implementing this agenda - the step of identifying marginalised communities. The focus is on two case study countries for each of the three regions, sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the papers identify gaps in achieving a number of outcomes relating to key SDGs targets for marginalised groups. The paper on Asia highlights people with disabilities in Bangladesh.

The Americans with disabilities act at 25 years : lessons to learn from the convention on the rights of people with disabilities

KANTER, Arlene S
2015

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“In this Article, the Author argues that the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the subsequent ADA Amendments Act (ADAAA), have not realized the goal of ensuring equality for people with disabilities. The Author suggests that the Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities

(CRPD), adopted in 2006 by the United Nations, offers a new approach to realizing the right to equality for people with disabilities”

Drake Law Review, Vol. 63

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