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Differentiation and individualisation in inclusive education: a systematic review and narrative synthesis

LINDNER, Katharina-Theresa
SCHWAB, Susanne
English
2020

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This study integrates research about differentiation and individualisation in inclusive education since the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2006 (United Nations, 2006). The concept of inclusive education for all learners increases the requirement for teachers to create educational spaces that encourage stimulating teaching and learning processes. Accordingly, a methodological shift from the traditional ‘one-size-fits-all’ model to individualised teaching and learning offers a starting point for educational equity. The aim of this paper is to investigate the progress of differentiated and individualised teaching practices in inclusive classroom settings considering collaboration and teamwork, instructional practices, organisational practices and social/emotional/behavioural practices (see Finkelstein, Sharma, & Furlonger, 2019. “The Inclusive Practices of Classroom Teachers: A Scoping Review and Thematic Analysis.” International Journal of Inclusive Education, 1–28). Results of a criteria-based review considering papers from 2008 to December 2018 encompass 17 articles that were included in the narrative synthesis. Results indicated that the following aspects are characteristic of inclusive education: collaboration and co-teaching, grouping, modification (of assessment, content, extent, instruction, learning environment, material, process, product and time frame), individual motivation and feedback, and personnel support of students. Implications of the findings and gaps in the research have been outlined.

Labour Market Assessment - Inclusion Works Bangladesh

HUDA, Parveen S
SARWAR, Rubaiyath
IMRAN, Muhammad
English
August 2019

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This rapid labour market assessment was undertaken in the intervention areas of Dhaka, Gazipur, Tangail, Chattogram and Khulna. The objectives were to analyse current scenario of the labour market, identify job opportunities for persons with disabilities, skills requirement for those jobs, risks and barriers of getting those jobs, etc. This report explains the facts and findings of the assessment and provides recommendations to make Inclusion Works more effective in their interventions. The assessment consists of two parts – secondary literature review and qualitative study.

 

The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the UK government or members of the Inclusion Works consortium.

Labour Market Assessment - Inclusion Works Uganda

AHAIBWE, Gemma
NTALE, Anita
ODOKONYERO, Tonny
English
August 2019

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This labour market assessment (LMA) has been conducted to collect a baseline to inform the implementation of the Inclusion works project.  The LMA evaluated the economic trends and patterns and identified growth sectors and subsectors with a high propensity for job creation. Using value chain analysis, the LMA identified the kind of jobs available in the selected subsectors and the type of skills and educational qualifications required to fill them. The study also analysed the flows and stocks of education that the workforce possess to match the demand in the selected subsectors. Furthermore, the LMA assessed functionality of labour market coordination system and how existing policies and structures influence the labour market.

 

The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the UK government or members of the Inclusion Works consortium.

Labour Market Assessment - Inclusion Works Kenya

GESONGO, Mugita
BARAZA, Austen
English
July 2019

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This is a rapid assessment of the Kenyan labour market which was commissioned to understand how the labour market functions in Kenya within the context of disability. This assessment provided opportunity to validate existing data on employment of persons with disabilities thus generating a solid baseline on which to anchor the programme’s targets and assumptions.

 

The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the UK government or members of the Inclusion Works consortium.

Labour Market Assessment - Inclusion Works Nigeria

Prof ADEBAYO, A. A.
SHIBKAU, Hadjara
OLIYE, Funmilayo
English
July 2019

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This labour market assessment (LMA) was important to ensure the Inclusion Works programme interventions are strategic and provide the most optimal way to address unemployment challenges facing persons with disabilities. This LMA was designed to answer key questions associated with perspectives on: policy; coordination systems; employer; training and recruitment service providers; and job seekers. To address the questions, the assessment attempted to identify; the growing sectors and job opportunities in Lagos, Abuja and Jigawa States, the demand and supply of skills for enabling persons with disabilities to compete for current and future job opportunities, and understanding barriers for employers and persons with disabilities with regards to disability inclusive formal employment while focusing on both current and future opportunities in formal and informal sectors.

 

The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the UK government or members of the Inclusion Works consortium.

Disability and disaster risk reduction as an incongruent matrix: Lessons from rural Zimbabwe

LUNGA, Wilfred
BONGO, Paradzavi Pathias
VAN NIEKERK, Dewald
MUSARURWA, Charles
English
April 2019

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This research paper focuses on two key topics in the disaster science field: pre-disaster risk reduction planning and post-disaster emergency response activities. It is based on experiences from disaster risk reduction projects in Bulilima and Mangwe districts in southern Zimbabwe between 2006 and 2014. A qualitative research methodology was employed, and data were collected using in-depth personal interviews, observations and focus group discussions. Both able-bodied people and people living with disabilities (PWDs) were part of the study.

