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Minimum standards for protection, gender and inclusion in emergencies

INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT SOCIETIES (IFRC)
November 2018

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The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) Minimum standards for protection, gender and inclusion in emergencies (2018) is in its second edition. The first pilot version of the IFRC Minimum standard commitments to gender and diversity in emergency programming was published in 2015. The pilot version has been tested globally by Red Cross and Red Crescent staff, volunteers and management in low-, medium- and high-scale disasters and humanitarian crises. This edition is the result of three years of testing, revision and feedback from protection, gender and inclusion (PGI) and sectoral specialists. New chapters, such as cash-based interventions, have been added as well as a stronger focus on sexual and gender-based violence and disability inclusion to align with the commitments of the IFRC and its member National Societies. This edition is accompanied by the IFRC Protection, gender and inclusion in emergencies toolkit (2018–2019).

This guidance presents Red Cross and Red Crescent staff, members and volunteers with a set of minimum standards for protection, gender and inclusion (PGI) in emergencies. It aims to ensure that the emergency programming of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) and National Societies provides dignity, access, participation and safety for all people affected by disasters and crises.

It provides practical guidance on how to mainstream these four principles in all sectors, based on a consideration of gender, age, disability and other diversity factors. This includes limiting people’s exposure to the risks of violence and abuse and ensuring that emergency programmes “do no harm”.

The standards address protection, gender and inclusion concerns by providing practical ways to engage with all members of the community, respond to their differing needs and draw on their capacities in the most non-discriminatory and effective way. This helps to ensure that local perspectives guide assistance delivery. The standards also support incorporation of the seven Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.

Children with disabilities in situations of armed conflict - a discussion paper

THOMAS, Edward
et al
November 2018

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During armed conflict, children with disabilities are caught in a vicious cycle of violence, social polarization, deteriorating services and deepening poverty. Global estimates suggest there are between 93 million and 150 million children with disabilities under the age of 15.Given that disability is often not reported due to stigma there is reason to believe actual prevalence could be much higher. Although efforts to ensure the fulfilment of their rights have improved, girls and boys with disabilities continue to remain among the most marginalized and excluded segment of the population. This is amplified during situations of armed conflict. The barriers to full participation they face on a day-to-day basis are intensified and compounded when infrastructure is destroyed, and services and systems are compromised and made inaccessible. This results in the further exclusion and marginalization of children with disabilities, and prevents them from accessing schooling, health and psychosocial support, or a means of escape from conflict.

 

When systems and services break down, children are also left more susceptible to violence. Injuries sustained by many children during armed conflict may also lead to long-term impairments. There are six grave violations of children’s rights and protection in armed conflict that are on the agenda of the United Nations (UN) Security Council; killing and maiming, recruitment and use of children, rape or other sexual violence, abduction, attacks on schools or hospitals, and denial of humanitarian access. Governments around the world have committed themselves to respect, promote, and fulfil the rights of children with disabilities, including in situations of armed conflict, and progress is being made. Efforts by a broad range of actors to implement the CRPD, CRC and other human rights instruments include the development of standards to address the rights and needs of persons with disabilities in humanitarian crises, and guidance on making humanitarian response, development and peacebuilding more inclusive. Efforts to improve the collection and use of data concerning children and adults with disabilities are also underway. Yet, as this discussion paper makes clear, much more needs to be done. Investments in disability-inclusive humanitarian action and recovery from crises will pay off, contributing towards a dividend of peace built on greater equality, tolerance and justice. 

Scaling up inclusive approaches for marginalised and vulnerable people. K4D emerging issues report

CARTER, Becky
JOSHI, Anu
REMME, Michelle
July 2018

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This rapid review summarises the evidence on how to scale up inclusive approaches to complex social change. It looks at how to design scalable inclusive change interventions, as well as how to plan and manage the scale-up process. Focusing on interventions with the aim of reaching the most marginalised and transform social norms, it covers programmes aiming to deliver inclusive outcomes for women and girls (with a particular focus on preventing violence against women and girls) and persons with disabilities. To date, many interventions seeking to change harmful gender and disability norms have been implemented as small-scale projects. There are limited experiences of scale-up and fewer evaluations of these experiences. However, there are some documented case studies as well as emerging analysis that draw out lessons learned. From this evidence base, this rapid desk review identifies eight critical issues commonly highlighted as important considerations when scaling up inclusive change interventions:

1. Opportunities for systemic approach, including integrating political and community-level scale-up, and coordinating across multiple sectors and stakeholders

2. Political support for scale-up

3. Strategic choices: balancing reach, speed, cost, quality, equity, and sustainability

4. Catalysing change: tipping points, diffusion effects, and local champions

5. Locally grounded, participatory, and adaptive approaches

6. Long-term approaches with funding models to match

7. Cost-effective and financially feasible scale-up strategies

8. Measuring impact and sustainability.

 

Scale-up pathways are discussed including: horizontal, vertical, functional and organisational.

