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Access to medicines via competition not protectionism and price regulation

OPLAS, Bienvenido Nonoy
February 2010

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This paper is based on a presentation given in the Philippines on the right to health. Several topics were tackled there, from drug prices and price control, to drug availability, patent for new medicines, health insurance, among others. The focus was on the philosophy of 'health as a right' juxtaposed with 'health as personal responsibility'. The paper concludes that rather than favouring one group of pharma companies and demonising another, public policy should focus on expanding the people’s options in choosing the right mixture of medicines and healthcare that are appropriate for them given their existing resources and health needs

The push for local production, costs and benefits - a case study of Uganda’s Quality Chemicals|Africa Fighting Malaria policy paper

TAYLOR, James
et al
September 2009

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This research report considers the challenges faced by a local pharmaceutical firm - Quality Chemicals - in Uganda, which was started up as a 'solution' to reducing the high cost of medicines and improving access to medicines. "...many burdens and barriers to access continue to seriously hinder the success of such enterprises. Indirect government subsidies to exporters selling into African markets, and pressure by donors and lobbyists on innovator producers to offer developing countries subsidised prices, actually undermine the competitiveness and viability of these nascent firms. Furthermore, the focus on drug pricing and local production can actually undermine the overall aim to increase access to medicines"

Malaria treatment in Nigeria : the role of patent medicine vendors

OLADEPO, Oladimeji
et al
March 2009

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"This scoping study provides a quick assessment of the malaria treatment markets and the role played by patent medicine vendors in Nigeria, and offers ways to improve the regulation and provision of anti-malarial drugs. It documented the sources of drugs in the three states and people’s problems in getting access to appropriate treatment for malaria"

Mapping factors that drive drug resistance (with a focus on resource-limited settings) : a first step towards better informed policy

BEITH, Alexandra
July 2008

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This paper characterises the drug resistance problem in developing countries. It presents an overview of the magnitude of resistance to drugs among organisms responsible for high burden diseases and then analyses key drivers of drug resistance by classifying them into three major categories to draw out commonalities in drivers across diseases. The paper also highlights gaps in knowledge about resistance, and priority areas for further research and potential policy dialogue

Research and development for medicines to be driven by needs of low and middle income countries

COUNCIL ON HEALTH RESEARCH FOR DEVELOPMENT (COHRED)
June 2008

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This briefing highlights from health research issues discussed at the World Health Assembly and the conclusions of the Intergovernmental Working Group on Public Health, Innovation and Intellectual Property (IGWG). The IGWG process has important implications and considerations for health research and the role that developing countries can play

Social enterprise as market regulation : non-governmental interventions in essential medicines wholesaling to low income countries

MACKINTOSH, Maureen
2008

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"This paper explores the under-studied role of social enterprise as traders and regulatory actors in the international wholesale markets for essential medicines and their impact on accessibility, quality and prices in these perverse markets, drawing on an interview survey of European-based socially oriented wholesalers supplying the medicines market for sub-Saharan Africa. The paper argues that these enterprises play an important role in regulating price and quality and hence in improving access to medicines by the poor. However they face challenging market and political conditions. The paper analyses the motivations and organisational structures that sustain social and ethical commitment in this market, drawing on theories of social enterprise and non-profit business, and surveys the challenges and constraints. It then examines the formal international and national regulatory interventions in the international markets and their effects on social enterprise, in the context of a substantial institutional divide between the medicines-related campaigning of the large international NGOs and the activities of these market-oriented social enterprises"

Drug resistance as a global health policy priority

NUGENT, Rachel
PICKETT, Jessica
BACK, Emma
January 2008

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This paper offers an introduction to drug resistance from a global policy perspective. Drug resistance is a growing problem worldwide and is of particular concern in developing country settings. It is a major impediment to the successful treatment of HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria - the three diseases prioritised for urgent action in developing countries. It also limits treatment options for serious illnesses such as pneumonia and acute diarrhoea, and for other common infections

Ghana national drug policy

Ministry of Health, Ghana
2004

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This policy includes the following sections: a situational analysis of drug selection; drug procurement, storage and distribution; drug financing; quality assurance; local manufacture of pharmaceutical and traditional medicinal products; rational drug use; global trade and pharmaceuticals; emerging diseases and pharmaceuticals; human resource development for drug management; traditional medicinal products; research and development; and implementation of the policy

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