 

Jamba. (Journal of disaster risk studies) 2019; 11(1): 648.

doi: 10.4102/jamba.v11i1.648

Maintaining professional integrity: experiences of case workers performing the assessments that determine children’s access to personal assistance

HULTMAN, Lill
FORINDER, Ulla
FUGL-MEYER, Kerstin
PERGERT, Pernilla
English
2018

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This qualitative study explores Swedish case workers experiences of decision making regarding disabled children's right to obtain assistance in their everyday life whereby they can live independently in the community. Data collection included seven focus-group interviews and 11 complementary individual interviews with case workers from different agencies responsible for decisions regardig access to personal assistance. Grounded theory methodology was used. Compromised professional integrity under shifting conditions emerged as a main concern and maintaing professional integrity was used as an approach to resolve it. The case workers are maintaining professional integrity by applying different strategies; struggling with division of responsibility, bureaucratizig, and justifying and protecting. The results indicate that present application of assessment criteria in combination with the utilization of precedent rulings has made it difficult for the case workers to make decisions that provide children access to assistance. Current practice raises questions about the case workers perspectives of professionalism.

I Am EmployAble

BAART, Judith
MAARSE, Anneke
English
September 2017

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I am EmployAble walks the reader through the process of vocational training – from enrolment to training to employment – and provides tips based on experience, anecdotes and tools to inspire and support those working with and for disability inclusive technical and vocational training institutes.

The specific aim of this programme was to contribute to quality vocational training for young people with disabilities in Kenya, Rwanda and Ethiopia and create lasting linkages between technical and vocational training institutes and the labour market, thus facilitating decent and sustainable wage or selfemployment for young people with disabilities. This meant not just targeting the young people with disabilities themselves but also local training institutes and private sector actors, in order to work for systemic change.

Community Action Research in Disability (CARD): An inclusive research programme in Uganda

HARTLEY, Sally D
YOUSAFZAI, AK
KAAHWA, MG
FINKENFLÜGEL, H
WADE, A
BAZIRAKE, G
DRACHLER, ML
SEELEY, J
ALAVI, Y
MATAZE, W
MUCURNGUZI, E
English
2017

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The ideology of Emancipatory Disability Research (EDR) reflected in the phrase ‘Nothing about us without us’, was first put forward in the 1990s. Although it aimed to place research control in the hands of the ‘researched’, i.e., people with disability, this rarely happens even today, 25 years later.

 

The Community Action Research on Disability (CARD) programme in Uganda embraced and modified the EDR approach, recognising the need for including people with disability in the research process from concept to outcome, and nurturing participation and collaboration between all the stakeholders in achieving action-based research. The research teams always included people with disability and staff from Disability People’s Organisations (DPOs) as well as academics and service providers. It endeavoured to generate and carry out research around issues that mattered to people with disability and their families. Leadership roles were assigned by team members. The objectives of the CARD programme were: (1) to fund teams to carry out action-based research on disability in Uganda; (2) to develop research and administrative capacity to manage the initiative within the academic registrar’s office at Kyambogo University; (3) to incorporate new knowledge generated from the studies into the ongoing local community-based rehabilitation and special education courses; and, (4) to ensure wide dissemination of research findings to all stakeholder groups.

 

CARD ran for 5 years, commissioning 21 action research studies in the field of disability and community-based services. This paper describes the process, presents the 12 completed studies, examines the extent to which the objectives were achieved and evaluates the experiences of the participating research teams, particularly in relation to the inclusion of its members with disability. It concludes with recommendations for future initiatives designed to promote validity, good value and inclusive approaches in disability research.

The capacity of community-based participatory research in relation to disability and the SDGs

GREENWOOD, Margo
English
2017

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The 2030 Agenda pledges to foster shared responsibility, recognizes all as crucial enablers of sustainable development, and calls for the mobilization of all available resources. It also commits to multi-stakeholder partnerships and pledges to be open, inclusive, participatory and transparent in its follow-up and review. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) equitably involves community members, organizational representatives and researchers, enabling them to share power and resources through drawing on the unique strengths that each partner brings. It aims to integrate any increased knowledge and understanding into action, policy and social change to improve the health and quality of life of community members. CBPR involves recruiting community or peer researchers, involving them in planning and offering them training to undertake interviews and observations in their context. They are also part of the analysis and dissemination process, and continue to work with local partners on advocacy plans and events after projects and research have finished. People with disabilities are actively part of the research process throughout. Drawing on relevant literature and current CBPR disability research in East and West Africa, this paper puts forward CBPR as a methodology that can enable community members to identify key barriers to achieving the SDGs, and inform how policy and programmes can be altered to best meet the needs of people with disabilities. It demonstrates CBPR in practice and discusses the successes and complexities of implementing this approach in relation to the SDGs. The paper also highlights findings such as the high level of support needed for community research teams as they collect data and formally disseminate it, the honest raw data from peer to peer interaction, a deep level of local ownership at advocacy level, emerging issues surrounding meaningfully involving community researchers in analysis, and power differentials. A key conclusion is that to join partners with diverse expertise requires much planning, diplomacy, and critical, reflexive thought, while emphasising the necessity of generating local ownership of findings and the translation of knowledge into a catalyst for disability-related policy change.