A number of case studies are given.

Guidance on disability inclusion for GBV (gender based violence) partners in Lebanon: outreach, safe identification, and referral of women, children and youth with disabilities

WOMEN'S REFUGEE COMMISSION
UNICEF LEBANON
February 2018

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This guidance, and the associated toolkit, are designed to support frontline workers, community volunteers, and mobilizers and their supervisors who are working in GBV prevention and response to foster inclusion of persons with disabilities in their community activities. It includes guidance, key actions and tools to improve accessibility of existing community processes and activities relating to GBV. This resource has been developed based on the findings of a needs assessment conducted in 2017 which confirmed that women, children and youth with disabilities in Lebanon and their caregivers are facing a range of GBV-related risks.

Defying the barriers

KHONDKAR, Laila
HAQUE, Reazul Md
January 2018

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Research summaries, case studies and process documentation from “Inclusive Protection and Empowerment Project for Children with Disabilities (IPEP)” are presented.  The aim of the project was to build resilience and capacity among children with disabilities and to create a violence-free community for them. The project ran in five districts of Bangladesh i.e. Sylhet, Dhaka, Barishal, Rangpur and Gaibandha from 2014- 2017. 

 

The research topics were:

  • Understanding the Vulnerabilities of Children with Disabilities Living in both Government-run and Private Residential Institutions
  • The Vulnerabilities of Children with Disabilities from Low-income Households
  • Social Protection Schemes Relevant to Children with Disabilities and their Families 

 

Women and girls with disabilities. Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. General comment No. 3 (2016). Article 6.

OFFICE OF THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONERS FOR HUMAN RIGHTS (OHCHR)
September 2016

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"International and national laws and policies on disability have historically neglected aspects related to women and girls with disabilities. In turn, laws and policies addressing women have traditionally ignored disability". "Article 6 serves as an interpretation tool to approach the responsibilities of States parties across the Convention, to promote, protect and fulfil the human rights of women and girls with disabilities, from a human rights-based approach and a development perspective". These general comments take the form of an introduction, normative content, states parties’ obligations, the interrelationship of article 6 with other articles of the Convention (perspectives of women with disabilities in CRPD provisions) and national implementation

Challenges to principled humanitarian action: Perspectives from four countries.

NORWEGIAN REFUGEE COUNCIL
Handicap International
July 2016

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The purpose of this paper is to contribute to an increased understanding of the perceived and actual challenges humanitarians face in operational contexts as they apply the principles of humanity, impartiality, neutrality and independence. A snapshot is provided of four case studies; Colombia, Nepal, northern Syria and South Sudan. Through a combination of field research, headquarters interviews, desk research, and a webinar, views and observations are presented from the humanitarian community. These observations provide a glimpse into the challenges faced by principled humanitarians. As a result the paper puts forward seven recommendations intended to assist humanitarians and states to sharpen tools and strengthen approaches when implementing principled humanitarian protection and assistance. An addendum to this study provides perspectives from selected members of the donor community. This research was conducted through interviews with state representatives in Geneva, aiming to understand how donors perceive their responsibilities in upholding the humanitarian principles and the Good Humanitarian Donorship Principles. This final chapter highlights challenges faced by states while supporting principled humanitarian action, particularly in conflict zones. On the basis of this research, additional recommendations for both states and humanitarians are proposed to strengthen the adherence to the humanitarian principles

Living in fear: experiences of hate crime and discrimination amongst people with learning disabilities and autism

BRADSHAW, Jill
RICHARDSON, Lisa
May 2016

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The views and experiences of people with learning disabilities and autism living within one UK unitary authority (Medway, Kent) were explored.  Aspects investigated were: how many people victimisation affects; who is affected by victimisation; what type of things happen to them; and the impact of victimisation on their quality of life.  The focus groups were: 7 groups with people with intellectual disability and autism (31 people); 4 groups with family and paid carers (33 people).  A survey was completed by: people with intellectual disabilities and autism (220 surveys) and family or paid carers (35 surveys).  27 individual interviews were carried out. 

