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Abuse and denial of sexual and reproductive rights of women with psychosocial disabilities in Mexico

RODRIGUEZ, Priscila
et al
February 2015

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This report presents the situation faced by women with psycho-social conditions in Mexico based on the results of a year-long study. This research included the application of a questionnaire to fifty-one women with psychosocial disabilities who were either members of the Colectivo Chuhcan or received outpatient services at four different health clinics and psychiatric institutions in Mexico City. The main finding of this report is that the Mexican government has failed to implement policies that ensure that women with psychosocial disabilities have safe access to sexual and reproductive health services, on an equal basis with others. It is recommended this research be extended to the rest of the country to gain a clearer picture on the situation of the sexual and reproductive rights of women with disabilities at a national level

The relationship between HIV and prevalence of disabilities in sub-Saharan Africa : systematic review

BANKS, Lena Morgon
ZUURMOND, Maria
FERRAND, Rashida
KUPER, Hannah
January 2015

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Objective: To systematically review evidence on the prevalence and risk of disabilities among children and adults living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.

 

Methods: Articles were identified from 1980 to June 2013 through searching seven electronic databases. Epidemiological studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa that explored the association between HIV status and general disability or specific impairments, with or without an HIVuninfected comparison group, were eligible for inclusion.

 

Results: Of 12 867 records initially identified, 61 papers were deemed eligible for inclusion. The prevalence of disability was high across age groups, impairment types and study locations. Furthermore, 73% of studies using an HIV- comparator found significantly lower levels of functioning in people living with HIV (PLHIV). By disability type, the results were as follows: (i) for studies measuring physical impairments (n = 14), median prevalence of limitations in mobility and motor function among PLHIV was 25.0% (95% CI: 21.8–28.2%). Five of eight comparator studies found significantly reduced functioning among PLHIV; for arthritis, two of three studies which used an HIV- comparison group found significantly increased prevalence among PLHIV; (ii) for sensory impairment studies (n = 17), median prevalence of visual impairment was 11.2% (95%CI: 9.5– 13.1%) and hearing impairment was 24.1% (95%CI: 19.2–29.0%) in PLHIV. Significantly increased prevalence among PLHIV was found in one of four (vision) and three of three studies (hearing) with comparators; (iii) for cognitive impairment in adults (n = 30), median prevalence for dementia was 25.3% (95% CI: 22.0–28.6%) and 40.9% (95% CI: 37.7–44.1%) for general cognitive impairment. Across all types of cognitive impairment, twelve of fourteen studies found a significant detrimental effect of HIV infection; (iv) for developmental delay in children with HIV (n = 20), median prevalence of motor delay was 67.7% (95% CI: 62.2–73.2%). All nine studies that included a comparator found a significant difference between PLHIV and controls; for cognitive development and global delay, a significant detrimental effect of HIV was found in five of six and one of two studies, respectively. In the nine cohort studies comparing vertically infected and uninfected children, eight showed a significant gap in development over time in children with HIV. Finally, fifteen of thirty-one (48%) studies found a statistically significant dose–response relationship between indicators of disease progression (CD4 or WHO stage) and disability.

 

Conclusions: HIV is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and the evidence suggests that it is linked to disabilities, affecting a range of body structures and functions. More research is needed to better understand the implications of HIV-related disability for individuals, their families as well as those working in the fields of disability and HIV so that appropriate interventions can be developed.

African disability rights yearbook

NGWENA, Charles
et al
2015

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This volume of the African Disability Rights Yearbook is divided into three sections presenting articles, country reports and commentaries on regional developments, and has added a new feature in the form of a book review section. The first section (A) of the journal presents a number of articles on issues affecting people with disabilities in Africa, ranging from sexual and reproductive rights to socio-economic issues. Section B presents a number of country reports on Eritrea, Lesotho, Morocco, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, Tunisia. Section C presents two articles focussing on regional development; one on disability rights and emergency legislation, and another on the right to political participation for people with disabilities in Africa. Finally the journal presents a review of A.S. Kanter’s 2014 book "The development of disability rights under international law: From charity to human rights"

Volume 3

2015 global reference list of 100 core health indicators

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2015

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“The Global Reference List of 100 Core Health Indicators is a standard set of 100 indicators prioritized by the global community to provide concise information on the health situation and trends, including responses at national and global levels. It contains indicators of relevance to country, regional and global reporting across the spectrum of global health priorities relating to the post-2015 health goals of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). These include the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) agenda, new and emerging priorities such as noncommunicable diseases, universal health coverage and other issues in the post-2015 development agenda.”