 

Disability & the Global South (DGS), 2017, Vol. 4 No. 1

Using participatory and creative methods to facilitate emancipatory research with people facing multiple disadvantage: a role for health and care professionals

KRAMER-ROY, Debbie
English
2015

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Participatory and creative research methods are a powerful tool for enabling active engagement in the research process of marginalised people. It can be par- ticularly hard for people living with multiple disadvantage, such as disabled peo- ple from ethnic minority backgrounds, to access research projects that are relevant to their lived experience. This article argues that creative and participa- tory methods facilitate the co-researchers’ engagement in the research process, which thus becomes more empowering. Exploring the congruence of these meth- ods with their professional ethos, health and care professionals can use their skills to develop them further. Both theory and practice examples are presented.

Discussion papers on the theme of the high-level political forum on sustainable development, submitted by major groups and other stakeholders

UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL
English
May 2015

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A compendium of papers from various stakeholders setting out “established and maintained effective coordination mechanisms” for the high-level discussions on sustainable development and the post-2015 development agenda

High-level political forum on sustainable development, Convened under the auspices of the Economic and Social Council, 26 June-8 July 2015

E/HLPF/2015/2

Agenda 2030 : sustainable development goals (SDGs)

INTERNATIONAL DISABILITY ALLIANCE (IDA)
INTERNATIONAL DISABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT CONSORTIUM (IDDC)
English
2015

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An easy read introduction to the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)​ which were adopted in September 2015 at the United Nations General Assembly

Education transition for children with disabilities in Armenia

BRIDGE OF HOPE
English
2015

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The  research report from Armenia looks in depth at the challenges and promising practices relating to education transition in the country - from the perspectives of teachers, parents, children and young people, specialist staff and other key stakeholders. It looks at learners transitioning from kindergarten to primary education, and then to secondary and higher/vocational education, as well as to other learning opportunities and into employment

How politics and economics intersect : a simple guide to conducting political economy and context analysis

OXFAM
English
June 2014

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"The intention of this guide is to provide practical guidance on how Oxfam undertakes political economy analysis (PEA) in order to inform operations and programming. It is based on the experience of working with Oxfam Myanmar (and heavily features this experience), initially looking at how PEA could be used to address two areas: 1) ‘How can citizens/civil society get engaged with local planning and budgeting processes?’ and 2) ‘How will the economic opening up of Myanmar affect small-scale farmers?’"

Rapid outcome mapping approach (ROMA) : a guide to policy engagement and policy influence

YOUNG, John
English
et al
2014

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ROMA (the RAPID Outcome Mapping Approach) is an approach to improve policy engagement processes and in­fluence change. It comprises a suite of tools that any organisation can use at any stage in their policy engagement process to improve how they diagnose the problem, understand the types of impact their work could have on policy-making, set realistic objectives for policy infl­uence, develop a plan to achieve those objectives, monitor and learn from the progress they are making and refl­ect this learning back into their work

Note: The guide is available in pdf and online webpage formats from the links above

Strengthening communities to integrate persons with disabilities in the HIV and AIDS response in Rwanda

DELEU, Marijke
English
May 2013

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"This document aims to capture some of the key lessons learned from Handicap International’s New Partnership Initiative project in Rwanda, which started in 2008 with the objective to integrate persons with disabilities in HIV and Sexual Violence (SV) prevention efforts and service provision generally. It is the result of qualitative, multi-stakeholder study about how change occurred within the project and how the experience could be modelled for adaptation or replication in Rwanda or other contexts"
SD/LL 08

The sustainability analysis process : the case of physical rehabilitation

BLANCHET, Karl
BOGGS, Dorothy
English
December 2012

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"This guide describes the Sustainability Analysis Process (SAP), a coordinated planning approach that aims to facilitate the development of a common vision of sustainability among various actors in a system. Specifically, it is a participatory process which outlines how to achieve consensus on a common vision, and how to define sustainability indicators that can be used to monitor progress towards this vision within the context of the national rehabilitation system. Ultimately, the SAP outlined in this guide is a practical tool that can help all actors in a system to understand the various components of sustainability and analyse the concept of sustainability in relation to their own system"

Good governance handbook

BULLIVANT, Dr. John
English
et al
March 2012

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"This document has been designed to provide some key principles of good governance that can aid decision making at board level in healthcare providers. The guide builds on previous best practice guidance whilst recognising the major impact of the current changes to the NHS architecture. It is intended to be of interest to existing NHS boards, emerging Clinical Commissioning Groups and Health and Wellbeing Boards and those responsible for managing governance systems and processes within healthcare"

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