The CBM smartphone app 'Humanitarian Hands-on Tool' (HHoT) provides step-by-step guidance on how to implement an inclusive emergency response. With disability-inclusive humanitarian action broken down into individual task cards, which explain the basic 'how-to' details in simple language and images, this web-based tool and downloadable mobile app aims to become the ‘go-to’ field resource for all agencies planning humanitarian work that leaves no-one behind
Purpose: This study assesses the factors that influence the wellbeing of caregivers and their children with a disability, in a rural and an urban site in Ghana. The wellbeing of parents, not surprisingly, influences the wellbeing of their children. A better understanding of the role and challenges faced by parents in caring for their child with a disability will help to improve existing services and support for children with disability.
Methods: Twenty-five parents of children with different disabilities participated in a PhotoVoice study. Photographs taken by parents, to show the challenges they experienced in childcare, were explained and discussed during focus group discussions. The Cantril Ladder was used to discuss subjective wellbeing.
Results: The photographs and discussions with parents indicated that the extensive time spent on their child, the child’s poor health status, and lack of educational opportunities had a negative influence on the wellbeing of both parent and child. Parents struggle to earn an income to provide for a child with disability. This often causes them to sink into (even deeper) poverty, and further increases the challenge to provide the (specific) care that a child with disability needs.
Conclusions and Implications: If governments, non-governmental organisations and community-based organisations want to contribute to the wellbeing of children with disability, they should be aware of the immediate context of the child, namely the family, and of the specific needs of the parents. Since the wellbeing of parents can affect the wellbeing of the child, and a child with disability may often cause further poverty in the family, relieving parents from some of the demands of childcare could help them to generate income, to the ultimate benefit of the entire family. Organisations working for children with a disability should actively involve parents of these children in designing and implementing interventions.
With increasing evidence of linkages between Guillain-Barré syndrome and Zika virus infection, the importance of enhancing Guillain-Barré syndrome surveillance is highlighted and use of existing surveillance systems like the one for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) used by polio eradication programmes is proposed. A process for using the AFP surveillance system for Zika virus surveillance is outlined. Worldwide distribution maps of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are presented and control measures following Zika infection testing are listed.
Dr Anthony Costello, Director of WHO's Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health, answers some key questions on Microcephaly and Zika virus infection including concerning how a pregnant women would know if her baby is infected, what support would be needed if the child has Microcephaly and what steps can be taken to avoid being infected
A short introduction to the Zika virus and pregnancy. This resources details the signs of the Zika virus and the difference between Zika virus, dengue, chikungunya, or malaria are outlined. How the mosquito spreads the disease, the prevention of mosquito bites, ways in which communities can prevent mosquito illnesses and removal of mosquito breeding sites from around the house and community are also covered
Note: resource is available online and in downloadable pdf formats
Participatory and creative research methods are a powerful tool for enabling active engagement in the research process of marginalised people. It can be par- ticularly hard for people living with multiple disadvantage, such as disabled peo- ple from ethnic minority backgrounds, to access research projects that are relevant to their lived experience. This article argues that creative and participa- tory methods facilitate the co-researchers’ engagement in the research process, which thus becomes more empowering. Exploring the congruence of these meth- ods with their professional ethos, health and care professionals can use their skills to develop them further. Both theory and practice examples are presented.
The purpose of these Guidelines is to assist humanitarian actors and communities affected by armed conflict, natural disasters and other humanitarian emergencies to coordinate, plan, implement, monitor and evaluate essential actions for the prevention and mitigation of gender-based violence (GBV) across all sectors of humanitarian response. Part One presents an overview of GBV, provides an explanation for why GBV is a protection concern for all humanitarian actors and outlines recommendations for ensuring implementation of the Guidelines. Part Two provides a background to the ‘thematic areas’ in Part Three. It also introduces the guiding principles and approaches that are the foundation for all planning and implementation of GBV-related programming. Part Three constitutes the bulk of these Guidelines. It provides specific guidance, organized into thirteen thematic area sections: camp coordination and camp management; child protection; education; food security and agriculture; health; housing, land and property; humanitarian mine action; livelihoods; nutrition; protection; shelter, settlement and recovery; water, sanitation and hygiene; humanitarian operations support sectors. The importance of cross-sectoral coordination is highlighted in each section. It is also recommended that sector actors review the content of all thematic area sections. The Guidelines draw from many tools, standards, background materials and other resources developed by the United Nations, national and international non-governmental organizations, and academic sources. In each thematic area there is a list of resources specific to that area, and additional GBV-related resources are provided in Annex 1. The importance of indicators being disaggregated by sex, age, disability and other vulnerability factors is highlighted throughout.
Purpose: The aim of the study was to examine whether there are any significant differences in demographic characteristics and health-related Quality of Life (QoL) among people living with HIV (PLWH) at shelter homes and drop-in centres in Malaysia.
Method: 117 PLWH were recruited by using the purposive sampling method. Data were collected through a questionnaire survey.
