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Coid-19: Violence risk and loss of income among persons with disabilities

ADD International
October 2020

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This report presents findings from telephone interviews with 87 members from Disabled People’s Organisation (DPO) partners and 10 DPO/Self-Help Group (SHG) leaders from organisations with 1,998 members in 10 districts across 7 provinces of Cambodia, to ask about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on persons with disabilities.

 

Three patterns emerge from these interviews: there is a pattern of compounding vulnerability to violence; a pattern of significant livelihood loss that is felt differently by disability type and gender; and a link between livelihood loss and pronounced increase in economic and psychological violence against women and girls with disabilities.

 

Evidence from these interviews suggests that, during the COVID-19 pandemic, some women with disabilities are at increased risk of violence and suffering a dramatic loss in household earnings. Reported violence risk increase is mostly psychological and economic, higher among older respondents and most pronounced among those who already experienced medium to high risk of violence before COVID-19.

Development of self-help groups for caregivers of children with disabilities in Kilifi, Kenya: Process evaluation

GONA, Joseph K.
NEWTON, Charles
HARTLEY, Sally
BUNNING, Karen
July 2020

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Background: Caring for a child with disabilities in a resource-poor setting brings many challenges to the caregiver. We examined the development of self-help groups for caregivers in a rural part of Kenya.

 

Objectives: To conduct a process evaluation on the development of self-help groups during a 10-month set-up period, focusing on implementation and mechanisms associated with their functional status.

 

Methods: Using a realist evaluation design, we set up 20 self-help groups for 254 caregivers. An evaluation was conducted to investigate implementation and mechanisms of impact. Implementation focused on caregiver registration, community group support and monitoring visit compliance. Data were collected from group registers, records of meetings and field notes. Mechanisms of impact employed a framework of strengths–weaknesses–opportunities–threats to review the groups at the end of the 10-month set-up period.

 

Results: Recruitment resulted in registration of 254 participants to 18 groups – two groups disbanded early. Post-evaluation included 11 active and 7 inactive groups. Compliance with the monitoring visits was consistent across the active groups. All groups engaged in ‘merry-go-round’ activities. The active groups were characterised by strong leadership and at least one successful income generation project; the inactive had inconsistent leadership and had dishonest behaviour both within the group and/or externally in the community. Mediators associated with functional status included the following: available literacy and numeracy skills, regular meetings with consistent attendance by the members, viable income generating projects, geographical proximity of membership and strong leadership for managing threats.

 

Conclusion: Self-help groups have the potential to progress in resource-poor settings. However, critical to group progression are literacy and numeracy skills amongst the members, their geographical proximity, regular meetings of the group, viable income generating projects and strong leadership.

 

 

African Journal of Disability, Vol 9, 2020

Disability progression among leprosy patients released from treatment: a survival analysis

dos Santos, Aleksandra Rosento
et al
May 2020

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Leprosy can be cured, but physical disability (PD) as a result of the infection can progress in the post-release from treatment phase. This study evaluated the likelihood of, and factors associated with, the progression of the PD grade post-release from treatment among leprosy patients treated in Cáceres-MT, Brazil in the period 2000 to 2017.

A retrospective cohort study and survival analysis were performed in the hyperendemic municipality of Cáceres in the state of Mato Grosso. The study population consisted of newly diagnosed leprosy patients released from treatment between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2017.

 

Infect Dis Poverty 9, 53 (2020)

https://doi.org/10.1186/s40249-020-00669-4

Stop Coronavirus: Keep clean

MENCAP
April 2020

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Why we need to keep our hands and things we touch clean in order to stop the spread of the Coronavirus pandemic and how to go about it.

Coronavirus: Guidance to help you stay safe and well. Self isolating

MENCAP
April 2020

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These are two of several guides to help keep safe and well during the coronavirus outbreak. The guides are accessible for people with a learning disability to use and are easy read format. These guides are about self isolating - one for people who live on their own and the other for people who live with others.

Medication management for people with disabilities

SINGLECARE
September 2019

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This guide provides tips for people with disabilities and their caregivers to properly handle prescriptions and manage medications. Practical advice is given on:

  • How to read medication labels
  • Managing medications at home
  • Medication strategies for people with visual impairments
  • Medication management for people with a physical disability and/or mobility limitations
  • Medication management for people with intellectual disabilities
  • Tips for effective medication management as the caregiver of a person with a disability

Associations between health behaviour, secondary health conditions and quality of life in people with spinal cord injury

MASHOLA, Mokgadi K.
MOTHABENG, Diphale J.
2019

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Background: The development of secondary health conditions (SHCs) after spinal cord injury (SCI) is common and can affect an individual’s emotional well-being, and his or her health-related quality of life (QOL). Little is known about relationships between performing health-benefiting behaviours and the presence (or absence) of SHCs and QOL, particularly in South Africa.