Human Rights

www.macao-tz.org
December 2014

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Malezi AIDS Care Awareness Organization (MACAO) is a non-profit organization reaching out to neglected Indigenous people in Ngorongoro District, Arusha Region of Northern Tanzania.  Macao founded in 2003, Macao is a humanitarian organization that provides assistance to approximately 200,000 Indigenous Maasai community in Ngorongoro district for addressing needs of water and sanitation, food security, health Care Research, Education, Research environment, Maasai Traditional Research, Human Rights and sustainable economic development by strengthening their livelihoods.  In addition to responding to major relief situations, MACAO focuses on long-term community development through over 4 Area Development Project. We welcome the donors and volunteers to join us in this programs, we are wolking in ruro villages.

Including disability in HIV policy and programming : good practices drawn from country-based evidence

MAC-SEING, Muriel
December 2014

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The purpose of this document is to share good practices and processes concerning the inclusion of disability issues in HIV policy and programming, drawing on specific experiences in Senegal, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda and Cambodia and on lessons learned at international AIDS conferences. More specifically, it is intended to 1) provide a clear indication to HIV and AIDS practitioners that disability mainstreaming in HIV and AIDS is indeed possible and workable in various contexts and by implementing specific steps/initiatives; 2) transfer concrete knowledge and practices to disability stakeholders, including disabled people's organisations, on how to work in HIV and AIDS; and 3) persuade HIV-related development partners that more investment is needed to develop this knowledge base in order to bring about practical changes at micro, meso and macro levels, as well as among the population. The good practices are also intended to inspire and motivate other organisations and agencies to use and replicate them in other contexts and countries, if/when they are adapted to the needs and situations of people with disabilities and communities

LL 07

Including disability in HIV policy and programming : good practices drawn from country-based evidence : brief

MAC-SEING, Muriel
December 2014

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This brief is an introduction to the lessons learned document on good practices about the inclusion of disability in HIV policy and programming. Good practices and processes concerning the inclusion of disability issues in HIV policy and programming are highlighted, drawing on specific experiences in Senegal, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda and Cambodia and on lessons learned at international AIDS conferences

LL No 7 Brief 

Survey of Reproduction Needs and Services: Situation of Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries

JINMING, Z
YUGE, Z
GENLIN, L
YUCHEN, G
SUWEN, C
2014

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Purpose: This article explores the reproductive wants and needs of persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI), along with factors that influence these needs and the services available to them.

 

Method: The study sample comprised persons with SCI from China Rehabilitation Research Centre who matched the research criteria and consented to participate. Data collection took place through questionnaires and in-depth interviews. After the objectives, contents and methods of the survey were explained, 63 respondents answered the questionnaire, and 17 of them (15 men and 2 women) agreed to participate in the in-depth interviews. All the respondents were above 18 years of age, either unmarried or married, and childless.

 

Results: It was found that 85.7% of the respondents wished to have children. The more severe the SCI, the less was the desire for children. Those with higher levels of education were less inclined to have children. While financial situation had little impact on the wish for children, the impact of traditional concepts was significant. The reproductive experiences of other SCI clients had a significant influence on respondents’ desire to have children. More than 50% of the respondents were ignorant that they could have babies after SCI. 96.8% of them believed that a child played an important role in marital stability. Though 54% of the respondents wished to have their sexual and fertility problems addressed in medical and rehabilitation institutions, 93.7% said they had not received any such professional services during the previous year.

 

Conclusions: Although most persons with spinal cord injuries are very keen to have children, their wants and needs are not recognised and little attention is paid to specialized service provision to address their needs. This study suggests that steps such as improving awareness, disseminating knowledge and setting up institutions to provide professional services are necessary to address reproductive needs and to protect the reproductive rights of persons with SCI.

Disability and HIV : a systematic review and a meta-analysis of the risk of HIV infection among adults with disabilities in Sub-Saharan Africa

DE BEAUDRAP, Pierre
MAC-SEING, Muriel
PASQUIER, Estelle
July 2014

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"More than one billion people worldwide are estimated to be living with a disability. A significant proportion of them lives in Sub-Saharan Africa where they are reported to be at increased risk of HIV. However, quantitative evidence on this remains scarce. A systematic review and a meta-analysis of the risk of HIV infection among people with disabilities living in Sub-Saharan Africa were undertaken. We searched all published or unpublished studies and national surveys reporting HIV prevalence among adults with disabilities living in Sub-Saharan Africa between 2000 and 2013. The risk ratio (RR) of HIV infection in people with disabilities versus people without disabilities was estimated through a random-effects meta-analysis. Of the 12,252 references screened, 13 studies were selected. HIV prevalence varied widely across studies from 1.1% to 29%. Pooled RRs of HIV infection in people with disabilities compared to the general population were 1.31 (1.02–1.69) overall; 1.16 (0.71–1.87) among people with mental illness or intellectual disabilities and 1.07 (0.58–1.95) among people with hearing disabilities. This meta-analysis provides evidence that people with disabilities do not have a lower risk of HIV when compared to the general population, and that women with disabilities are especially affected. A clear increasing gradient in the risk of HIV according to gender and disability status was also observed. The important heterogeneity across studies and their varying quality warrant a closer look at the intersection between disability and HIV. Additional studies with more systematic approaches and with higher-quality methodologies are required to further address this knowledge gap"