Results: Significant differences were found between PLWH at shelter homes and drop-in centres, in their demographic characteristics and in the 3 factors in the HIV/AIDS-Targeted Quality of Life Instruments (HAT-QoL) – namely, overall function, health worries, and provider trust.
Conclusion: Due to the differences in characteristics and QoL among PLWH in these two settings, different approaches are suggested to assist PLWH from shelter homes and drop-in centres.
Background: A disability grant is the financial assistance given by the government to South African citizens and bona fide refugees who have debility that results in inability to work. Doctors in state hospitals and clinics are tasked with the duty of assessing applicants for this grant. Ideally, the assessment is done by an institutional committee consisting of a doctor, physiotherapist, social worker, occupational therapist and specialised nurses. However, this is not always the case because of a shortage of personnel, particularly in rural areas. A lack of clear guidelines for the assessment process has led to confusion and differences in the outcomes. This poses major problems for the doctors, as well as the applicants, who often are dependent on the grant for survival. The aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence doctors in the assessment of applicants for a disability grant.
Methods: A qualitative study using free attitude interviews was conducted amongst doctors involved in the assessment process in Limpopo province. Content analysis was used to identify themes from the interviews.
Results: The assessment process was not entirely objective and was influenced by subjective factors. These included the mood of the doctors, emotions such as anger and sympathy, and feelings of desperation. Perceptions by the doctors regarding abuse of the system, abuse of the grant, the inappropriateness of the task, lack of clear guidelines and the usefulness of the committees were important in decision making. The doctors’ personal life experiences were a major determinant of the outcome of the application.
Conclusion: The assessment of applicants for a disability grant is a subjective and emotional task. There is need for policy makers to appreciate the difficulties inherent in the current medicalised process. Demedicalisation of certain aspects of disability assessment and other social needs that doctors do not view as a purely clinical functions is necessary. In addition, there is a need for clear, uniform policy on and guidelines for the management of the grant, the role of the doctor has to be defined, healthcare practitioners must be trained in disability assessment, institutional committees should be established and intersectoral initiatives should be encouraged to address issues of poverty and dependence.
People with disabilities are often amongst the poorest in the developing world, and yet they are usually left out of development projects. Inclusion of persons with disabilities in mainstream development programmes is a relatively new concept in development. The ICCO Gaibandha Food Security Project in Bangladesh is one of the first programmes that has mainstreamed disability on a large scale. This book represents the lessons that are learned about mainstreaming disability in this programme. It is a source of inspiration and offers practical suggestions to make a start with including people with disabilities in (food security) projects
This presentation is a “tool for raising awareness among community workers, volunteers and displaced people about increasing access and inclusion for persons with disabilities in refugee and displacement contexts. It can be used by staff of organisations working with refugees and displaced persons, as well as community leaders and disability associations conducting sensitisation with the wider refugee community. The tool illustrates common barriers experienced by persons with disabilities in displacement contexts, as well as positive practices or approaches to promote inclusion. Suggested questions provide a guide for facilitators of the discussion, but should be adapted according to the context and audience. The tool is intended to facilitate conversation about concerns and ideas for change at field levels, but is not a comprehensive catalogue of either barriers or solutions in these contexts”
This study aimed to assess whether children with disabilities were included within humanitarian and food security response programmes and whether there was an association between disability and malnutrition. The fieldwork was conducted in 2013 in the Turkana region of Kenya, a region repeatedly classified as experiencing a humanitarian emergency, and used both qualitative and quantitative methods. The key finding of the report is that children with disabilities are more likely to be malnourished and the key recommendations are that children with disabilities should be targeted in food aid and food assistance programmes, and that further efforts are needed to include children with disabilities in education. The report is intended for stakeholders to inform policy
This report summarises a study that aimed to assess whether children with disabilities were included within humanitarian and food security response programmes and whether there was an association between disability and malnutrition. The fieldwork was conducted in 2013 in the Turkana region of Kenya, a region repeatedly classified as experiencing a humanitarian emergency, and used both qualitative and quantitative methods. The key finding of the report is that children with disabilities are more likely to be malnourished and the key recommendations are that children with disabilities should be targeted in food aid and food assistance programmes, and that further efforts are needed to include children with disabilities in education. The report is intended for stakeholders to inform policy
Purpose: The Rapid Assessment of Disability (RAD) questionnaire was developed to provide governments and development agencies with an appropriate instrument to determine the prevalence of people with disability within theirtarget populations, and to design and evaluate the effectiveness of disability inclusive activities in addressing their priorities and needs.
Method: The RAD questionnaire was developed using two conceptual frameworks: the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Existing instruments were reviewed to inform the structure and content of the RAD questionnaire. The RAD questionnaire that was developed for field testing in Bangladesh comprised both a household questionnaire and a questionnaire for individuals within each household, with 5 sections: 1) Demographic information, 2) Assessment of functioning, 3) Awareness of rights of people with disability, 4) Well-being and quality of life, 5) Participation in the community. Prior to field-testing the RAD questionnaire in Bangladesh, a qualitative study was conducted to ensure the relevance of the questionnaire in the context of a developing country. In-depth interviews with 9 people with disability and a focus group of 8 parents of children with disability were conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Results:Qualitative findings highlighted factors relevant to the lives of people with disability in Bangladesh, including discrepancies between the awareness and attainment of rights for people with disability, the wellbeing of people withdisability and their families, as well as numerous barriers to full participation in their community. While the findings confirmed that the design and content of the questionnaire reflected all these aspects, some changes were made to the items in the questionnaire to ensure that it reflected the views of people with disability from the context of a developing country.
