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Women, harm reduction, and HIV

PINKHAM, Sophie
MALINOWSKA-SEMPRUCH, Kasia
September 2007

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This report looks at factors that reduce women drug users’ access to health care including punitive policies, discrimination by police and health care providers, the intense social stigma attached to drug use by women, a preponderance of harm reduction and drug treatment programmes directed primarily toward men, an absence of sexual and reproductive health services for drug users, and poor access to effective outpatient drug treatment. Pregnant drug users are particularly vulnerable. In too many instances, they receive little or no accurate information about drug use during pregnancy or prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. In some countries pregnant drug users are rejected by health care providers, threatened with criminal penalties or loss of parental rights, or coerced into having an abortion or abandoning their newborns to the state. Poor access to medication-assisted treatment jeopardises the pregnancies of opiate-dependent drug users. It includes recommendations for consideration when designing services for women drug users and also examines issues around policies to protect women's health

Report of PLACE assessments in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, Central Asia : 2002 and 2003

ABDULLAEV, Shukharat
et al
July 2004

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This is a report on two PLACE assessments conducted in Tashkent in 2002 and 2003. The aim was to investigate whether there was an overlap in drug use and sexual networks, and to identify the implications for HIV prevention. The findings suggest that there is a significant overlap among youth, drug users and sex workers, and that the rate of new partnership formation remains high, while condom availability has decreased. It suggests that interventions need to focus on the sites where youth and drug users socialise and where sex workers solicit clients

PLACE in Central Asia : a regional strategy to focus AIDS prevention in Almaty and Karaganda, Kazakhstan; Osh, Kyrgyzstan; Tashkent, Uzbekistan. 2002

MEASURE EVALUATION
July 2004

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The PLACE method is designed to expose sexual and injection drug use networks, identify sites where high-risk populations overlap and help focus interventions where they are most needed. This report presents both a baseline assessment of HIV/AIDS risks and an evaluation of condom promotion programmes in four cities in Central Asia. The report shows that sexual and drug use networks are extensive and diffuse. The rate of new partnership formation is also very high, and the use of condoms with new partners is "quite high". Injection drug use is common, and needles are often shared. The report calls for programmes and interventions to concentrate their efforts on sites at high risk, where there is an overlap of high-risk populations (people meeting new partners, youth, injection drug users, sex workers)

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