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Disability at a glance : a profile of 28 countries and areas in Asia and the Pacific

UNITED NATIONAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMISSION FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC (ESCAP)
2006

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This publication provides "...disability-related data and policy-related information so that readers are able to see in detail how a particular country or area defines disability and collects related statistics, and implements the Biwako Millennium Framework, in particular, with regard to the establishment of a relevant institutional framework and policies." It is intended "...that this publication will serve as a basis for continuing dialogue amongst the stakeholders on reviewing current status of Government commitments on disability and serve as an impetus for further actions"

HIV/AIDS and disability : a pilot survey of HIV/AIDS knowledge among a deaf population in Swaziland

GROCE, Nora
et al
2006

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This paper reports on a quantitative study to identify whether there are differences in the level of knowledge about HIV and AIDS between hearing and deaf community members in Swaziland. Significant differences in levels of understanding of HIV issues were found, especially with regards to mistaken ideas about HIV transmission and prevention. The outcomes indicate the need for targeted education campaigns and improved accessibility in health care for deaf individuals in Swaziland. The article is useful for health and development professionals working in the field of HIV and AIDS, as well as those working with deaf individuals in Swaziland

The employment of persons with disabilities : evidence from national sample survey

MITRA, Sophie
SAMBAMOORTHI, Usha
December 2005

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"This paper reports on the employment of persons with disabilities in India based on recent data from the National Sample Survey. The study shows that the employment rate of persons with disabilities is relatively low compared to that of the all India working age population, with great variations across gender, urban/rural sectors and state. A multivariate analysis suggests that employment among persons with disabilities is influenced more by individual and household characteristics than human capital"

Disability, poverty, and schooling in developing countries : results from 14 household surveys

FILMER, Deon
November 2005

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This paper analyses the correlations between a young person’s disability, the economic status of their household, and their school participation. The survey was conducted using 11 household surveys in nine developing countries. The results show that some youth with disabilities live in poorer households, but the extent is not statistically significant. However, young people with disabilities are often less likely to start school and show lower transition rates. This finding suggests that, in developing countries, disability may lead to long-run poverty since youth with disabilities are less likely to achieve qualifications which would allow them to earn higher incomes in their later life
The paper is useful for policy makers and professionals working in development
SP Discussion Paper No 0539

The spillover impacts of Africa's orphan crisis

EVANS, David
2005

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This is a study using a collection of 41 demographic and health surveys from 26 African countries. The households that provide care for orphans are characterised, and the impact of taking in orphans on outcomes for other household residents, including children's health and education, is estimated. A key finding is that orphan care is concentrated in households with fewer other childcare responsibilities, especially elderly households. The researcher found no evidence that having an orphan join the household significantly affected the household, contrary to popular views that orphans generate negative spillovers

Access to rights and services of people living with HIV in Ukraine : social research results

ALL-UKRAINIAN NETWORK OF PLWH
INTERNATIONAL HIV/AIDS ALLIANCE IN UKRAINE
2005

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This is a comprehensive assessment on the state of human rights for people living with HIV/AIDS in Ukraine. It investigates government policies regarding HIV-positive people, PLHA awareness of their rights, access to medical and social services and ART, and experience of discrimination and intolerance. 41.5% of people living with HIV or AIDS reported violations of their rights as a result of their HIV status. The document includes useful statistics and charts, and concludes with a detailed lists of the key findings

Educating children with disabilities in developing countries : the role of data sets

ROBSON, Colin
EVANS, Peter
2005

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This report contributes towards the availability of data for education reform of children with disabilities. The report focuses first on data sets which identify children with disabilities, and then highlights preschool and school data sets which better identify whether these children have access to education. The analysis also assesses the achievement of policy goals. This study would be useful to those who have an interest in the education of children with disabilities

The use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in African public library services

ROSENBURG, Diana
July 2004

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This article concerns the use of computers in public libraries in developing countries. To investigate the current level of use of ICTs and plans for the future within the public library environment, a survey was undertaken of 22 public library services in ten English-speaking African countries. The results indicate great disparities in the level of access to computers between the countries, and within country, and indicate a need for more funding and appropriate training

PLACE in Central Asia : a regional strategy to focus AIDS prevention in Almaty and Karaganda, Kazakhstan; Osh, Kyrgyzstan; Tashkent, Uzbekistan. 2002

MEASURE EVALUATION
July 2004

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The PLACE method is designed to expose sexual and injection drug use networks, identify sites where high-risk populations overlap and help focus interventions where they are most needed. This report presents both a baseline assessment of HIV/AIDS risks and an evaluation of condom promotion programmes in four cities in Central Asia. The report shows that sexual and drug use networks are extensive and diffuse. The rate of new partnership formation is also very high, and the use of condoms with new partners is "quite high". Injection drug use is common, and needles are often shared. The report calls for programmes and interventions to concentrate their efforts on sites at high risk, where there is an overlap of high-risk populations (people meeting new partners, youth, injection drug users, sex workers)

The state of the humanitarian system

TAYLOR, Glyn
et al
July 2004

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"This report presents a system-level mapping and analysis of the performance of international humanitarian assistance. The pilot report on the State of the Humanitarian System (SOHS) was published in 2010 and focused on the years 2007 and 2008. This report includes descriptive statistics from the following two years, 2009 and 2010, and reviews performance assessments from 2009 to the end of 2011, comparing findings from the two periods. This report covers recent developments with those actors as well, and includes the perceptions and perspectives of some humanitarian aid recipients, through field based surveys in four countries"