 

AIDS Care : Psychological and Socio-medical Aspects of HIV/AIDS, Volume 26, Issue 12

DOI: 10.1080/09540121.2014.936820

 

The gap report

THE JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV AND AIDS (UNAIDS)
July 2014

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The goal of this report is to provide the best possible data on the global AIDS epidemic, with a particular focus on information and analysis on the people left behind. The report highlights these gaps firstly in regional terms, providing “Regional Snapshots” and then explores issues faced by the following 12 populations that have been left behind by the AIDS response: people living with HIV, adolescent girls and young women, prisoners, migrants, people who inject drugs, sex workers, gay men and other men who have sex with men, transgender people, children and pregnant women living with HIV, displaced persons, people with disabilities and people aged 50 years and older

"We are also dying of AIDS” : barriers to HIV services and treatment for persons with disabilities in Zambia

CHOPRA, Rashmi
July 2014

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This report documents the obstacles faced by people with disabilities in both the community and healthcare settings. These include pervasive stigma and discrimination, lack of access to inclusive HIV prevention education, obstacles to accessing voluntary testing and HIV treatment, and lack of appropriate support for adherence to antiretroviral treatment. The report also describes the sexual and intimate partner violence women and girls with disabilities face, and the need for the government and international donors to do more to ensure inclusive and accessible HIV services

 

Note : Accessible and easy read versions are available from the link above

Predictors of voluntary HIV counselling and testing services utilization among people with disabilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

ADEREMI, Toyin Janet
et al
June 2014

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“The study investigated HIV testing prevalence and factors associated with the utilization of voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) services among individuals with disabilities in Addis Ababa. The analysis was based on a survey of 209 men and 203 women with disabilities, aged 15–49, who had ever heard about HIV and AIDS in four sub-cities in Addis Ababa. HIV testing prevalence was 53.2%, with no significant difference between males and females. Comprehensive HIV knowledge, living with spouse, and religious affiliations positively predicted utilization of VCT services among participants. Living with both parents and having physical or mental/intellectual disabilities were negative predictors of VCT services utilization. More research on the predictors of utilization of VCT services by gender and urban/rural divides are needed among people with disabilities”

AIDS Care: Psychological and Socio-medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV, Vol 26, Issue 10

Women’s rights and gender equality in the post-2015 framework : gender and development network position paper

WOODROFFE, Jessica
et al
February 2014

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This GADN position paper calls on world leaders committed to promoting gender equality to prioritise the inclusion of a strong standalone goal on gender equality and women’s rights in the forthcoming negotiations on the post-2015 framework”, alongside mainstreaming to ensure that gender equality is embedded across the framework. It identifies the need for targets that are transformative to promote changes in the power and choices women have over their own lives, focusing on five main areas: violence against women and girls; economic empowerment; political participation and influence in decision making; sexual and reproductive health and rights; and education 

Including orphans and vulnerable children with disabilities in early childhood development programs : technical brief

LEVY, Marcy
MESSNER, Lyn
WERTLIEB, Donald
January 2014

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“This technical brief presents information and guidance on implementing early childhood development (ECD) programmes for young orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) with disabilities and their families. It provides a basic overview of the fundamental elements a program manager should consider to integrate disability positively into ECD programmes and address specific disabilities individually, as needed. This technical brief describes “twin-track” and “triple-track” approaches that promote participation, attention to specific needs, and equal access for OVC with disabilities and their families. It also lists six critical elements for HIV programmes seeking to address the needs of children with disabilities”

Applied research on disability in Africa : general mapping

INTERNATIONAL FOUNDATION OF APPLIED DISABILITY RESEARCH (FIRAH)
2014

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“The goal of this literary review is to report on existing knowledge about applied research on the African continent, regarding the living conditions of people with disabilities, poverty, violence and sexual abuse especially regarding children and women with disabilities, community-based rehabilitation and employment”

Factsheet HIV and WASH

STOP AIDS
WaterAid
Catholic Agency For Overseas Development (CAFOD)
November 2013

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"This factsheet sets out to explain the connection between water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and HIV and AIDS, and provides recommendations on how HIV interventions can integrate WASH into their programming"

Perceptions about Barriers to Sexual and Reproductive Health Information and Services among Deaf People in Ghana

MPRAH, W K
2013

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Purpose: This study aimed to provide insights into factors that influence the acquisition, accessibility, and utilisation of Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) information and services by deaf people who communicate using Ghanaian Sign Language (GSL).

