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Estimation of Zika virus prevalence by appearance of microcephaly

SAAD-ROY, C M
van den DRIESSCHE, P
MA, J L
December 2016

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There currently is a severe Zika Virus (ZIKV) epidemic in Brazil and other South American countries. Due to international travel, this poses severe public health risk of ZIKV importation to other countries. We estimate the prevalence of ZIKV in an import region by the time a microcephaly case is detected, since microcephaly is presently the most significant indication of ZIKV presence. A mathematical model to describe ZIKV spread from a source region to an import region was established. This model incorporates both vector transmission (between humans and mosquitoes) and sexual transmission (from males to females). Account was taken of population structure through a contact network for sexually active individuals. Parameter values of the model are either taken from the literature or estimated from travel data

BMC Infectious Diseases (2016) 16:754 DOI 10.1186/s12879-016-2076-z

Zika: the origin and spread of a mosquito-borne virus

KINDHAUSER, Mary Kay
ALLEN Tomas
FRANK Veronika
SANTHANAA Ravi Shankar
DYE Christopher
September 2016

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The temporal and geographical distribution of Zika virus infection and associated neurological disorders, from 1947 to 1 February 2016, when Zika became a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) are described following an extensive literature search. During this period a total of 74 countries and territories had reported human Zika virus infections. The timeline in this paper charts the discovery of the virus (1947), its isolation from mosquitos (1948), the first human infection (1952), the initial spread of infection from Asia to a Pacific island (2007), the first known instance of sexual transmission (2008), reports of Guillain-Barré syndrome (2014) and microcephaly (2015) linked to Zika infections and the first appearance of Zika in the Americas (from 2015). The paper concludes that the Zika virus infection in humans appears to have changed in character as its geographical range has expanded from equatorial Africa and Asia. The change is from an endemic, mosquito-borne infection causing mild illness to one that can cause large outbreaks linked with neurological sequelae and congenital abnormalities

 

Detecting Guillain-Barré syndrome caused by Zika virus using systems developed for polio surveillance

KANDEL, Nirmal
LAMICHHANE Jaya
TANGERMANN Rudolf
RODIEA Guenael
September 2016

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With increasing evidence of linkages between Guillain-Barré syndrome and Zika virus infection, the importance of enhancing Guillain-Barré syndrome surveillance is highlighted and use of existing surveillance systems like the one for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) used by polio eradication programmes is proposed. A process for using the AFP surveillance system for Zika virus surveillance is outlined. Worldwide distribution maps of  Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are presented and control measures following Zika infection testing are listed.

Preventing the Zika virus: Understanding and controlling the Aedes mosquito

LOGAN, James
August 2016

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This free online course begins by considering the science behind the outbreak to try to understand where the Zika virus has come from, its symptoms, and its effect on infected individuals. The biology of the Aedes mosquitoes is explored. A range of methods employed to control the Aedes mosquito are highlighted. There is opportunity to exchange thoughts and ideas through course discussion with those on the front line in South America. Subtitles in Spanish and Portuguese are provided.

WHO : microcephaly and zika virus infection : questions and answers

COSTELLO, Anthony
February 2016

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Dr Anthony Costello, Director of WHO's Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health, answers some key questions on Microcephaly and Zika virus infection including concerning how a pregnant women would know if her baby is infected, what support would be needed if the child has Microcephaly and what steps can be taken to avoid being infected

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