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Health information technology in primary health care in developing countries : a literature review

TOMASI, E
FACCHINI, L A
MAIA MDE, F
November 2004

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This study explores the debate and initiatives concerning the use of information technology (IT) in primary health care in developing countries. The literature from 1992-2002 was identified from searches of the MEDLINE, Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Literature Database (LILACS), Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases. For the analysis of advantages, problems and perspectives of IT applications and systems, 52 articles were selected according to their potential contribution to the primary health care processes in non-developed countries. countries. These included: 10 on electronic patient registries (EPR), 22 on process and programmatic action evaluation and management systems (PPAEM) and 20 on clinical decision-support systems (CDS). The main advantages, limitations and perspectives are discussed

PLACE in Central Asia : a regional strategy to focus AIDS prevention in Almaty and Karaganda, Kazakhstan; Osh, Kyrgyzstan; Tashkent, Uzbekistan. 2002

MEASURE EVALUATION
July 2004

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The PLACE method is designed to expose sexual and injection drug use networks, identify sites where high-risk populations overlap and help focus interventions where they are most needed. This report presents both a baseline assessment of HIV/AIDS risks and an evaluation of condom promotion programmes in four cities in Central Asia. The report shows that sexual and drug use networks are extensive and diffuse. The rate of new partnership formation is also very high, and the use of condoms with new partners is "quite high". Injection drug use is common, and needles are often shared. The report calls for programmes and interventions to concentrate their efforts on sites at high risk, where there is an overlap of high-risk populations (people meeting new partners, youth, injection drug users, sex workers)

Annual report year 4 (FY 2003) submitted to USAID, Bureau for Africa, Office of Sustainable Development

SUPPORT FOR ANALYSIS AND RESEARCH IN AFRICA (SARA)
March 2004

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This is a report on SARA's activities in support of USAID, Bureau for Africa, Office of Sustainable Development. The Overview briefly describes the year's key activities and indicates future directions. Section III deals with the expanding collaboration with African institutions and with issues of dissemination and advocacy. Section IV details the work done by SARA in a wide range of areas, from child survival to infectious diseases, nutrition, reproductive and maternal health, HIV/AIDS prevention

TB/HIV : a clinical manual

HARRIS, Anthony D
MAHER, Dermot
2004

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Developments since 1996, particularly in the TB/HIV field, have prompted a second edition of this popular manual which provides a pocket-sized guide to the clinical management of TB, particularly in patients suffering from co-infection with HIV. Designed for use by busy clinicians, the manual aims to promote the best possible diagnosis and treatment in low-income countries where the prevalence of TB and HIV infection is high, case loads are heavy, and laboratory support may be limited. With these needs in mind, the manual combines the latest scientific knowledge about TB and HIV with authoritative advice based on extensive field experience in several of the hardest hit countries. Throughout the manual, tables, flow charts, lists of do's and don'ts, questions and answers, and numerous practical tips are used to facilitate quick reference and correct decisions. Information ranges from advice on how to distinguish TB from other HIV-related pulmonary diseases to the simple reminder that in sub-Saharan Africa, anyone with TB is in a high risk group for HIV. Though primarily addressed to clinicians working at district hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa, the manual is also suitable for use in areas of Asia and South America where the problem of TB and HIV co-infection poses a growing clinical challenge

Getting research into practice

HEALTH INFORMATION FORUM (HIF)
2004

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Lessons from medical research may take years to get through to the frontline of healthcare. This is exacerbated in developing countries where there are difficulties in dissemination and barriers that prevent healthcare providers acting on new findings. Furthermore, most biomedical research is in high-income countries, and the results are not necessarily applicable in low-income countries. This meeting explored these issues through three short presentations (on dynamics and barriers, systematic reviews and recent changes in healthcare information and emerging challenges) followed by small-group and plenary discussion

World youth report 2003 : the global situation of young people

UNITED NATIONS. Department for Economic and Social Affairs
Ed
2004

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Overall, young people today are better off than previous generations, but many are still severely hindered by a lack of education, poverty, health risks, unemployment and the impact of conflict. The World Youth Report 2003 provides an overview of the global situation of young people. The first ten chapters focus on the priority areas of education, employment, extreme poverty, health issues, the environment, drugs, delinquency, leisure time, the situation of girls and young women, and youth participation in decision-making as identified by the World Programme of Action for Youth (WPAY) adopted by the General Assembly in 1995. The remaining five chapters address some of the newer issues that were later identified as additional priorities for youth and were adopted by the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) in 2003

