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Adolescence in Pakistan : sex, marriage and reproductive health. The findings of research carried out into awareness of sexual and reproductive health and rights in Pakistan

HAMDANI, Insha
LEE-JONES, Louise
SADLER, Alan
February 2006

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Report of research into awareness of sexual and reproductive health and rights in Pakistan. The results of the research show that respondents had little SRH information to help them through the changes of adolescence, and cultural barriers exacerbate the problem. Girls were more likely to experience social restrictions and their options were limited, reflecting traditional cultural values. As a result of their participation in the research, however, many agreed that more information about menstruation could be beneficial to them

Promoting young people's sexual and reproductive health : dynamic contextual analysis

CHALMERS, Helen
et al
January 2006

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This resource offers a new approach to understanding and developing work to meet the sexual and reproductive health needs of young people. After setting out the key principles which inform a Dynamic Contextual Analysis, the guide outlines the three main steps in carrying out such an assessment of needs and opportunities. Policy-makers, practitioners and researchers working to promote young people's sexual health in resource-constrained settings will find this resource particularly useful

From the front line : the impact of social, legal and judicial impediments to sexual health promotion, and HIV and AIDS related care and support for males who have sex with males in Bangladesh and India

MULJI, Kim
Ed
2006

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This is the report of a study to explore social justice issues concerning men who have sex with men, in Chennai, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Lucknow, Pune and Dhaka, and the human rights violations faced by them, and analyse how this impacts upon their vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. It is part of a larger project to develop strategies to reduce the impact of stigma, discrimination and harassment men who have sex with men face on HIV risk reduction programmes directed at them

Sexual and reproductive health for HIV-positive women and adolescent girls : mannual for trainers and programme managers

BELL, Emma
PERCHAL, Paul
2006

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This manual is designed to provide information and structure for a four-day training and a two-day planning workshop that will enable programme managers and health workers in resource-constrained settings to offer comprehensive, non-judgemental, and quality care and support to HIV-positive women and adolescent girls in the local context. The manual also encourages male involvement and promotes a holistic approach to integrated sexual and reproductive health (SRH) counselling and programme planning that links SRH and HIV and AIDS services

Are your rights respected?

MELETSE, John
MOTSWAI, Tommy
2006

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This publication addresses issues of HIV prevention, sexual violence and sexual rights and was primarily designed for the deaf community in South Africa. It tells the story of a group of students at a deaf school confronting issues of sexual health and violence, and describes how they learn to deal with them. Due to low levels of literacy and limited health care access, and despite being the largest disability group in South Africa, deaf people are generally little aware of the health implication of sexual behaviours and of their sexual rights. Contains vital and well targeted information presented in a simple and accessible way

Ideas for working with girls : materials on violence against women, rights, health & sexuality, advocacy and much more...

INTERNATIONAL WOMEN'S TRIBUNE CENTRE (IWTC)
WOMEN INK
2006

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This CD-ROM contains a resource collection of games, training manuals, workshop guides etc. for teachers, trainers and development workers who are working for and with girls. It includes interactive and participatory training guides and resources on rights, empowerment, violence against women and girls, HIV/AIDS, sexuality and reproductive health and leadership development

Poverty, equity and health research : a report on Forum 9

STEARNS, Beverly Peterson
December 2005

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This is a report on Forum 9, highlighting the key themes emerged during the discussions. Forum 9 focused on poverty, equity and health research, and their affect on access to health services, particularly in low-income countries. The report looks at the vicious cycle of poverty and ill-health, gender disparities, sexual and reproductive health, innovation and human intellectual capital, policies, priorities and resources

