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Global Humanitarian Overview 2021

OCHA UNITED NATIONS OFFICE FOR THE COORDINATION OF HUMANITARIAN AFFAIRS (OCHA)
December 2020

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A comprehensive, authoritative and evidence-based overview of the current state and future trends in humanitarian action with three sections: Global Trends; Inter-Agency Coordinated Appeals; and Delivering Better. There is a short section on people with disabilities in Global Trends.

 

Empowering Women with Disabilities : moving from charity to right based model

Humanity & Inclusion
2020

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HI Pakistan has recently completed a UN Women funded project ”Empowering women with disabilities (EWwD)” focusing on the social and economic empowerment of the women with disabilities. The project was implemented at Islamabad capital territory (ICT), Peshawar, Nowshera and Karachi. This project has directly benefited more than 600 women with disabilities , whereas about 30 DPOs and a number of public private departments / institutions have also been engaged and benefitted.

 

HI Pakistan collected the stories of project beneficiaries and published to highlight the impact of the project and to integrate the lesson learnt in program cycle management.

Addressing disability-related costs through social protection systems

COTE, Alexandre
CARRARO, Ludovico
SIJAPATI BASSNET, Bimbika
NASIIR, Mercoledi
SRISOM, Sawang
WAKANIYASI, Josh
O'BRIEN, Felicity
October 2020

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Understanding disability-related costs is critical to building social protection systems that truly support inclusion, participation, and sustainable escape from poverty of persons with disabilities across the life cycle. It challenges some usual approaches with regards to targeting, mutually exclusive benefits, and focus on incapacity to work rather than support to inclusion. 

Supporting the dissemination of a background paper, the webinar presented the diversity of disability-related costs and the role of different methods used to assess them. It also presented some practices of accounting for disability costs in the design of mainstream social protection schemes as well as how low and middle-income countries can progressively build the combination of cash transfers, concessions, and services needed to address them.

 

Speakers topics were:

Understanding disability-related costs for better social protection systems.

Accounting for disablity related costs in design of mainstream family assistance schemes, the case of Moldova and Mongolia.

Supporting a survey to estimate the good and services required for basic participation in Indonesia.

How social protection systems can progressively address disability-related costs: the case of Thailand. 

Not either or Disability allowance and economic empowerment in Fiji.

The impact of Covid-19 on people with disabilities – emerging findings

ROHWERDER, Brigitte
THOMPSON, Stephen
WICKENDEN, Mary
WAKOKO, Eric
AKTER, Fatema
NJUNGI, Josephine
CHUBA-UZO, Shadrach
September 2020

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Emerging evidence suggests that people with disabilities are amongst the groups most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in all aspects of their lives. In order to provide more systematic evidence, narrative interviews were conducted with a diverse group of 40 jobseekers with disabilities in Bangladesh, Kenya, Nigeria, and Uganda who are involved with the Inclusion Works programme. The first round of interviews were conducted in July and August 2020. Initial key findings are given.

 

Understanding disability extra costs

CENTRE FOR INCLUSIVE POLICY
September 2020

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Extra costs incurred by people with disabilitites are illustrated through case studies of children, adults and older people with disabilities. 

Government funding to support disability inclusion in Kenya

Development Initiatives
September 2020

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This report presents research that was undertaken as part of Development Initiatives’ work on data to support disability inclusion. It provides analysis of government budget allocations to disability inclusion programmes in Kenya over the period of financial year 2016/17 (FY2016/17) to financial year 2020/21 (FY2020/21). The analysis focuses on disability-relevant ministries, departments and agencies at the national level, including those led by the State Department for Social Protection, the Office of the President, the State Department for Early Learning and Basic Education, and the State Department for Vocational and Technical Training. Due to limitations in the available data, the analysis looks primarily at the education and social protection sectors.

 

This report has been funded with UK aid from the UK government, and was developed with the support of the Inclusive Futures consortium. The opinions expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the UK government or other members of the Inclusive Futures consortium.

Labour Force Survey (LFS) resources. The global reference for labour force survey design

INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION (ILO)
July 2020

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National labour force surveys (LFS) are the main source behind essential headline indicators of the labour market and the world of work. A wide range of economic and social policies, from monetary and fiscal policies to employment, decent work, vocational education and training, and a wide range of poverty reduction and social inclusion policies depend on labour force surveys as their main source of statistics for informed decision-making and monitoring.

To support countries in developing their national LFS, the ILO Department of Statistics maintains a set of model LFS resources to support PAPI and CAPI data collection. The ILO model LFS resources consolidate existing good survey practice and new approaches following evidence from ILO’s LFS testing programme to support the collection of work and labour market data, aligned with the latest international standards.

 

An add-on module has been introduced (July 2020) "Functional difficulties and barriers to employment" concerned with different barriers to labour market integration of persons with disabiliities.

