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Journal for International Development: Dilemmas and Developments in Disability Inclusive Employment with a focus on low and middle income settings

Institute of Development Studies, Inclusion International and other various authors
August 2022

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This is a special edition of the Journal of International Development focusing on the dilemmas and developments in disability inclusive employment with a focus on low and middle income settings. This collection of papers provides a rich and diverse set of perspectives and insights regarding the current state of play for disability inclusive employment as a global aspiration.

Inclusive Futures: Using social behaviour change to promote disability inclusion in development programmes

Inclusive Futures
Sightsavers
August 2022

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This brief focuses on the use of social behaviour change (SBC) in the Inclusive Futures programme. It includes an introduction to social behaviour change, followed by three examples of how it is being used in our Inclusive Futures work. These examples reflect emerging findings and our approaches as we go forward. The brief is designed to:
•Explain what SBC is and what it can be useful for – particularly when addressing disability stigma and discrimination
•Present examples of how SBC can be used in different ways to support disability inclusion in development programmes

Mainstreaming disability inclusive employment in international development

Mary Wickenden
Philip Mader
Stephen Thompson
Jackie Shaw
July 2022

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People with disabilities are under-represented in the global workforce, and this problem is often particularly acute inthe‘global south’. This is an editorial to a special issue that seeks to provide new perspectives on why this is the case. We deliberately wanted to place this collection in the Journal of International Development as a core development publication, rather than in a disability specific one, because we think it is important to ‘mainstream’ disability within development so that the international community can develop an increased understanding and awareness of disability dilemmas. The challenges faced by disabled people need to be tackled as part of all development thinking and programming.

Assistive Technology in two humanitarian contexts: Bangladesh and Jordan

KETT, Maria
June 2022

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Despite increased focus on the need for assistive technology (AT), along with estimates of need and gaps in provision in humanitarian contexts, very little is actually known about how people who need AT are managing in these contexts. To address this need, this study explored four main questions: 

What do we currently know about the need for AT in humanitarian contexts?
How is this need currently met?
What gaps are there in the evidence about these needs?
What mechanisms are needed to ensure provision of AT in humanitarian contexts? 

It explored these questions through individual interviews with AT users and their families, as well as people working in the sector, in two humanitarian response contexts: Bangladesh and Jordan. In Bangladesh, we partnered with CBM Global and their local partner, the Centre for Disability in Development, and in Jordan, all those interviewed were beneficiaries of HelpAge International.

The questions focused on the areas identified as gaps in the initial literature review, and used qualitative methodologies to probe and gain further insight into gaps across the entire AT ecosystem.

Early detection tools for children with developmental delays and disabilities in the Middle East and North Africa

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
June 2022

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This technical brief was developed to support specialists in countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region to select which early detection tools best fit their needs and context by comparing various tools that have been used in theregion and lessons learned in using and adapting those tools to local contexts.

From disability budget commitments to budget execution in Kenya: Matching disability approved allocations to actual spending and performance

Development Initiatives
May 2022

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This paper builds on previous analyses conducted by DI on disability budgeting. In this paper, we match budget commitments to implementation; first by mapping the extent to which disability-relevant budget implementation information is accessible, then by analysing financial and non-financial performance in Kenya over the financial years 2016/17 to 2020/21. We have analysed disability budget implementation in five counties (Baringo, Bungoma, Busia, Kakamega, and Vihiga) and two national sectors (Education and Social Protection).

Labour Market Assessment: Pakistan 2022

GLOW Consultants
May 2022

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This labour marker assessment has identified how the Pakistan market works and the possible entry points, so that youth with disabilities, are included in the benefits of growth and economic development. Initially the report focuses on analysing the macro-economic indicators and the sectoral contribution to GDP, followed by evaluation of labour market data, in order to identify employment rates and employment propensity of sectors and sub-sectors and to identify sectors with highest absorptive capacity. Priority subsectors were selected on the basis of the employment rate, GDP contribution and government prioritization. Value chain analysis of the selected priority subsectors was conducted to analyse possible entry point for people with disabilities in various stages of the value chain by identifying required skills and education. Subsequently, education stocks and flows were analysed to assess whether the demand of skills was coherent with the supply of skills. Existing systems were reviewed to assess the inclusion of people with disabilities in government initiatives and programmes. Likewise, government-formulated polices and legislation were appraised to understand their contribution in improving lives and safeguarding the rights of people with disabilities, followed by analyses of existing labour market information systems. Shortcomings and limitations in policies were identified, emerging issues were highlighted, and recommendations were provided to improve implementation of existing policies.

