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Problem Behaviour and Academic Grade Level Performance of Adjudicated Children with Juvenile Delinquency

VENKATESAN, S
SWARNALATHA, G
2013

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Purpose: This paper attempted to profile the contemporary grade level academic performance as well as the frequency, spread and intensity of problem behaviour in relation to a few associated variables, of children adjudged as juvenile delinquents in India.

 

Method: A cross-sectional exploratory survey design was employed, with randomised convenience sampling of 66 inmates, between 9 and 18 years of age, from two representative Observation Homes. To ascertain their current grade levels, a criterion referenced ‘Grade Level Assessment Protocol’ was prepared exclusively for this study. Another standardised ‘Behaviour Assessment Scale for Indian Children with Mental Retardation, Part B’ was used to profile their problem behaviour.

 

Results: The contemporary academic performance results satisfy the conventional two-grade discrepancy criteria, usually postulated for identifying children with learning disabilities. Among the associated variables examined in this study, inmates who were booked under sections of the Indian Penal Code showed significantly greater academic grade discrepancy compared to the other children. Similarly, poorer academic performance, greater grade discrepancy, as well as higher frequency, spread and intensity of reported problem behaviour were found among children from intact family backgrounds, where parents were illiterates or educated below primary school level, and more among boys than girls, and among those in the 10-12 year age group.

 

Conclusions: While these are tentative findings, they call attention to the need for extensive research on the possible links between academic performance, under achievement and learning disabilities, and juvenile delinquency in this country.

A million voices : the world we want|A sustainable future with dignity for all

UNDG MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS TASK FORCE
2013

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"This report by the United Nations Development Group (UNDG) collects the perspectives on the 'world we want' from over 1 million people around the globe. For almost one year, people have engaged energetically in 88 national consultations, 11 thematic dialogues, and through the MY World global survey...The findings of this global conversation contain important messages for governments as they seek to agree on a new development agenda that can build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)"

Impact of community-based rehabilitation on persons with different disabilities

DEEPAK, Sunil
BIGGERI, Mario
MAURO, Vincenzo
KUMAR, Jayanth
GRIFFO, Giampiero
2013

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There are some barriers that persons with different kinds of impairments commonly face, and there are also some impairment-specific barriers. Disaggregated data are needed to assess the impact of different CBR activities on different groups of persons with disabilities.

 

Purpose: This article assesses the impact of CBR on key variables linked to the five domains of the CBR Matrix, on 4 groups of persons with disabilities - visual, hearing and speech, physical and intellectual disabilities.

 

Method: A questionnaire survey was carried out involving 2,332 persons with disabilities, in a random stratified sample of villages covered by a CBR programme, in 9 sub-districts of Karnataka state (India) and in a control area. Data were collected pertaining to different activities in the lives of persons with disabilities. Through a participatory approach involving CBR workers and DPO representatives, some key indicators were identified to assess the impact of CBR on the five domains of the CBR Matrix - health, education, livelihood, social participation and empowerment.

 

Results: Among all the 4 groups of persons with disabilities, the CBR programme was found to have had a positive impact across all the five domains of the CBR Matrix. However, there was no uniform impact on different variables among the 4 groups; different groups of persons with disabilities benefited differently from different activities. Persons with physical disabilities seemed to benefit in more areas compared to persons in the other groups.

 

Conclusions: CBR programmes can have a positive impact on persons with visual, hearing and speech, physical and intellectual disabilities. Disaggregated data can help CBR programmes to identify groups of persons who benefit less from specific activities and adopt strategies to improve their participation.

 

 

Disability, CBR and Inclusive Development, Vol. 24, No. 4

Community volunteers : an asset for detecting and following up children with disabilities

INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR EVIDENCE ON DISABILITY (ICED)
December 2012

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This video presents a  recording of a seminar held at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) in November 2012.  The seminar explores the findings and recommendations from a four year CBM-funded project in Bangladesh and Pakistan to identify children with disabilities and connect them with appropriate rehabilitative services

Inclusion of Children with Hearing Impairment in Schools: A Survey on Teachers’ Attitudes

PRAKASH, S S
2012

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Purpose: Inclusion of children with disabilities in mainstream classrooms has become the focus of extensive research in education. It has both academic and social benefits for all students, such as providing opportunities for communication and social interaction. The evaluation of teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion appears to be a good method to determine the success of the programme. Although this has been widely researched in many countries, the available evidence is not consistent. This study was undertaken in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India, to measure and compare teachers’ attitudes towards the inclusion of children with hearing impairment in schools.

 

Method: A questionnaire developed by Giles and Tanner (1995) measuring three domains - (1) effective strategies for meeting the needs of all students, (2) the support for educational change in their district, and (3) inclusive education - was modified in keeping with cultural and geographical variations and used as the test tool. A hundred teachers of various Government and non-Government schools in 2 districts of Andhra Pradesh, India, participated in the study.

 

Results: Higher scores on domain 1 indicate that teachers feel effective strategies to benefit students with disabilities should be implemented in schools. The results also indicate that most teachers are agreeable to the inclusion of students with disabilities in their classrooms. Significant difference in attitudes was observed, based on the teachers’ qualifications, teaching experience, gender, level of teaching and management.