The changing context of sexual initiation in sub-Saharan Africa

MENSCH, Barbara S
GRANT, Monica J
BLANC, Ann K
November 2005

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During the past 20 years, substantial reductions have occurred in the proportion of young women who report marrying as teenagers in sub-Saharan Africa. An oft-stated consequence of a delay in age at marriage is a rise in the proportion of young women who engage in premarital sex. This paper investigates the links between changing age at marriage and premarital sexual behavior in 27 sub-Saharan African countries in which Demographic and Health Surveys were conducted between 1994 and 2003. Using multiple-decrement life tables to examine the competing risks of premarital sex and marriage without prior sexual experience, we answer the largely unaddressed question of how reductions in the prevalence of early marriage have affected the likelihood of initiating premarital sex. Our analysis reveals that although the age of first sexual activity has either remained the same or increased, a shift in the context of sexual debut from marriage to before marriage has taken place in many countries. We assess whether the increase in the proportion of young women who report premarital sex is influenced by an increase in exposure resulting from delayed marriage or by an increase in the rate of premarital sex. The evidence on this point is mixed; in some settings greater exposure explains more of the increase, whereas in others an increased rate of premarital sex dominates

Trends in the timing of first marriage among men and women in the developing world

MENSCH, Barbara S
SINGH, Susheela
CASTERLINE, John B
August 2005

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The timing of first union merits investigation not only because of the close temporal link between marriage and the onset of childbearing, but also because the age when men and women marry has implications for the organization of family life and for gender relations within society. This paper begins by reviewing the contributions of various social science disciplines to an understanding of the timing of marriage. Using current status data from 73 countries provided by the United Nations Population Division and retrospective data from 52 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 1990 and 2001, we then examine recent trends in the timing of first marriage or union for men and women in the developing world. With the exception of South America for both sexes and South and Southeast Asia for men, substantial declines have occurred in the proportion of young men and women who are married. Given the differentials in the timing of marriage by educational attainment and residence, we assess whether the decline in the proportion of young people who are married is related to increases in schooling and urbanization. Expansion of schooling for women has had some impact, but a considerable portion of the reduction in early marriage is not explained by changes in levels of education. We consider other factors that might account for the increase in age at marriage. Finally, we review what is known about the consequences of changing age at marriage with a particular focus on risk of HIV infection.

Mexico Forum 8

GLOBAL FORUM FOR HEALTH RESEARCH
February 2005

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The Global Forum for Health Research aims at addressing the "10/90 gap": less than ten per cent of research funds are devoted to 90 per cent of the world health needs. This CD-ROM contains the full text of papers and posters presented at Forum 8 in Mexico City in 2004. Forum 8 gathered around 900 participants from 450 institutions in 109 countries. Participants represented governments, multilateral and bilateral aid agencies, international and national foundations and NGOs, women's organizations, research institutions and universities, the private sector and the media. Topics covered include health research, disease prevention, child mortality, maternal health, substance abuse, mental and neurological health

A client-centered approach to reproductive health : a trainer's manual

POPULATION COUNCIL
February 2005

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'The Population Council has developed a novel framework for training providers to deliver client-centered reproductive health services. The essence of the approach is to bring about behaviour change in providers by making them more receptive and responsive to client needs. Further, providers are taught to treat clients with respect and dignity, to assess their reproductive health needs holistically within the context of their household circumstances, and to negotiate solutions that clients are able to implement. Known by the acronym SAHR, this approach involves four interconnected steps: Salutation, Assessment, Help, and Reassurance. Through operations research, SAHR was successfully tested in Pakistan in 2000-02. The training manual describes the SAHR approach and is meant to facilitate training of reproductive health providers in how to offer client-centered services. The manual is written in fairly generic terms and can be used, with slight modifications, in any setting or country. The manual has three sections. Section One, the introduction, is an overview of the contents. Section Two, the trainer's guide, comprises the training modules. Each module describes the individual components of client-provider interaction and includes learning objectives, key learning points, a schedule, and a list of materials required. Trainer notes and step-by-step instructions for each activity are included within each module. Section Three contains support materials to help trainers prepare for the sessions.'