Global Report on Assistive Technology

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO)
UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
May 2022

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The WHO-UNICEF Global Report on Assistive Technology (AT) reveals that more than 2.5 billion people need one or more assistive products, such as wheelchairs, hearing aids, or apps that support communication and cognition. Yet nearly one billion of them are denied access, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, where access can be as low as 3% of the need for these life-changing products.

The Global Report provides the best available evidence about the barriers currently preventing access, how access can be improved, and how enabling environments and AT can enable persons with disabilities to enjoy their human rights while generating a tremendous return on investment for governments. The report also makes 10 key recommendations for concrete actions that will improve access to AT, for everyone, that needs them. 

Access to assistive technology for children with disabilities is often the first step for childhood development, access to education, participation in sports and civic life, and getting ready for employment like their peers. Children with disabilities have additional challenges due to their growth, which requires frequent adjustments or replacements of their assistive products.

Global disability financing in the context of Covid-19

Development Initiatives
March 2022

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The main objective of this analysis is to track global financing towards disability in near real time, which is an extension of our work on real-time data on aid before and during Covid-19 and financial tracking on disability investments. The current analysis assesses changes in global disability aid financing in the context of Covid-19 between 2019 and the third quarter (Q3) of 2021. The review uses data from the International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI) and considers full calendar years for 2019 and 2020 and three quarters in the year 2021.

Are persons with disabilities included in the effort to leave no-one behind? Mapping disability data in development in Asia and the Pacific

CBM GLOBAL’S INCLUSION ADVISORY GROUP
February 2022

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In the Asia Pacific region, UNFPA and partners work together to implement the Incheon Strategy to “Make the Right Real” for Persons with Disabilities. The Incheon Strategy is the region’s first set of disability-specific development goals to track progress towards the fulfilment of rights of persons with disabilities.

In the region, it is estimated that there are over 650 million persons with disabilities. However, without accurate, timely and disaggregated data, countries are unable to develop effective policies and programmes, monitor the wellbeing of persons with disabilities and evaluate the equity and impact of development efforts. This endangers country commitments to ‘leave no one behind’ and undermines their obligations to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

This groundbreaking report demonstrates the importance of ensuring data is inclusive and provides recommendations for immediate action in order to improve the collection, analysis and reporting of disability data

Global Disability Summit 2022 - Oslo, Norway

GLOBAL DISABILITY SUMMIT
February 2022

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The International Disability Alliance (IDA), the Government of Norway, and the Government of Ghana hosted the second Global Disability Summit on 16 and 17 February 2022 (GDS22). Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and to ensure inclusive participation at the Summit, the event was held on a digital platform.

The first Global Disability Summit (GDS18), held in 2018 in London, generated an unprecedented level of focus on and commitment to disability-inclusive development. 171 national governments, multilateral agencies, donors, foundations, private sector, and civil society organisations made 968 individual commitments. More than 300 governments and organisations signed the GDS18 Charter for Change, encouraging the focused implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD).

The Global Disability Summit 2022 (GDS22) in was built on the results achieved at the first Summit, to further accelerate much-needed progress towards the fulfillment of the rights of persons with disabilities worldwide.

The Summit led to concrete commitments that brought genuine change for persons with disabilities. GDS22 gathered a total of 1413 commitments on disability inclusion.

People with disabilities want equality through access and participation. To obtain lasting change at the country level, we seek collaboration with States, multilateral organisations, and civil society. We seek action and we seek the voices of persons with disabilities themselves.

Global Disability Youth Summit and a Civil Society Forum. was also held under the auspices of the GDS22.

 

The Chair's summary, recordings of GDS22, commitments made and the program are available.

Global Disability Youth Summit 2022

GLOBAL DISABILITY SUMMIT
February 2022

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IDA, UNICEF, and the Atlas Alliance, represented by Youth Mental Health Norway, co-hosted a Youth Summit on 14 February 2022 to ensure the inclusion of youth in the Global Disability Summit. 

All planning and decision making around the Summit were led by youth with disabilities, including through the design of a novel format to ensure the participation of youth from around the globe, from local to global.

 

The Summit showcased the innovations of organizations led by youth with disabilities. Youth with disabilities at the local, regional and global levels have created groups and activities, both online and offline, fostering a sense of community, even during the COVID-19 period. Through the Summit, the youth focused on topics that they have identified to be particularly important in this regard, such as participation of youth in OPDs and youth mainstream organizations, inclusive education, deinstitutionalization and community inclusion, access to employment, climate change, new technologies, humanitarian action, access to inclusive healthcare including sexual reproductive health and mental health, among others.

 

A working group consisting of co-hosts and selected partners was responsible for developing a Youth Charter for Change - summing up and challenging the commitments

 

Towards a disability-inclusive humanitarian response in South Sudan?