World health report 2004 : changing history

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2004

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This report argues that a comprehensive HIV/AIDS strategy linking prevention, treatment, care and support for people living with the virus could save the lives of millions of people in poor and middle-income countries. At present, almost six million people in developing countries need treatment, but only about 400 000 of them received it in 2003. The World Health Report 2004 argues that a treatment gap of such dimensions is indefensible and that narrowing it is both an ethical obligation and a public health necessity. In September 2003 WHO, UNAIDS and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and their partners launched an effort to provide three million people in developing countries with antiretroviral therapy (ART) by end 2005 - the 3 by 5 initiative. This World Health Report shows how a partnership linking international organizations, national governments, the private sector and communities is working simultaneously to expand access to HIV/AIDS treatment, reinforce HIV prevention and strengthen health systems in some of the countries where they are currently weakest

The 10/90 report on health research 2003-2004

GLOBAL FORUM FOR HEALTH RESEARCH
2004

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This report, the fourth since Global Forum for Health Research formed in 1998, covers progress in helping correct the 10/90 gap (that only ten per cent of health research funds are spent on 90 per cent of the world's problems) over the past two years. It focusses on health and health research as sound economic investments; priority setting in health research; progress in measuring the 10/90 gap; research capacity strengthening; information networks in health research; gender; the MDGs and health research; and networks in the priority research areas

Serious childhood problems in countries with limited resources

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO). Department of Child and Adolescent Health
2004

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This book is aimed at medical, nursing and other health-care students, and presents a summary of the technical background and the evidence-base underlying the clinical guidelines presented in the companion manual "Management of the Child with a Serious Infection or Severe Malnutrition: Guidelines for Care at the First-Referral Level in Developing Countries" (WHO/FCH/CAH/00.1, ISBN 92 4 154531 3), which should be consulted for treatment recommendations. The book should also be useful for teachers of undergraduates in paediatrics and child health, and for workers in child health as part of their initial training or continuing professional development. It focuses on the major causes of childhood mortality dealing with disease definition, burden of disease, aetiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, and management. In addition, it summarizes the evidence linking these factors to a good/poor outcome and the evidence that intervention can control the factor and/or improve the outcome. This book will be a useful companion study guide to complement undergraduate education in paediatrics in medical and nursing schools

The world medicines situation

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2004

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The publication provides an accessible source of information on the pharmaceutical situation at global and national levels. It assembles the available evidence regarding the production and consumption of medicines, and a range of issues in national medicines policies, including the level of people's access, patterns of use, the challenges of medicines regulation and promoting rational use. Numerous different sources of data are used. A 32-page annex of statistics is included. The target readers are researchers, academics and analysts concerned with medicines and public health

World report on knowledge for better health : strengthening health systems

WORLD HEATLH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2004

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The objective of this report is to describe strategies to reduce global disparities in health through improvements in health research systems at national and international levels and systematic application of evidence-based knowledge. It takes stock of the current state of health research around the world and reaches the following conclusions: increased investments are needed for a new, innovative approach to research on health systems; health research must be managed more effectively if it is to contribute to strengthening health systems and building public confidence in science; stronger emphasis should be placed on translating knowledge into action to improve health by bridging the gap between what is known and what is actually being done. The report provides a compass to reorient health research so that it may respond more effectively to public health challenges on a national and global level. This reorientation requires a strengthening of the health research sector, an environment that is more conducive to research-informed policy and practice, and more focus on key priorities for research to improve health systems. While building on past achievements, the report's recommendations highlight aspects of the health research sector that, if managed more closely, could reap even more benefits for public health in future

An information system and medical record to support HIV treatment in rural Haiti

FRASER, H S
et al
2004

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Recent studies have shown the feasibility of treating HIV/AIDS in developing countries. Lack of infrastructure, including information and communication systems, is considered a barrier to successful HIV treatment programmes. Internet based information systems offer a way to provide communication infrastructure in remote, resource-poor areas such as rural Haiti. A web based medical record system can be effectively used to track clinical outcomes, laboratory tests and drug supplies, and create reports for funding agencies. Development and evaluation of practical, low cost clinical information systems should be a priority in rolling out HIV treatment in developing countries