The WHO Reproductive Health Library

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO). Special Programme of Research, Development & Research Training in Human Reproduction
2005

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This CD-ROM is targetted at health care professionals and assists them in understanding research evidence, making decisions about best practice, and establishing implementation procedures to assure the change. It contains editorials, articles on research, research synthesis and methodology, summaries of beneficial and harmful forms of care, systematic reviews and commentaries, implementation aids, registers of funding agencies and NGOs involved in reproductive health, and links to websites about research and research synthesis. This edition includes 13 new Cochrane Reviews (bringing the total to 101), and corresponding commentaries and practical recommendations. This issue includes a new video on 'Vacuum extraction for assisted vaginal delivery'.

Effective HIV/AIDS and reproductive health information to people with disabilities

MUNTHALI, Alister
MVULA, Peter
ALI, Sandra
2005

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This study is designed to explore and understand the sexual and reproductive health needs and experiences of people with disabilities, their perceptions about HIV/AIDS and how best information about HIV/AIDS can be communicated to people with various forms of disabilities. The study looks at channels of communication, knowledge of HIV/AIDS, sources of information about HIV/AIDS, awareness of sexually transmitted infections and family planning. It makes a number of recommendations for stakeholders in HIV work and the disability sector

Global health watch 2005-2006 : an alternative world health report

LEMA, Claudia
et al
2005

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This report is the result of a collaboration of leading popular movements, NGOs, activists, academics and health workers. It provides an evidence-based analysis of the political economy of health and health care and challenges policies and initiatives of global organisations including the World Bank, the World Health Organization and UNICEF. Many key issues relevant to health are covered, including health care services and systems, health of vulnerable groups, climate change, food and water, education, armed conflicts. Part E also provides and assessment of the impact global institutions, transnational corporations and rich countries. This report is a call for action, directed to health workers and activists and national and international policy-makers

UN Millennium Project 2005 : who's got the power? Transforming health systems for women and children. Task Force on Child Health and Maternal Health

FREEDMAN, Lynn P
et al
2005

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This report has been produced by the Task Force on Child Health and Maternal Health. It identifies technical interventions needed to address the problems of high rates of maternal mortality, continued child deaths due to preventable illnesses, unmet need for sexual and reproductive health services, and weak and fragile health systems. The report also asserts that policymakers must act now to change the fundamental societal dynamics that currently prevent those most in need from accessing quality health care

Mexico : Forum 8. Book of abstracts

GLOBAL FORUM FOR RESEARCH
November 2004

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This collection contains abstracts of posters presented at the Mexico Forum 8, which aimed at addressing the "10/90 gap": less than ten per cent of research funds are devoted to 90 per cent of the world health needs. The forum gathered around 900 participants from 450 institutions in 109 countries. Participants represented governments, multilateral and bilateral aid agencies, international and national foundations and NGOs, women's organisations, research institutions and universities, the private sector and the media. Abstracts cover topics including health research, disease prevention, child mortality, maternal health, substance abuse, mental and neurological health

Effective HIV/AIDS and reproductive health information to people with disabilities

MUNTHALI, Alister
MVULA, Peter
ALI, Sandra
October 2004

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This study explores the sexual and reproductive health needs and experiences of people with disabilities, as well as perceptions about HIV and AIDS and disability. The purpose is to address the accessibility of health communication for people with different impairments. This study would be useful for anyone with an interest in HIV and AIDS and disability

Situation analysis of youth (health) centres in Tanzania

DETSCHER, Susanne
September 2004

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This study was done to seek best practices in sexual and reproductive health education, by comparing youth (health) centres with different approaches around the country. The average age of visitors was 20.3, and over 2/3 came every day. There are a variety of activities (sport, cultural, information, education and communication (IEC), vocational and health training), and most centres are run by volunteers. Some of the health facilities are not well attended because of poor resources. Most centres are not self sustaining, and those that attempt to be tend to lose sight of their purpose. Young people felt they should have greater ownership of the centres. It was concluded that the ideal youth centre is a resource centre run by young people, with the involvement of the community, youth work specialists, volunteers and youth friendly health care providers, where youth-relevant information, a range of leisure and IEC activities, and counselling is available, as well as opportunities to develop personal skills. However, offering professional health services in Youth centres is most probably not cost-effective, mostly due to low numbers of actual clients

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