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African Journal of Disability Vol 7 (2018) - Special collection: Disability and inclusion in Africa - The role of assistive technology

2018

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This journal provides

  • Nine original research articles on a variety of topics including the cost of raising a child with autism, experiences of care givers to stroke survivors, dyslexic's learning experiences, communication rehabilitation, disability and food security, hearing children of deaf parents and rehabilitation of stroke survivors. 
  • Three review articles: Intellectual disability rights and inclusive citizenship in South Africa: What can a scoping review tell us?; The benefits of hydrotherapy to patients with spinal cord injuries; Simple ideas that work: Celebrating development in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.
  • There is an opinion paper entitled - Deafening silence on a vital issue: The World Health Organization has ignored the sexuality of persons with disabilities
  •  There is a case study - Lessons from the pilot of a mobile application to map assistive technology suppliers in Africa

Road traffic injuries and rehabiliation. Factsheet.

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL
March 2017

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The rate of road accidents is increasing globally and the resulting deaths, injuries, physical disabilities and psychological distress are creating a tremendous negative economic impact on victims, their families and society in general, especially in low and middle income countries. Common impairments and activity limitations from road traffic injuries are musculo-skeletal injuries, spinal cord injuries (SCI), traumatic brain injury and psychological distress and depression. Different examples of rehabilitation across the care cycle are provided. A case study of brain injury in Laos is provided. 

Disability, CBR and inclusive development - Vol 27, No 4 (2016) Winter 2016

December 2016

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8 articles

Original Research Articles

Social Inclusion and Mental Health of Children with Physical Disabilities in Gaza, Palestine PDF
Khaled Nasser, Malcolm MacLachlan, Joanne McVeigh 5-36

CBR Workers' Training Needs for People with Communication Disability PDF
Choo Er Yeap, Hasherah Ibrahim, Sandra Vandort, Kartini Ahmad, Md Syahrulikram Yasin 37-54

Educational Concerns of Students with Hearing Impairment in Secondary and Higher Secondary Classes in Mumbai, India PDF
Dipak Kumar Aich, Suni Mariam Mathew 55-75

Advocacy Campaign for the Rights of People with Disabilities: A Participatory Action Research within a Community-based Rehabilitation Project in Vangani, Maharashtra PDF
Atul Jaiswal, Shikha Gupta 76-92

Effectiveness of Role Play and Bibliotherapy in Attitude Change of Primary School Pupils towards Learners with Special Needs in Nigeria PDF
Nwachukwu Ezechinyere Kingsley 93-105

 

Reviews

Disability Data Collection in Community-based Rehabilitation PDF
Sunil Deepak, Franesca Ortali, Geraldine Mason Halls, Tulgamaa Damdinsuren, Enhbuyant Lhagvajav, Steven Msowoya, Malek Qutteina, Jayanth Kumar 106-123

 

Brief reports

Differences in Malaria Prevention between Children with and without a Disability in the Upper East Region of Ghana PDF
Fleur Frieda Cornelia Muires, Evi Sarah Broekaart 124-137

Demographic Profile of Spinal Cord Injury (SCI): A Hospital-based Prospective study in Bangladesh PDF
Atma Razzak, Rajkumar Roy, Shamim Khan

Physiotherapy care for adults with paraplegia due to traumatic cause: A review

GUPTA, Nalina
RAJA, Kavitha
October 2016

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Abstract

 

 

Purpose: This review aimed to identify the practice guidelines/ recommendations for physiotherapy management in acute /post-acute/ chronic/long-term phase of rehabilitation of clients with paraplegia due to traumatic causes.

 

Methods: Of the 120 articles retrieved, 26 met the inclusion criteria. After quality appraisal, 16 articles were included in the study. Data were extracted under the sub-headings: physiotherapy care in acute, chronic and long-term community stage; expected outcomes; effect of physical interventions; morbidities; wheelchair characteristics and standing.

 

Results: There is strong evidence in support of strength and fitness training, and gait training. Parameters of strength training (frequency, duration and intensity) vary. There is lack of evidence on passive movements, stretching, bed mobility, transfers and wheelchair propulsion. Preservation of upper limb functions is an important consideration in caring for clients with paraplegia.

 

Conclusion: Many areas of rehabilitation interventions remain inadequately explored and there is a need for high quality studies on rehabilitation protocols. Client preferences and feasibility are other areas that should be explored.

