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Socio-economic differences in health, nutrition and population : Malawi

GWATKIN, Davidson
et al
May 2000

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The figures presented in this paper describe the health, nutrition, and population status and service use among individuals belonging to different socio-economic classes in Malawi. These figures have been tabulated from data collected through the multi-country Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) program. [Publisher's abstract]

Socio-economic differences in health, nutrition and population : India

GWATKIN, Davidson
et al
May 2000

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The figures presented in this publication describe the health, nutrition, and population (HNP) status, and service use among individuals belonging to different socio-economic classes. The figures are intended to provide the Bank operational staff, and government officials with whom they work, basic information for their use in preparing country analyses, and in developing HNP activities for the disadvantaged. The document represents an initial effort to provide basic information about health, nutrition, and population conditions and service use by socioeconomic class within countries. It discusses the most significant technical issues encountered in preparing the information, such as the descriptive nature of relationships, and expands on the implications of an asset approach, as measures of socioeconomic status. Accompanying each of the rates presented in the total population table are the values for two statistical indictors of inequality: poor/rich ratio, and concentration index. While most findings reported herewith, are in line with expectation, there are exceptions, and anomalies that require further investigation. [Publisher's abstract]

Disability, poverty and development

DEPARTMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (DFID)
2000

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This is a major policy document from DFID, the British government's overseas aid department. It assesses the significance of disability as a key development issue, and its importance in relation to poverty, human rights and the achievement of internationally agreed development targets. It also sets out ways in which development cooperation, including DFID's own work, can help incorporate the rights and needs of disabled people into the mainstream of poverty reduction work and the achievement of human rights. It is useful for disability policy makers, NGOs and disabled people working in advocacy and development

Social capital : a standard method of measurement

HJOLLUND, Lene
SVENDSEN, Gert Tinggaard
2000

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This paper suggests a standard method of measuring social capital. Discussing the existing theoretical and empirical approaches, the authors suggest a questionnaire where the principal component analysis should be applied as the most appropriate method of measurement

Children as economic and social factors in the development process

BOYDEN, Jo
LEVISON, Deborah
2000

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This report aims to explore present thinking and experience on childhood and children, and to identify the most constructive future directions for policy. The report is based on concepts and theories from social anthropology, developmental psychology, sociology, demographics, economics and history and attempts to bridge the gap between these fields and policy making. The report maintains that childhood is best understood as a culturally and situationally diverse social construction. The variations in the way that children are perceived and treated reflect cultural differences in priorities in child development and beliefs pertaining to childhood and account for major differences in both children's social and economic roles and child development outcomes. This report focuses on children all over the world and on children of all ages. Although there are also references to children under the age of 8 throughout the report, section 3 (p.23) on the diversity of childhood focuses most on the early childhood years

Promises promises : the reality of the Oslo peace accords. A report on the socio-economic impact of the Oslo peace accords on the Palestinian community in the West Bank and Gaza Strip

O'REILLY, Siobhan
May 1999

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The aim of this report is to examine how the lives of ordinary Palestinians have been affected by the implementation of the accords coming out of the Oslo peace process in 1993. It draws on the evidence and experience of World Vision, which has been working in the area since 1975, and also of its partners who are working to provide economic, medical, educational, psychological and spiritual assistance to Palestinians throughout the Occupied Territories. The report finds that the majority of Palestinians have experienced a serious deterioration in living standards, in terms of income, employment, ownership of property and land, and freedom of movement. The Palestinian economy has also declined with GNP per capita falling by 35%. Several key trends are identified: denial of individual rights; weakening of the collective strength of the Palestinian community; demographic engineering; continuation of the long-term strategy to control the West Bank and East Jerusalem; accelerated dehumanisation of the "other"; widening disparities and use of the language of apartheid; and "security" breeding insecurity. The report makes a number of policy recommendations in the light of the findings

Poverty and disability : a survey of the literature

ELWAN, Ann
1999

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This review summarises the literature on disability and its relationship to poverty, including education, employment, income, and access to basic social services. Despite the dearth of formal analysis, it is clear that in developing countries, as in more developed areas, disabled people (and their families) are more likely than the rest of the population to live in poverty. It is a two-way relationship -- disability adds to the risk of poverty, and conditions of poverty increase the risk of disability. Disability in developing countries stems largely from preventable impairments associated with communicable, maternal and perinatal disease and injuries, and prevention has to remain a primary focus. An increasing emphasis on community- based participatory rehabilitation reflects growing recognition of the inadequacy of past official programmes, particularly those involving specialised and exclusionary institutions

Communications framework for HIV/AIDS : a new direction

JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
1999

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This framework, the product of a participatory research project on the use of communications for HIV prevention, finds conventional communications that focus on behaviour change limited in their scope and effectiveness. It questions the relationship between knowledge and behaviour, and the stress in ‘behaviour change’ communication on individual change. For sustainable change, the influence of a number of domains of social context need to be addressed, including: political and policy frameworks, gender, socio-economic status, spirituality and religion, and culture. It builds on these domains to create broad regional strategies for communications in Asia, Africa and Latin America and the Caribbean. Its suggestions for future national strategies combine interpersonal communication and mass media in key areas of HIV/AIDS prevention and care. It stipulates that participatory processes are central to designing and operationalising national strategies

Gender and HIV/AIDS : taking stock of research and programmes

JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
1999

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Discusses public health and social science research on risk and vulnerability as applied to both men and women (in terms of prevention, care and support). Examines current programming priorities in public health and development for gender and HIV, highlights trends and issues, and identifies challenges and gaps

Disability insurance in a multi-pillar framework

AARTS, Leo
DE JONG, Philippe
1999

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This paper draws attention to the fact that disability insurance needs to broaden its focus and cover more people than just the person with impairment. Many other people, including family members and friends, may have to make practical, financial and psychological adjustments to support the person with impairment.
This paper sees disability insurance as a multidimensional and complex system that should include governmental, private and social insurance aspects

Disability, poverty reduction and social development

KELLES-VIITANEN, Anita
1999

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In this article the author describes the links between poverty and disability with particular focus on the Asia-Pacific region, and describes the World Bank's position on poverty reduction and improving the quality of life

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