Prevalence, severity and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys

THE WHO WORLD MENTAL HEALTH SURVEY CONSORTIUM
June 2004

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This article provides estimates of the prevalence, severity, and treatment of mental disorders from the WHO World Mental Health Survey which included data from 14 countries (six less developed, eight developed) by conducting 60,463 face-to-face interviews with adult individuals representing the general population. The article concludes by recommending careful consideration of mild cases and a reallocation of treatment resources; however, it also acknowledges that structural barriers may exist to this reallocation
The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), Vol 291, No 21

HIV/AIDS and disability: capturing hidden voices. Global survey on HIV/AIDS and disability

GROCE, Nora
April 2004

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This is a report of the global survey carried out by the Yale School of Public Health and the World Bank, into the research, policies and programmes that concern the impact of HIV/AIDS on disabled people. The report outlines the research methods used and the findings of the research. It concludes that HIV/AIDS represents a significant threat to disabled individuals and populations around the globe, at rates at least comparable to and quite possibly significantly higher than those affecting the general public. Moreover, findings from the survey clearly document that individuals with disability are not included in most AIDS outreach efforts

ProPAN: process for the promotion of child feeding

PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION (PAHO)
April 2004

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This manual describes a step-by-step process, which begins with the quantitative identification of nutritional and dietary problems, and also with the collection of qualitative information on why these problems occur, and ends with the design of and evaluation plan for an intervention to address the problems identified. It is intended for Ministries of Health, non-governmental organisations, and bilateral and international organisations interested in improving infant and young child feeding (from birth to 24 months) to prevent early childhood malnutrition. It includes steps on how to collect, analyse, and integrate both quantitative and qualitative information, provides guidance on how to design an intervention, and reviews evaluation strategies

National household HIV prevalence and risk survey of South African children

BROOKS, Heather
SHISANA, Olive
RICHTER, Linda
2004

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This valuable new report looks at the levels of infection of HIV and AIDS, the levels of orphaning and child headed households, sexual debut and sexual experiences and risk factors and risk environments for children aged 2-14 in South Africa. This has been investigated as the HSRC recognizes that there is very little known about HIV prevalence rates among children or about the risk factors that predispose them to becoming infected. The study looks at the social and community risk factors that predispose children to HIV infection as well as the impact of the epidemic on children in terms of orphan status and child headed households. It examines children’s knowledge of HIV and AIDS prevention, their knowledge about sexual behaviour and HIV as well as their own patterns of sexual behaviour and changes in that behaviour. This study is interesting as it explicitly includes young children

The effect of a livelihoods intervention in an urban slum in India : do vocational counseling and training alter the attitudes and behaviour of adolescent girls?

MENSCH, Barbara S
et al
2004

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This paper examines whether an experimental intervention for girls aged 14-19 that provided reproductive health information, vocational counseling and training, and assistance with opening savings accounts in slum areas of Allahabad in Uttar pradesh, India, had an effect on their attitudes and behaviours. A quasi-experimental pre- and post-test design was used in which adolescent girls were compared with girls of the same age residing in control-area slums. Although the livelihoods program was acceptable to parents and feasible to implement, the project had only a minimal impact on the behaviour and attitudes of adolescent girls taking part in the project. Girls exposed to the intervention were significantly more likely to have knowledge of safe spaces, be a member of a group, score higher on the social skills index, be informed about reproductive health, and spend time on leisure activities than were the matched control respondents. No effect was found on gender role attitudes, mobility, self-esteem, work expectations, or on number of hours visiting friends, performing domestic chores, or engaging in labour market work

Does dowry improve life for brides? A test of the bequest theory of dowry in rural Bangladesh

LUCIANA, Suran
et al
2004

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In recent years, dowry levels have risen to previously unforeseen levels. Among Hindus in north India dowry can amount to three or four times a family's total assets. Among Muslims in Bangladesh and hindus in South India, dowry has become commonplace whereas the practice did not exist a generation ago. The institution of dowry has been widely criticised, socially maligned, and legally banned. Some recent writings suggest that dowry persists because it is 'good for the bride'. This paper explores the association between dowry and the prevalence of domestic abuse to test this bequest theory of dowry. The study finds that, contrary to the bequest theory, married females who paid dowry at marriage have a higher likelihood of reporting domestic violence compared to those who did not. In addition, respondents who paid small dowries report much higher levels of abuse than those who paid large dowries. In fact, paying no dowry is just as protective, if not more so, in terms of preventing abuse as the largest dowry payments

How to investigate the use of medicines by consumers

HARDON, Anita
HODGKIN, Catherine
FRESLE, Daphne
2004

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This manual is a practical guide to the use of research methods for investigating medicines use by consumers, particularly those in developing countries, in order to identify problems, design interventions and measure changes. It will help health workers, policy-makers, administrators, researchers, educationalists, medical and pharmacy students, and many others to go beyond the individual and to the study the community as a focus. Topics covered include the reasons for studying medicine use by consumers, what influences consumer choice, and how to prioritise and analyse community medicines use problems. There are chapters on sampling and data analysis, and the manual concludes by looking at the important issue of monitoring and evaluating interventions

Integrated questionnaire for the measurement of social capital

GROOTAERT, Christiaan
et al
2004

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This paper introduces a tool, the Integrated Questionnaire for the Measurement of Social Capital, with a focus on developing countries. The tool aims to generate quantitative data on six dimensions of social capital as part of a larger household survey. These dimensions are: groups and networks, trust and solidarity, collective action and cooperation, information and communication, social cohesion and inclusion, empowerment and political action. The tool was tested in Albania and Nigeria and the lessons learned are presented

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