 

Limitations: The search criteria of articles in the English language or articles translated in English is a reason for this limitation. Articles related to advanced therapeutic interventions such as robot-assisted training, and transcranial electrical and magnetic stimulation were excluded from the study.

'Brain training' technique restores feeling and movement to paraplegic patients

RADFORD, Tim
August 2016

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It is reported that eight paraplegics – some of them paralysed for more than a decade by severe spinal cord injury – have been able to move their legs and feel sensation, after help from an artificial exoskeleton, sessions using virtual reality (VR) technology and a non-invasive system that links the brain with a computer. "After just 10 months of what the Brazilian medical team “brain training” they have been able to make a conscious decision to move and then get a response from muscles that have not been used for a decade". The work is part of the Walk Again Project.

Long-term training with a brain-machine interface-based gait protocol induces partial neurological recovery in paraplegic patients.

NICOLELIS, Miguel
et al
August 2016

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"Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) provide a new assistive strategy aimed at restoring mobility in severely paralyzed patients. Yet, no study in animals or in human subjects has indicated that long-term BMI training could induce any type of clinical recovery. Eight chronic (3–13 years) spinal cord injury (SCI) paraplegics were subjected to long-term training (12 months) with a multi-stage BMI-based gait neurorehabilitation paradigm aimed at restoring locomotion. This paradigm combined intense immersive virtual reality training, enriched visual-tactile feedback, and walking with two EEG-controlled robotic actuators, including a custom-designed lower limb exoskeleton capable of delivering tactile feedback to subjects. Following 12 months of training with this paradigm, all eight patients experienced neurological improvements in somatic sensation (pain localization, fine/crude touch, and proprioceptive sensing) in multiple dermatomes. Patients also regained voluntary motor control in key muscles below the SCI level, as measured by EMGs, resulting in marked improvement in their walking index. As a result, 50% of these patients were upgraded to an incomplete paraplegia classification. Neurological recovery was paralleled by the reemergence of lower limb motor imagery at cortical level". It is hypothesised that this unprecedented neurological recovery results from both cortical and spinal cord plasticity triggered by long-term BMI usage."

Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 30383 (2016)
doi:10.1038/srep30383

Rehabilitation in sudden onset disasters.

September 2015

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The role of rehabilitation professionals in responding to Sudden Onset Disasters (SODs) is evolving rapidly, and our professions increasingly find themselves at the forefront of emergency response teams. At the same time, there is a movement towards the professionalisation of the humanitarian response sector, in particular Emergency Medical Teams, and a recognition that specialist training is required to prepare professionals for work in an austere humanitarian environment. The intended audience of the manual are physiotherapists and occupational therapists who may deploy to provide rehabilitation in the immediate aftermath of a sudden onset disaster. It was developed to support volunteers on the UK International Emergency Trauma Register (UKIETR), but with the aim of being relevant to all rehabilitation professionals interested in rapid deployment to austere environments. The content is restricted to the context of sudden onset disasters such as an earthquake or tsunami, and has been developed to support work in an austere environment, where the type of equipment and support that is normally available has been disrupted. UKIETR professionals are UK based volunteers who receive specialist training to prepare them for international deployment as part of team in response to emergencies. They may be deployed within a multi-disciplinary foreign medical team in a field hospital scenario, or as part of a more specialist ‘cell’ offering niche medical, surgical or rehabilitation services. The manual is designed to complement the three day core rehabilitation training run by Handicap International which all UKIETR members must attend. It is a clinical manual, and the contents are directly linked to modules taught on the core training course. In addition there are a number of ‘cheat sheets’ and patient education resources at the back of the manual which are designed to be used in the field. Chapters include: rehabilitation and the UKIETR; introduction to rehabilitation following sudden onset disasters; amputee rehabilitation; spinal cord injury; peripheral nerve injury; fractures; burns and soft tissue injury; and acquired brain injury

Surviving spinal cord injury in low income countries

ODEROD, Tone
August 2014

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Life expectancy and the situation of persons living with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) in low income settings was explored. Mortality rates from injuries and challenges in daily lives of people with injuries from poorer economic backgrounds are were investigated and are compared with those with higher incomes. Literature studies and qualitative methods were used. Qualitative data was collected through semi-structured interviews with 23 informants from four study sites in Zimbabwe representing persons with SCI, their relatives and rehabilitation professionals.