Considering the disability related extra costs in social protection

MONT, Daniel
COTE, Alexandre
et al
June 2020

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This paper tackles several critical elements required for social protection systems and programs to adequately consider disability related extra costs. In the first part, it will explain the diversity of disability related costs. The second part will present current methods to assess and measure disability related costs and the issues they raise. The last part will present how social protection systems can take into account and tackle those different disability related costs.

 

This background paper is a part of a series produced in the frame of a project led by ILO and UNICEF in close collaboration with the International Disability Alliance (IDA) and supported by the UN Partnership on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. It has been co-financed by Leonard Cheshire in the frame of the DFID funded I2I project. The UNPRPD project aims at developing practical guidance for countries, development agencies and DPOs for reforms towards inclusive social protection systems fostering empowerment of persons with disabilities across the life cycle. The papers summarize key issues and present policy recommendations and proposal to build inclusive social protection systems supporting empowerment and participation of persons with disabilities across the life cycle

The impact of an inclusive education intervention on learning outcomes for girls with disabilities within a resource-poor setting

CAREW, Mark
DELUCA, Marcella
GROCE, Nora
FWAGA, Sammy
KETT, Maria
May 2020

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Background: Despite a global commitment to the right to education for persons with disabilities, little is known about how to achieve inclusive education in practice, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where the majority of the world’s people with disabilities reside. Moreover, although exclusion from education is magnified by intersecting gender and socioeconomic inequalities, there is especially little knowledge regarding what approaches to inclusive education are effective amongst girls with disabilities living in resource-poor settings.

 

Objectives: The objective of this article was to assess the impact of an inclusive education intervention led by a non-governmental organisation (NGO) on the educational attainment of girls with disabilities in the resource-poor Lakes region of Kenya.

 

Method: A quasi-experimental design was employed, where the literacy and numeracy educational attainment of the intervention and control groups was compared over two time points a year apart (Time 1 and Time 2; total matched N = 353). During this period, activities pertaining to six core components of a holistic inclusive education model were implemented.

 

Results: Relative to the control group, girls with disabilities in the intervention group reported a greater increase in literacy and numeracy attainment, adjusted for grade and level of functional difficulty.

 

Conclusion: Findings suggest that the intervention was successful in engendering additional improvements in the educational attainment of girls with disabilities from the resource-poor Lakes region of Kenya. Results highlight both the applicability of NGO-led interventions in settings, where national implementation of inclusive education is constrained, and the potential of taking such interventions to scale.

 

 

African Journal of Disability, Vol 9, 2020

The impact of disability on partnership formation in Sweden during 1990-2009

NAMATOVU, Fredinah
HÄGGSTRÖM LUNDEVALLER, Erling
VIKSTRÖM, Lotta
2019

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Evidence suggests that disability negatively affects people’s propen- sity to find a partner. Persons with disabilities that eventually find a partner do so later in life compared to the average population. There is a lack of studies on the differences in partnership opportu- nities for persons with disabilities compared to those without dis- abilities in Sweden. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of disability on partnership formation and to assess whether partner- ship formation varies as a function of individual demographic and socio-economic factors. We use nationwide data available in the Swedish Initiative for Research on Microdata in Social and Medical Sciences (Umeå SIMSAM Lab). We follow persons born from 1973 to 1977 when they were from 16 to 37 years of age and analyze their data using logistic regression. Our findings indicate that regardless of whether a person started to receive a disability pension at an early age or later, it was associated with lower odds for partnership forma- tion. For persons who started receiving disability pension from 16 to 20 years of age, chances for partnership formation reduced with increase in age of partnership. Individuals that started to receive disability pension later were more likely to form partnership prior to receiving disability pension. Partnership formation was less likely among persons born outside Sweden, in persons with mothers born outside Sweden, in individuals born by unmarried mothers and in persons, whose mothers had a high level of education. Partnership was high among women and among persons who had many mater- nal siblings. In conclusion, receiving disability pension was associated with reduced chances for partnership formation. Receiving disability pension might imply financial constraints that negatively influence partnership formation supporting Oppenheimer’s theory on the eco- nomic cost of marriage and the uncertainty hypothesis.

The concept of welfare technology in Swedish municipal eldercare

FRENNERT, Susanne
BAUDIN, Katarina
September 2019

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Purpose: An ageing population presents a challenge for municipal eldercare in Sweden due to difficulties recruiting staff and there being a strained economy. A strategy involving welfare technology is presented as one such solution. An important group to carry out this strategy involves those who work with welfare technology in municipal eldercare. In this paper we describe their perception of welfare technology, and the challenges and opportunities they perceive in utilizing it.