Gender and disability : a way forward to overcoming multiple discrimination

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL
2015

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This advocacy briefing paper presents key information about the inclusion of disability in gender policies and programs. It highlights key facts and issues such as women and girls with disabilities facing multiple discrimination, gaps in political and program responses and legal policy and frameworks. It outlines practical steps can be taken by development actors at different levels and suggests ways to measure progress

 

Advocacy briefing paper

Changing attitudes to child disability in Africa

THE LANCET
December 2014

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This brief editorial published in the Lancet highlights the situation of disabled children in Africa with reference to the 2014 publication of The African Report on Children with Disabilities by The African Child Policy Forum

 

The Lancet, Vol 384, No. 9959

HRW says disabled children in Russia face violence, isolation, neglect

PODELCO, Grant
September 2014

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This article reports on the Human Rights Watch (HRW) report which documents how children with disabilities in Russian orphanages face abuse, neglect and isolation.  The report found that nearly 30 percent of all Russian children with disabilities are removed from their parents and live in state orphanages, where they face neglect and sometimes violence. The report recommendations push for the government and other actors to protect children in institutions from abuse and neglect, better support families raising children with disabilities, and move toward ending institutionalisation of children with disabilities. This article presents seven photo slides, a case study, the key findings and recommendations of the report, an interview with the author and a link to the related HRW video

Abandoned by the state : violence, neglect, and isolation for children with disabilities in Russian orphanages

MAZZARINO, Andrea
September 2014

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This report presents the situation of violence, neglect, and isolation for children with disabilities in Russian orphanages.  The report is based on visits by Human Rights Watch researchers to 10 orphanages in 6 regions of Russia, as well as on more than 200 interviews with parents, children, and young people currently and formerly living in institutions in these regions in addition to 2 other regions of Russia. It finds that many children and young people with disabilities who have lived in state orphanages suffered serious abuse and neglect on the part of institution staff that impedes their development. The report presents the background of the current situation and its detailed findings. and makes recommendations to key Russian stakeholders to ensure protection of the rights of children with disabilities in Russia and to comply with its international human rights obligations

Note: Easy read version is available from the web link

Governance, rule of law and peace and security

CHRISTOFFEL BLINDENMISSION (CBM)
2014

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This policy brief, prepared for the Open Working Group session on sustainable development, sets out key recommendations and key issues for inclusive governance, rule of law and peace and security for empowering persons with disabilities.  When implementing development initiatives, it advocates that countries ensure inclusive governance and growth i.e. greater inclusion of persons with disabilities in political, social and economic needs, and the systematic inclusion of disability across all aspects of peace building and conflict management

Post-2015 sustainable development goals Policy Brief

Project : access to support services and protection for disabled women who have experienced violence : results and recommendations

SHAH, Sonali
BALDERSTON, Susie
WOODIN, Sarah
2014

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This brochure provides important information and guidance for service providers and policy makers to ensure disabled/Deaf women who are affected by violence can access appropriate support and protection when needed. The brochure includes recommendations for women’s support services, disabled people’s organisations and policy makers, based on a comparative project. It also lists contact information of various women’s, disability, and women’s disability groups in the UK

Applied research on disability in Africa : general mapping

INTERNATIONAL FOUNDATION OF APPLIED DISABILITY RESEARCH (FIRAH)
2014

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“The goal of this literary review is to report on existing knowledge about applied research on the African continent, regarding the living conditions of people with disabilities, poverty, violence and sexual abuse especially regarding children and women with disabilities, community-based rehabilitation and employment”

Refugees with disabilities : increasing inclusion, building community : a discussion tool on improving access and inclusion for displaced persons with disabilities

WOMEN’S REFUGEE COMMISSION
2014

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This presentation is a “tool for raising awareness among community workers, volunteers and displaced people about increasing access and inclusion for persons with disabilities in refugee and displacement contexts. It can be used by staff of organisations working with refugees and displaced persons, as well as community leaders and disability associations conducting sensitisation with the wider refugee community. The tool illustrates common barriers experienced by persons with disabilities in displacement contexts, as well as positive practices or approaches to promote inclusion. Suggested questions provide a guide for facilitators of the discussion, but should be adapted according to the context and audience. The tool is intended to facilitate conversation about concerns and ideas for change at field levels, but is not a comprehensive catalogue of either barriers or solutions in these contexts”

Evolution of victim assistance within Handicap International

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL
April 2013

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"This Viewpoints piece describes the development and elaboration of victim assistance within HI. It highlights, in particular, the interplay between programming, research, and policy development. Drawing on examples from South Sudan and Libya, the reflection also describes how HI has integrated its approach by incorporating survivors of gun violence into existing victim assistance and disability projects, and increasingly focuses on injury prevention"
Viewpoint Series, No 2

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