Health policy and systems research agendas in developing countries

GONZALEZ-BLOCK, M A
2004

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This paper offers a conceptual framework and defines the health policy and systems research (HPSR) portfolio as a set of research projects under implementation. The main objective is to identify the themes currently being pursued in the research portfolio and agendas within developing countries and to quantify their frequency in an effort to identify current research topics and their underlying influences. The framework proposed offers a basis to identify and contrast research needs, projects and products at the international level and to identify the actor agendas and their influence. Research gaps are suggested when comparing topic ranking against the challenges to health system strengthening and scaling up of disease control programmes. Differences across per capita income groups suggests the need for differentiated priority setting mechanisms guiding international support. Data suggests that stakeholders have different agendas, and that donors predominate in determining the research portfolio. High-level consensus building at the national and international levels is necessary to ensure that the diverse agendas play a complementary role in support of health system objectives

Tecnologías de la información y comunicaciones

MONTEAGUDO Peña, José Luis
2004

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Information and communication technologies are essential to support professional research activities in biomedicine and health. Their adoption and use is linked to efficiency and competitiveness. After needs analysis, ICTs applications whose use is recommended, are identified. Needs refer to activities linked to the execution of research projects but also to teaching, continuous training and professional development. Based on that, it is proposed a formative programme structure with different competence levels and with a combination of horizontal common general skills and vertical specialization areas. Finally, it is highlighted that new technologies facilitate new instruments but also they represent new working cultures and present new ethical and legal dilemmas to the researchers that would need to be educated in new working environments

The 10/90 report on health research 2003-2004

GLOBAL FORUM FOR HEALTH RESEARCH
2004

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This site contains up-to-date information on progress in helping correct the 10/90 gap in health research. It includes reports from 1999, 2000, 2001/2002 and 2003/2004. The most recent, the fourth since Global Forum for Health Research formed in 1998, covers progress in helping correct the 10/90 gap (that only ten per cent of health research funds are spent on 90 per cent of the world's problems) over the past two years. It focusses on health and health research as sound economic investments; priority setting in health research; progress in measuring the 10/90 gap; research capacity strengthening; information networks in health research; gender; the MDGs and health research; and networks in the priority research areas

Tecnologías y Sistemas de Información al servicio de la salud|[Technologies and systems of information in health]

ARELLANO Rodríguez, Madelein
GAMBOA Cáceres, Teresa
2004

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The purpose of this article is to discuss the potential of the technologies of information in health and to characterise in a preliminary way the subsystems of information in health according to the nature of the information. Although the investigation is fundamentally bibliographical conceptual, it is based on an empirical study of the systems of information in two Venezuelan regions with local governments of different political orientation. Concludes that responsive systems of information in health should contain information coming from different sources: epidemiological, clinical, nutritional, sociodemographic, environmental and occupational, scientific-technique and administrative, and merit as much attention in health as administration of resources. Therefore, coordinated action of ministries of health is required with different institutions

International efforts in implementing national health information infrastructure and electronic health records

MCCONNELL, H
2004

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This study looks at some of the national initiatives for developing an information infrastructure for healthcare as well as some of the challenges presented by these very different approaches around the world. It also reviews briefly the many organisations looking at international standards relating to eHealth and to implementation of electronic health records

Electronic immunisation registry and tracking system in Bangladesh

AHMED, M
2004

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This report summarises the 2001 development of a new computerised information system to register, schedule and track the immunisation of children, which was introduced by the Department of Public Health in Rajshahi City Corporation, Bangladesh. While no direct funding was provided for it, the assumed cost was not more than US $5000. The author concludes that system has been working well for the past three years. He also notes that the utilisation of ICTs in poor countries should be targeted at those intermediaries (such as health workers) who play a key role in the lives of the poor through high-contact service delivery. Empowering those workers and helping improve the effectiveness of their service delivery will do more for the poor than any number of e-government portals

The effectiveness of web-based vs non-web-based interventions : a meta-analysis of behavioural change outcomes

WANTLAND, D J
et al
2004

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The use of the Internet to deliver web-based interventions to patients is increasing rapidly. The use and effectiveness of web-based interventions to encourage an individual's change in behaviour compared to non-web-based interventions have not been substantially reviewed; hence this meta-analysis was undertaken. This article presents a systematic review of web-based therapies intended to encourage an individual's behaviour change. Sixteen of seventeen included studies revealed the outcomes of improved knowledge and/or improved behavioural outcomes for participants using web-based interventions. Outcomes included increased exercise time, knowledge of nutritional status, slower health decline

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