 

Method: The study explored deaf people’s perceptions about barriers to SRH information and services in Ghana. There were 26 participants in 3 focus groups: 10 executives of Ghana National Association of the Deaf (GNAD), 7 deaf adult males and 9 deaf adult females. A key informant, who had experience in working with deaf people, was also interviewed. Review of documents and observations helped to clarify data gathered from the focus groups.

 

Results: Study findings indicated that when accessing SRH information and services in Ghana, deaf people encounter numerous barriers such as problems with communication, ignorance about deafness, negative attitudes, and services that are not customised to their needs.

 

Conclusion: If it is to succeed, any SRH programme for the deaf community must make the eradication of communication barriers a priority, since communication is fundamental to all challenges that deaf people encounter.

HIV-related disability in HIV hyper-endemic countries : a scoping review

HANASS-HANCOCK, Jill
et al
September 2013

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This article presents the results of the first scoping review to examine the extent, nature and range of disability among people living with HIV in HIV hyper-endemic countries. The studies indicate that people living with HIV experience a variety of disabilities. Impairments in body structure/function comprise the majority of data, with particular focus on mental function. Data on activity limitations and participation restriction were limited, however, they were recorded. They indicate severe impact on people’s life and possible adherence. The review argues that the time has come to elevate the focus holistically on health and life-related consequences of living with HIV and to integrate disability into the discussions and approaches to HIV care

World Journal of Aids, Vol 3, No 3

Sexual and reproductive health needs assessment with deaf people in Ghana: Methodological challenges and ethical concerns

MPRAH, Wisdom K
2013

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Background: Deafness is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. The different ways of perceiving and understanding deafness have practical implications for research with deaf people. Whilst the deaf community is not homogenous, it is generally distinct from the hearing population. Consequently, the appropriateness of applying research methods and informed concern processes designed for the hearing population in research with deaf people has been questioned.

 

Objectives: This article reflected on some methodological challenges and ethical concerns arising from conducting a sexual and reproductive health needs assessment with deaf people in Ghana. The aim was to provide some perspectives on some of the challenges associated with doing research with deaf people.

 

Method: The study was a two phase, sequential, mixed methods design, consisting of three focus groups to assist in the development of a survey and then the implementation of the survey for needs assessment data collection. The number of participants in the study was 179, consisting of 26 focus group participants: 7 executives of the Ghana National Association of the Deaf (GNAD), 10 male adults, and 9 female adults. There were 152 survey respondents (students, women and men) and one key informant. All participants, except the key informant, were deaf people.

 

Results: The application of traditional research methods to studies involving deaf participants presents numerous methodological and ethical dilemmas associated mainly with deaf people’s unique cultural and linguistic characteristics.

 

Conclusion: Research methods should not be taken as universal guidelines for conducting research in all settings because of differences in settings.

 

Knowledge and use of contraceptive methods amongst deaf people in Ghana

MPRAH, Wisdom K
2013

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Background: Persons with disabilities in general face serious barriers to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services due to institutional and attitudinal barriers. However, because deaf people have unique communication and linguistic needs, which are often misunderstood or ignored, they face greater barriers than other persons with disabilities. Whilst available data indicated that there is a wide gap between knowledge and usage of contraceptive amongst Ghanaians, little is known about the level of contraceptive knowledge and usage amongst deaf people.

 

Objectives: The objective of the study was to investigate the level of knowledge and use of contraceptive methods amongst deaf people in Ghana with the aim of understanding their contraceptive behaviour and to improve access.

 

Method: The study was a participatory SRH needs assessment utilising a two-phase, sequential, mixed methods design. The study included 179 participants, consisting of focus groups with seven executives of Ghana National Association of the Deaf (GNAD), 10 male deaf adults, and 9 deaf female adults. A total of 152 deaf people, made up of students, women, and men participated in a survey, whilst one hearing person served as a key informant.

 

Results: The findings of the study indicated that of the 13 methods shown in the survey, only three were known to about 70% of the adults and 60% of the students. Level of knowledge of the remaining nine methods was low.

 

Conclusion: Clear and effective policies are needed to guide the provision of SRH information and services for deaf people in Ghana.

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