There are few publications available about life expectancy and the daily life of persons with SCI in low income countries. Those few publications identified and the study findings confirm that individuals with SCI are experiencing a high occurrence of pressure sores and urinary tract infections leading to unnecessary suffering, often causing premature death. Pain and depression are frequently reported and stigma and negative attitudes are experienced in society. Lack of appropriate wheelchairs and services, limited knowledge about SCI amongst health care staff, limited access to health care and rehabilitation services, loss of employment and lack of financial resources worsen the daily challenges.

Conclusion: The study indicates that life expectancy for individuals with SCI in low income settings is shorter than for the average population and also with respect to individuals with SCI in high income countries. Poverty worsened the situation for individuals with SCI, creating barriers that increase the risk of contracting harmful pressure sores and infections leading to premature death. Further explorations on mortality and how individuals with SCI and their families in low income settings are coping in their daily life are required to provide comprehensive evidences.

Spinal cord injury

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
November 2013

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WHO factsheet on spinal cord Injury (SCI) presents key facts related to spinal cord injury (SCI).  It includes the following details: background information; prevalence; demographic trends; mortality; the health, economic and social consequences of SCI; prevention; improving care and overcoming barriers; and WHO response

Fact sheet N°384

www.elearnSCI.org : a global educational initiative of ISCoS

CHHABRA, H S
et al
2013

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This article describes www.elearnSCI.org, a web-based educational resource for health professionals responsible for the management of spinal cord injury (SCI). It highlights the development of the resource, its key features and concludes that it is a cost effective way of training healthcare professionals that goes beyond the textbook and traditional face-to-face teaching
Spinal Cord, Vol 51

International perspectives on spinal cord injury

BICKENBACH, Jerome
et al
Eds
2013

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This report assembles and summarizes information on spinal cord injury, in particular the epidemiology, services, interventions and policies that are relevant, together with the lived experience of people with spinal cord injury. It also provides recommendations for actions based on this evidence that are consistent with the aspirations for people with disabilities as expressed in the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

The HELP guide for community based rehabilitation workers : a training manual

LOVEDAY, Marion
2006

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This is a training manual for community based rehabilitation workers based upon physiotherapist's work on a rehabilitation project in Cape Town, South Africa. The manual is aimed at trainers of rehabilitation workers who are assumed to have adequate medical knowledge. The manual is divided into the following 4 main topics: health in the community; normal body functions; conditions and treatment; management of patients. Each section contains a summary of the learning aims for the rehabilitation workers, and the teaching is based mainly on a question and answer format
Note: originally published in 1990 by SACLA Health Project

Sexuality and spinal cord injury : heterosexual women

HOOPER, Mandy
1993

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The booklet explores aspects of intimacy, love and sex in women with spinal cord injuries. The emphasis in this booklet is on issues of sexual identity, self-awareness, fears and anxieties, contraception and the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases

Elearnsci.org

ELEARNSCI.ORG

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This is a web-based educational resource for health professionals responsible for the management of spinal cord injury (SCI). It is comprised of seven learning modules, each subdivided into various submodules. Six of the seven modules address the educational needs of all disciplines involved in comprehensive SCI management. The seventh module addresses prevention of SCI. Each submodule includes an overview, activities, self-assessment questions and references. The content of the learning modules is relevant to students and SCI healthcare professionals

Sexual health and fertility after brain and spinal cord impairment

INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION ON REPAIR DISCOVERIES (ICORD)
VANCOVER HOSPITAL & HEALTH SCIENCES CENTRE (WHHSC)

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"The website is being provided in order to disseminate knowledge around sexual changes following spinal cord impairment or traumatic brain injury, and to direct the consumer or other interested parties to services that can be provided, and as well provide an opportunity to ask questions on the Bulletin Board or more privately by email"

Physiotherapy exercises for people with spinal cord injuries and other neurological conditions

MESSENGER, Peter

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This website allows users to search for exercises appropriate for people with spinal cord injuries and other neurological conditions. Users can select exercises, save exercises into booklets and can access previously created booklets. This website is useful for physiotherapists, occupational therapists and other rehabilitation professionals
Note: users must be logged on to the website to save exercises into booklets and to access previously created booklets. Recommend that first time users review first time user information prior to logging on

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