FUNKE, Carolyn
DIJKZEUL, Dennis
February 2022

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The Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Guidelines on the Inclusion of Persons with Disabilities in Humanitarian Action (2019) set out four ‘must do’ actions to identify and respond to the needs and rights of persons with disabilities. This study investigates how humanitarian organizations implement the four ‘must do’ actions in South Sudan. It shows that mainstream and inclusion-focused organizations actively promote their implementation to make disability inclusion an integral part of humanitarian action, investing heavily in capacity-building and awareness-raising at all levels of the response. Nevertheless, serious gaps and challenges to disability inclusion remain. 

Barriers and facilitators to providing assistive technologies to children with disabilities in Afghanistan

WHITAKKER, Golnaz
WOOD, Gavin
February 2022

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Due to the impacts of the ongoing conflict, Afghanistan’s child population is at high risk of being born with or acquiring a primary or secondary disability. According to a recent estimate, up to 17 per cent of Afghanistan’s children live with some form of disability. Assistive technologies (AT) – the systems, services and products that enhance the functioning of people with impairments – are likely to be required by a large proportion of children with disabilities in Afghanistan. Afghanistan has signed and ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), which includes a commitment to provide AT equitably to all who need it. However, little action has been taken to meet this commitment, and there continues to be a vast gap between the need for AT and its provision. This work presents the landscape of AT provision, the barriers and facilitators to provision, and provides recommendations to begin to close the gap. 

Semi-structured interviews were conducted to build on the evidence in the literature, and to understand the factors affecting AT provision in Afghanistan

Social protection for disability in Kenya and Uganda - synthesis report

Development Initiatives
January 2022

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In 2021, Development Initiatives analysed how existing social protection programmes benefit persons with disabilities in Uganda and Kenya and associated challenges. The two country reports synthesised in this report interrogate policy frameworks, existing social protection schemes and institutional setups, and track public investment towards disability-specific and mainstream social protection programmes. 

Accessible Sanitation in the Workplace – Important Considerations for Disability-Inclusive Employment in Nigeria and Bangladesh

Stephen Thompson
Rasak Adekoya
Utpal Mallick
Omojo Adaji
Abdur Rakib
Mark Carew
January 2022

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This paper explores the relationship between accessible sanitation and disability-inclusive employment in Bangladesh and Nigeria. Both countries have sanitation and hygiene challenges as well as disability-inclusive employment challenges, but the existing evidence on the intersection of these issues that is focused on Nigeria and Bangladesh is extremely limited. Building on the literature where this complex issue is addressed, this paper presents the findings of a qualitative pilot study undertaken in Nigeria and Bangladesh. It focuses on the need for toilets at work that are easy for people with disabilities to use in poor countries. These are sometimes called accessible toilets. Accessible sanitation is not regarded as a challenge that must be addressed by people with disabilities themselves, but as a challenge that must be addressed by many people working together – including governments, employers, and the community.

Intersectionality Resource Guide and Toolkit. An intersectional approach to leave no one behind

UN WOMEN
UN PRPD
2022

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The Resource Guide and Toolkit has been developed to help both organizations and individual practitioners and experts to address intersectionality in policies and in programmes. It may be used by individuals or teams to assess their own knowledge, attitudes, and practice, at a programme level as a supplement to existing design, adaptation, and assessment processes or at policy level to better understand and address the different and intersecting effects of policy on marginalised persons.

This Resource Guide and Toolkit emerged from an identified need to use an intersectional approach that included people with disabilities in all their diversity in the development, implementation and evaluation of policies, programmes, advocacy and inter-governmental processes. However, the authors and collaborators realised that an effective intersectionality resource needed to go beyond a focus on specific intersecting identities, such as disability and gender, as this would still exclude those who are most marginalised

Assistive Technology in urban low-income communities in Sierra Leone & Indonesia: Rapid Assistive Technology Assessment (rATA) survey results

CAREW, Mark
WALKER, Julian
OSSUL-VERMEHREN, Ignacia
BARTLETT DEVELOPMENT PLANNING
January 2022

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It is estimated by the World Health Organisation (WHO) that 15% of the world's population has a disability and one billion people need one or more Assistive Products (AP) but as little as one in ten have access to the device they need. There is however very little data to define this need for AP in low-resource settings. 

To contribute to the knowledge gap, the findings from the surveys presented in this report give a unique insight into disability prevalence and access to AT in five urban low-income communities in Sierra Leone and Indonesia, where a total of 4,256 individuals were surveyed using the rATA tool.

The rATA tool is designed for the rapid evaluation of the need, use, supply and impact of AT, Rapid Assistive Technology Assessment (rATA) is a new survey from WHO. A version modified by the Development Planning Unit-University College London (DPUUCL) was conducted in September 2019 for the research project “AT2030 community led solutions”, as part of the AT2030 programme led by Global Disability Innovation Hub.

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