 

Conclusion: The study concludes that there is a need for intervention to foster more positive attitudes among teachers, if the implementation of inclusive education is to succeed. It also has implications for the framing of laws and policies for children with hearing impairments.

Zero project report 2013

FEMBEK, Michael
et al
November 2012

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This report provides details on the implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with disabilities with the aim to improve lives of people with disabilities and their legal rights. Details of research, statistics from surveys done in 55 participating countries, social indicators, employment indicators, innovative practices and innovative policies are presented to measure improvement of access to transport, career development, education, equal opportunity and human rights for people with disabilities

Zero project report 2012 summary

ESSL FOUNDATION
November 2012

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The easy read summary of the 2012 Zero Project report presents information about the progress of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. This summary provides examples of good practice and laws survey results from 35 countries, 2 states in the US and 9 provinces in Austria

Inequalities relating to health and the life course : disability, mental Illness and older age

SAMMAN, Emma
RODRIGUEZ-TACKEUCHI, Laura
November 2012

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"Issues related to early childhood feature prominently in the MDG framework (as do malnutrition, HIV status and malaria), and data collection in these areas is fairly advanced. Other sources of inequality are notable by their virtual absence - among these, older age, disability and mental illness, although these issues each appear to affect sizeable numbers of particularly vulnerable people throughout the world. A clear obstacle to ‘mainstreaming’ these sources of inequality in a new post-2015 agreement is the widespread lack of nationally representative internationally comparable data. This could arise from definitional or technical issues (what to measure and/or how), operational issues (e.g., resource or capacity constraints), attitudinal issues (relating to stigma) and/or lack of demand from data users. Greater attention is needed to explore these constraints and how they might be overcome. To this end, this paper discusses currently available data and its limitations, constraints to better data collection and efforts needed to adjust key international survey instruments- the World Bank’s Core Welfare Indicator Questionnaire (CWIQ) and Living Standards and Measurement Survey (LSMS), Macro International’s Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) and the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) - to collect reliable data on these sources of inequality, alongside other household indicators"
Note: Accepted under the "Addressing Inequalities" Global Thematic Consultation - Call for Proposals for Background Papers, Oct 2012

Mapping exclusion

KOZMA, Agnes
PETRI, Gabor
November 2012

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This is a comprehensive report on the state of deinstitutionalization from institution-based services towards community-based services in the mental health field in Europe. The report consists of a comparative analysis of trends and policy changes in Europe based on a survey, and 32 country reports are presented in the annex covering issues crucial in the context of community care, such as data about institutional and community-based services, national mental health and deinstitutionalization strategies, information on guardianship and involuntary admission policies
Note: The report is in English, summaries are available in Dutch, French, Hungarian, Polish, Spanish, Romanian and Swedish

Disability at a glance 2012 : strengthening the evidence base in Asia and the Pacific

UN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMISSION FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC (ESCAP), Social Development Division
October 2012

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This report series aims to provide a regional overview of disability policies and practices, as well as relevant country data and information. This fourth edition highlights the complexity of interpreting disability data and stresses the urgent need to work towards a greater common understanding of disability, related data and data collection practices. The report consists of an introduction, two analytical chapters and subregional and country snapshots. The progress in data collection efforts is reflected in the number of country snapshots included in the current edition (52 countries and areas). The data are drawn from national Government sources, based on bilateral communication between national disability focal points and ESCAP, as well as the 2011 ESCAP Disability Survey. This report is useful for policymakers, statisticians and representatives of organizations of, and for, persons with disabilities in Asia and the Pacific
ST/ESCAP/2642

A Comparative Analysis of Institutional Capacities for Implementing Disability Policies in East African Countries: Functions of National Councils for Disability

YOKOYAMA, A
2012

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During the “African Decade of Persons with Disabilities (2000-2009)”, East African countries witnessed significant achievements, especially in the development of law, collection of statistics and in funding. However, many persons with disability are still marginalised from opportunities in education, healthcare and employment.

 

Purpose: With the pre-supposition that the lack of institutional capacities for implementing disability policies is the one major stumbling-block which hinders widespread delivery of social services to persons with disabilities in low-income countries, this study makes a comparative analysis of institutional capacities in the disability sectors of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania.

 

Method: The research methods adopted were a literature survey and a field survey. The framework for analysis consists of: 1) capacities and functions of disability units in central governments, 2) relationships between central and local governments in the disability sector, and 3) relationships between governments and organisations of persons with disability (DPOs). Special attention is paid to the status, roles and functions of national councils for disability (NCDs), the independent statutory bodies recently established in each of the three countries, with clear authority and duties for the implementation of disability policies. The NCDs enable multi-sectoral stakeholders to be involved in the implementation of disability policies; therefore, positive relationships between the governments and DPOs are essential for the smooth functioning of the NCDs.

 

Results: While the result of the field survey in Tanzania reveals several effective approaches for the smooth operation of the NCD, further study is needed to verify whether these approaches would be applicable to other East African countries such as Kenya and Uganda.