 

Methods: A self-administered online questionnaire was distributed to all Swedish municipalities and answered by 393 respondents. Analyses show that the respondents were representative of the different professions who work with welfare technology within municipal eldercare.

 

Results: Welfare technology was perceived as being more reliable and safer than humans with regards to supervisions and reminders. The respondents acknowledged factors that slowed down the implementation of welfare technology in municipal eldercare organizations, such as resistance to change, lack of finances, lack of supporting evidence, lack of infrastructure, high staff turnover, difficulties with procurement and uncertainties about responsibility and laws.

 

Conclusions: We found that the people who work with and make decisions about welfare technology in municipal eldercare organizations were generally very positive about the deployment and use of such technology, but there appear to be problems within municipal eldercare organizations to realize this vision. The lack of structured implementation processes and coherent evaluation models indicates inequality of the access to welfare technology and, as a result, even though Swedish eldercare is publicly funded, the availability of welfare technologies and their usage differ between municipalities.

Local economic and inclusive development; a toolkit for replication

Humanity & Inclusion
CAMID
The Employers' Federation of Ceylon
2019

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This replication guidebook is a tool that aims to highlight the link between social exclusion and poverty and is based on the premise that a country cannot achieve its development targets, if a section of its people is left behind.

 

This guidebook aims to show practitioners practical ways of working on economic development that inclusive of socially excluded groups such as women, people with disabilities, people living in poverty, etc. It provides corresponding concepts, explains the steps and suggests tools that may help practitioners use and adapt to their context. The context of this book are based on field level experience of the project team of the Inclusive Economic Development project.

The Effect of Age, Gender and Socioeconomic Status on Self-esteem, Body Image and Quality of Life of Amputees: An Evaluation Seven Years after the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake

LAM, Tin-Wai J
TANG, Long-Ching L
CHAU, WW
LAW, SW
CHAN, KM
2019

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Purpose: Psychological well-being is a growing concern in society. It is starting to play a pivotal role in the treatment and care of clients. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of age, sex and socioeconomic status on the self-esteem, body image and quality of life of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake amputees. Many of them are at a significant stage in their lives, especially those who are making the transition from childhood and adolescence into adulthood.

 

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2015. Forty-five participants were recruited from clinic sessions in Sichuan. The main outcome measures were Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), Chinese Amputee Body Image Scale (CABIS), and WHO Quality of Life-Bref Instrument (WHO-QOL-Bref). Results were analysed using Student’s T-test and Chi-square test where appropriate, and ANOVA for multi-group comparisons.

 

Results: Participants under 18 years of age scored higher in RSE (p=0.05), and lower in CABIS (p<0.005). They also scored higher in various QOL domains (D3: p<0.08, D4: p=0.06) and WHOQOL-Bref question 2 (p=0.06). Participants of different SES did not show any significant differences in the outcome measures. Female subjects scored higher in WHOQOL-Bref Question 1 (p=0.03).

 

Conclusion and Implication: Younger amputees have less body image distortion, higher quality of life and self-esteem compared to older amputees. Female amputees also appear to have a higher quality of life compared to male amputees. Socioeconomic status does not affect rehabilitation outcome and psychological well-being of amputees. However, the main factors affecting psychological well-being appear to be predominantly age and, possibly, gender.

Disability and global health: Special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

KUPER, Hannah
POLAK, Sarah
Eds
2019

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Papers included in this special issue are:

 

The waiting list. Addressing the immediate and long-term needs of victims of explosive weapons in Syria

O'REILLY, Claire
et al
2019

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This report looks at the challenges linked to the use of explosive weapons in the Syrian context for the provision of adequate immediate assistance and to plan for mid- to long-term assistance to the victims of explosive violence, to ensure their full recovery and inclusion into society. It is based on data and testimonies collected from humanitarian agencies, actors and patients across all areas of control in Syria. The testimony of Farah, a Syrian girl injured during the bombing of her school, and of her mother, is shared throughout the report to illustrate the challenges faced by victims. 

This report was compiled from June to August 2019 and relies on multiple sources, including review of both gray and academic literature, published and unpublished data from INGOs working in Syria response, firsthand interviews with patients and Syrian humanitarians working both inside Syria and from cross-border locations, and expatriate staff from INGOs and UN agencies. Interviews were conducted at a distance during June and July 2019 with 12 individuals, among which: 2 patients; 3 mine action operators; 4 medical staff, and 3 humanitarian workers 

An integrated approach to victim assistance in Cambodia & the role of Australia as supporting state

De BEAUPUIS, Gaetan
HOTTENOT, Elke
November 2018

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The objective of this case study was to review how Cambodia, as an affected state, and Australia as a donor, promote the provision of victim assistance in sectors including health, rehabilitation, disability, socio-economic development and poverty reduction. It documents promising practices and proposes next steps to ensure the sustainability of victim assistance provision in the near and long-term future. This study aims to inspire the mine action community in both affected and donor states to increase its contribution to victim assistance. This case study focuses on both prongs of the integrated approach to victim assistance by describing: i) Broader multi-sector efforts that reach casualties, survivors and indirect victims; and ii) Specific victim assistance efforts to improve victims’ quality of life deployed by mine action stakeholders, other actors in charge of coordinating victim assistance in Cambodia, and Australia as a donor state. An analysis of these specific efforts revealed that they fall into one of two of the following categories: a) Bridging gaps in data collection and service provision, or b) Advocating for, and facilitating, a multisector response.

