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Towards inclusive WASH : sharing evidence and experience from the field

July 2012

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"This publication is a record of efforts to achieve equity and inclusion in WASH programming around the world. It includes one keynote paper and 16 case studies from 13 countries. Within its pages there is a clear message that ‘business as usual’ is not sufficient to meet the water and sanitation rights of traditionally excluded or marginalised groups. The case studies are therefore a story of adaptation, of technology, of process and of policy, and innovation to try something new. Many of the case studies are accompanied by supporting materials, including research reports, survey tools and videos. The authors hope these materials will be of use to other practitioners who hope to build on the stories presented in this publication"
Note: full details of each case study are provided on the website

UNICEF toilet solutions for child-friendly schools in Rwanda


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This conference paper presents a design for standard toilet blocks with single, unisex, accessible toilet cubicles for primary schools in Rwanda. The design is based on the Child Friendly School approach implemented by UNICEF Rwanda in partnership with the Ministry of Education. This paper is useful for people interested in primary school infrastructure

Menstrual hygiene : breaking the silence | Beyond construction : use by all|A collection of case studies from sanitation and hygiene promotion practitioners in South Asia

AHMED, Rokeya
YESMIN, Kabita

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This paper provides information about an awareness-builidng programme from WaterAid Bangladesh focusing on the issue of menstrual hygiene. It highlights the incorporation of menstrual awareness and management in sanitation and hygiene programmes. This paper is useful for people interested in menstrual hygiene issues

Girl-friendly toilets for schoolgirls : helping adolescent girls


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This case study details a Plan International project to design ‘girl-friendly’ school toilets, based on consultation with girl students, 10 schools in Ghana. The design includes a room for washing and changing, larger toilet holes to suit girls, a door on the urinal, and provision of water and soap inside the changing room and at the exit to the urinal. Photos and three-dimensional drawings are provided. This case study is useful for people interested in 'girl-friendly' school WASH designs

A project to develop inclusive models of sanitation for persons with disabilities


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This paper outlines the details of a project in India that focused on developing 'Inclusive Models of Sanitation for Persons with Disabilities'. The project was lead by Arushi, a voluntary orgranisation working with persons with disabilities, in collaboration with UNICEF. The paper highlights the project's components and outcomes, including a study to detail the special needs of persons with disabilities which led to the development of a manual on inclusive models of sanitation. This paper is useful for people interested in inclusive sanitation for people with disabilities in India

Screened toilet, bathing and menstruation units for the earthquake response in NWFP, Pakistan

NAWAZ, Jamila
et al

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This paper describes an initiative that put screened toilets, bathing and menstruation units into emergency camps in rural mountain areas in northern Pakistan, following an earthquake in October 2005. Design drawings are provided, and recommendations for improvements are given, based upon the feedback from users of the facilities. This information would be useful for people interested in hygiene units

Equal access for all : water and sanitation access for people with motor disabilities


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This briefing note summarises a study that investigates the experiences and coping mechanisms of people with motor disabilities in accessing water and sanitation (WATSAN) facilities. It highlights experiences of disabled people in WATSAN and the general problems faced by disabled people and their care-givers. Recommendations for designs of facilities are provided based on perspectives of users. This briefing note is useful for people interested in WASTAN issues for people with disabilities


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