Shoulder Pain among Rehabilitated Spinal Cord Injured Persons Using Manually Propelled Wheelchairs in the Gaza Strip: A Survey

EL ESSI, K
EL-SHAFIE, J M
AL HAWAMDAH, Z
ZAQOUT, S I
2012

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Shoulder pain among paraplegic persons has negative effects on their lives. The prevalence of shoulder pain among persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) varies from 30% to 70% in different studies and may be related to repetitive use of the shoulder during self-care and wheelchair-related activities.

 

Purpose: This study focused on the prevalence of shoulder pain and examined its effects on activities of daily living and social participation, and on functional, work and recreational or athletic activities. It also aimed to detect the degree ofsatisfaction with shoulder functioning in wheelchair users who were paraplegic due to spinal cord injury, in the Gaza strip.

 

Methods: Cross sectional study design was used to collect data from 80 persons with paraplegia, post rehabilitation, who were still using manual wheelchairs (MWC) for ambulation. After giving informed consent, the selected persons were interviewed directly in their homes, and filled questionnaires which included demographic data, Wheelchair User’s Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI) and Shoulder Rating Questionnaire (SRQ).

 

Results: The prevalence rate of shoulder pain among paraplegics who use manual wheelchairs was 62%. Pushing a wheelchair for 10 minutes or more, and propulsion up ramps or inclines outdoors were the most common activities that caused and exacerbated shoulder pain. Sixty four percent from among the study sample mentioned that they had no limitation in shoulder-using ability during daily personal and household activities, while the rest experienced different degrees of limitation. Seventy-four percent reported no limitation during recreational or athletic activities, while the rest (26%) agreed that pain has variably limited their participation in these activities. Fourteen percent from the sample rated the overall degree of satisfaction with their shoulder functioning as fair, and the rest rated their satisfaction from good to excellent.

 

Conclusion: Shoulder pain, ranging from mild to severe, was highly prevalent among SCI paraplegics who use MWCs during their usual activities, and other activities which involve wheelchair propulsion. About two- thirds of the subjectsreported no limitation in shoulder use during daily personal and household activities and in recreational or athletic activities.

Americans with disabilities : 2010

BRAULT, Matthew W
July 2012

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This report presents estimates of disability status and type in the United States (US) representative of the civilian non-institutionalized population. The data used in this report were collected from May through August 2010 and categorizes types of disabilities into communicative, physical, and mental domains according to a set of criteria as described in the report
P70-131

Findings on accessibility of the zero project

HEINDORF, Ingrid
Eds
June 2012

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This report presents the findings from The Zero Project 2012 which highlights the implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The report’s thematic focus on barriers provides examples of social indicators, good practice and good policy relating to accessibility to the physical environment, to transportation, to information and communications, as well as to other facilities and services provided to the public “"A prelude to the European Accessibility Act: Findings of the international Zero Project Report 2012"
Brussels, Belgium
21 June 2012

Helmet use among motorcyclists in Cambodia : a survey of use, knowledge, attitudes, and practices

BACHANI, Abdulgafoor M
et al
2012

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"Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a leading cause of disability and fatality globally. Motorcycle-related injuries, mainly head injuries, and related deaths and disabilities are a significant contributor to the burden of disease in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Helmets have been proven to be an effective way to reduce the risk of head injury. As motorcycle use continually increases in Cambodia, head injuries and related deaths and disabilities are expected to rise. This article aims to assess the current status of helmet use in Cambodia, as well as the knowledge, attitudes, and practices among motorcyclists, in order to assist with better planning and implementation of injury prevention strategies"
Traffic Injury Prevention, Vol 13, Supplement 1

World Health Statistics 2012

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO)
2012

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"World Health Statistics 2012 contains WHO’s annual compilation of health-related data for its 194 Member States, and includes a summary of the progress made towards achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and associated targets. This year, it also includes highlight summaries on the topics of noncommunicable diseases, universal health coverage and civil registration coverage"
Note: The summary brochure, full report, report in English by section, the indicator compendium and printed copy order forms are available from the link above

Two stage child disability study among children 2 to 9 years : Bhutan 2010 - 2011

THE NATIONAL STATISTICS BUREAU (NSB), Government of Bhutan
Ministry of Education (MoE)
Ministry of Health (MoH)
2012

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“This report highlights the salient findings of the two-stage child disability study among children aged 2-9 years conducted in 2011. The first stage was a screen to identify children with conditions making them more likely to be living with a disability. The second stage was a detailed assessment to accurately determine their disability status. This two-stage procedure is designed to reduce the costs of administering a detailed assessment to many children who are highly unlikely to have a disability”

A national survey of public attitudes towards disability

NATIONAL DISABILITY AUTHORITY
October 2011

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This report presents the results from surveys carried out in 2001, 2006 and 2011 on public attitudes towards disability in Ireland. Public attitudes to people with disabilities can be a key facilitator or a serious barrier to their inclusion and participation in society, highlighting the importance of promoting and enabling active participation of people with disabilities in the mainstream community and access to mainstream services. The 2011 survey results indicate the importance of ensuring that Irish society and all its stakeholders recognise the need to address the negative attitudes that exist to achieve inclusion of people with disabilities
Disability Research Series 14

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