Conclusion and Implications: This qualitative study was an important step in the development of the RAD questionnaire as it helped to achieve its aim - namely, to establish the prevalence of disability and to assist in the design and evaluation of disability inclusive interventions in the setting of a developing country.
The Gaibandha Food Security Program is one of the first programs that mainstreams disability on a large scale, and the Food Security Project in Gaibandha was implemented in order to improve the food security situation of 40.000 women headed households. In April 2013 an internal evaluation took place on the disability mainstreaming process within the FSUP Gaibandha project. This report reflects related lessons learned about disability mainstreaming
Through its disaster risk reduction (DRR) activities, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) seeks to protect livelihoods from shocks, to make food production systems more resilient and more capable of absorbing the impact of, and recovering from, disruptive events. The FAO Disaster Risk Reduction for Food and Nutrition Security Framework Programme (DRR for FNS) serves to support and provide strategic direction, to FAO member countries and partners, for the implementation of Disaster Risk Reduction for Food and Nutrition Security programmes. The goal is to enhance the resilience of livelihoods against threats and emergencies to ensure the FNS of vulnerable farmers, fishers, herders, foresters and other at risk groups
Background: Health policies have the potential to be important instruments in achieving equity in health. A framework – EquiFrame - for assessing the extent to which health policies promote equity was used to perform an equity audit of the health policies of three international aid organizations.
Objective: To assess the extent to which social inclusion and human rights feature in the health policies of DFID (UK), Irish Aid, and NORAD (Norway).
Method: EquiFrame provides a tool for analyzing equity and quality of health policies with regards to social inclusion and human rights. Each health policy was analyzed with regards to the frequency and content of a predefined set ofVulnerable Groups and Core Concepts.
Results: The three policies vary but are all relatively weak with regards to social inclusion and human rights issues as defined in EquiFrame. The needs and rights of vulnerable groups for adequate health services are largely not addressed.
Conclusion: In order to enhance a social inclusion and human rights perspective that will promote equity in health through more equitable health policies, it is suggested that EquiFrame can be used to guide the revision and development of the health policies of international organizations, aid agencies and bilateral donors in the future.
Limitations: Analyses are limited to “policy on the books” and does not measure how effectively vulnerable groups are included in mainstream health policy work.
"This report was written in the run-up to Rio+20, the UN conference that will revisit the outcomes of its 1992 precursor. Rio+20 aims to set the agenda for sustainable development policies in the coming decade, with its focus on a next generation of sustainable development goals, a green economy and the reform of the institutional framework for sustainable development. This report analyses possible pathways to achieve a set of internationally agreed sustainable development goals for food, land and biodiversity, as well as for energy and climate. It explores how environmental and development objectives could be reconciled, in actual practice"
This collection of articles documents the lessons learned during the project implementation in Nepal. It describes the prevailing physical, institutional and socio economic context, and details the activities and its interventions. The collection presents a compilation of initiatives and their evaluated outcomes on improved and diversified livelihood strategies, including the adoption of new income earning opportunities with increased resilience and food security, and improved health and resilience of targeted communities while reducing their exposure to prevailing and future hazards
In Nepal, many people live with leprosy-related disabilities. The objective of this stdy was to evalate dierences in socio-economic characteristics, ality of life , perceived stima, activity and participation amon people aected by leprosy as a group and between this group and the general population, and to identify prime determinants of among the leprosy-aected people.
People with leprosy-related disabilities (N=100; 54DGI/46DGII) and community controls (N=100) were selected from Morang district, South-East Nepal, using uota sampling. , perceived stigma and participation and activity limitations were measured using the Nepali abbreviated version of the World Health Organisation Quality of Life (WHOQOL) assessment and the Nepali versions of the Jacoby Scale, Participation Scale and Green Pastures Activity Scale (GPAS), respectively.
Total QOL, participation and activity levels of people aected by leprosy were worse than those of the general population. Regression analysis showed that the ability to maintain a family, satisfaction with health, vocational training, se, activity and participation limitations (the laer for QOL only), perceived stigma and living situation (i.e. joint family, type of house) were signicantly associated with a deterioration in QOL and higher participation restriction in one or both of the grading groups.
There is an urgent need for interventions focused on uic referral of people with leprosy, to minimize the development of visible impairments, and social rehabilitation. The laer can be achieved by creating more public awareness, providing (nancial) support for income generating projects and /or vocational training to leprosy- aected people, and by encouraging them to be involved in all community development activities. The current results indicate that such measures would help improve the uality of life of people with leprosy-related disabilities.
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