 

Humanity & Inclusion (HI) and the Cambodian Mine Action and Victim Assistance Authority (CMAA) conducted the study in November 2017 in seven provinces. The methodology comprised three steps: a desk review of project documents, national plans and policies from a range of sectors with a focus on programmes funded by Australia; interviews with key personnel from the mine action and the disability sectors; and a field survey comprising 31 individual indepth interviews with 19 survivors and 12 other persons with disabilities (23 male and 8 female), 12 focus group discussions as well as field visits to observe the initiatives described in this publication. 

 

 

Challenges and priorities for global mental health in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) era

ACADEMY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES
June 2018

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Published in 2011, the Grand Challenges in Global Mental Health initiative provided a framework to guide the research needed to improve treatment and prevention of mental health disorders and expand access to mental health services. At the Academy’s workshop on global mental health participants reflected on progress since 2011, focusing on specific life-course stages, and identified priorities for research in treatment and prevention, as well as enduring challenges and emerging opportunities

L’autonomisation de personnes vulnérables, notamment des personnes handicapées, dans un contexte dépourvu de services et de ressources

ROCHE, Audrey
October 2017

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Cette publication est le produit d’un processus de capitalisation de l'expérience en insertion socioéconomique de personnes handicapées acquise par Handicap International et ses partenaires de mise en œuvre dans le cadre du projet TEAM CONGO à Kananga en RDC. L’objectif de cette capitalisation est d’une part, d’exposer la méthodologie en matière d’insertion socio-économique appliquée à Kananga, en détaillant les 2 principales bonnes pratiques - l’Accompagnement Social Personnalisé avec une approche holistique, et l’accès au capital économique via des micro-crédits- et les leçons apprises afin que les équipes d’Handicap International, les agences gouvernementales, et les organisations travaillant dans le domaine de l’Insertion socio-économique des personnes handicapées et personnes très vulnérables, puissent les utiliser dans le cadre de futures interventions. D’autre part, cette capitalisation vise à ébaucher des recommandations pour les futures interventions qui pourraient avoir lieu dans ce domaine en République Démocratique du Congo (RDC) ou dans des contextes similaires, dans lesquels les initiatives publiques ou privées en faveur de l'insertion économique des populations vulnérables comme l’offre de formation professionnelle, les opportunités d'emploi formel et l’accès au capital sont rares, voire même inexistantes. Une méthodologie d'action détaillée et adaptée à des contextes pauvres en ressources, sera ainsi proposée, à la lumière de l’expérience du volet d’insertion socio-économique du projet TEAM CONGO.

No One Left Behind: A review of social protection and disability at the World Bank

KARR, Valerie L
VAN EDEMA, Ashley
SIMS, Jacob
BRUSEGAARD, Callie
2017

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The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development cites poverty eradication as both the ‘greatest global challenge’ and an ‘indispensable requirement’ for sustainable development (UN, 2015). Unfortunately, the path between discourse and practice is rarely clear. This is especially true for the estimated one billion people with disabilities around the globe who face barriers and challenges to inclusion in mainstream development efforts; and for whom disability-specific projects and interventions are far and few between. This paper responds to the lack of available data focused on tracking the inclusion of persons with disabilities in mainstream poverty reduction efforts. It reports on work by a multidisciplinary research team in developing and piloting a methodology measuring disability inclusive investments in the World Bank’s active portfolio. The paper focuses specifically on the World Bank’s social protection portfolio, aligned with SDG 1 (End Poverty), and outlines a methodology for analysing project-level documentation, using key word searches, and codes aligned with the Sustainable Development Goals to determine the inclusion of persons with disabilities. Findings indicate that only a small percentage, 5%, of the World Bank’s active social protection portfolio explicitly include persons with disabilities as target beneficiaries. It goes on to argue that this dearth in disability inclusive development efforts exposes a vital need to systematically include the needs of this population in the planning for, provision of, and assessment of development assistance efforts. The paper concludes with a set of recommendations for ensuring future projects are inclusive from program development and implementation through to assessment of outcomes.

 

Disability & the Global South (DGS), 2017, Vol. 4 No. 1

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