 

Objectives: This research study was conducted in order to determine the associations between health behaviour, SHCs and QOL in people with SCI (PWSCI).

 

Method: This cross-sectional study included 36 PWSCI discharged from a private rehabilitation facility in Pretoria, South Africa. The PWSCI completed questionnaires pertaining to lifestyle, independence, presence of SHCs, social support and QOL. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as correlation tests and chi-square test of independence (x2) using the SPSS v25. Moderate, moderately high and high correlations are reported (Pearson r ≥ 0.4). Results were significant if p < 0.05.

 

Results: Participation in health-benefiting behaviour was associated with increased QOL (r = 0.457, p < 0.01) and increased social support from family and friends (r = 0.425, p < 0.01), which was associated with increased QOL (r = 0.671, p < 0.001). Not participating in specific neuromusculoskeletal health behaviours was found to be associated with the overall presence of SHCs (r = -0.426, p < 0.01).

 

Conclusions: Participating in health-benefiting behaviour can reduce the development of SHCs and subsequently increase QOL in PWSCI. Health professionals must focus on minimising the development of SHCs by providing specific education on good health-benefiting behaviour.

 

African Journal of Disability, Vol 8, 2019

Impact of training programmes for people with disabilities (Disability Inclusion Helpdesk Report 5)

FRASER, Erika
ABU AL GHAIB, Ola
February 2019

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 Supporting people with disabilities into employment is important not only in providing income, but research in Nepal has shown positive life changes including increased confidence, social status, and acquiring new skills. This document provides a rapid review of the evidence of the types of interventions used to reduce barriers and support people with disabilities into employment, as well as the impact of training programmes on employment and/or livelihood outcomes (Section 4). Case studies are included in Section 5 and Annex 1 to give further details on key learnings.

 

Case studies outlined are 

  • Vocational training programme by Madhab Memorial Vocational Training Institute (MMVTI), Bangladesh 
  • Gaibandha Food Security Project (Bangladesh)
  • Self-help groups (Nepal) 
  • EmployAble programme (Kenya, Rwanda and Ethiopia) 
  • Economic Empowerment of Youth with Disabilities (Rural Uganda)
  • Access to Livelihoods Programme (India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, the Philippines, South Africa)

WHO consolidated guideline on self-care interventions for health: sexual and reproductive health and rights

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO)
2019

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SELF-CARE is the ability of individuals, families and communities to promote health, prevent disease, maintain health, and to cope with illness and disability with or without the support of a health-care provider. 

The purpose of this guidance is to develop a peoplecentred, evidence-based normative guideline that will support individuals, communities and countries with quality health services and self-care interventions, based on PHC (Primary Health Care) strategies, comprehensive essential service packages and people-centredness. The specific objectives of this guideline are to provide:

• evidence-based recommendations on key public health self-care interventions, including for advancing sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), with a focus on vulnerable populations and settings with limited capacity and resources in the health system

• good practice statements on key programmatic, operational and service-delivery issues that need to be addressed to promote and increase safe and equitable access, uptake and use of self-care interventions, including for advancing SRHR.

Visual supports

NATIONAL AUTISTIC SOCIETY (UK)
2019

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Visual supports can be used to communicate with people on the autism spectrum. They are adaptable, portable and can be used in most situations.

Visual supports can help to provide structure and routine, encourage independence, build confidence, improve understanding, avoid frustration and anxiety, and provide opportunities to interact with others. They can make communication physical and consistent, rather than fleeting and inconsistent like spoken words can be.

Different types and uses of visual supports and where to find resources are reported. See some examples and read some top tips.

Access to Social Organisations, Utilisation of Civil Facilities and Participation in Empowerment Groups by People with Disabilities in Maharashtra, India

GOVINDASAMY, Karthikeyan
DHONDGE, Suresh
DUTTA, Ambarish
MENDIS, Tina
2019

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Purpose: This survey aimed to assess the baseline level of access to social institutions, utilisation of civil facilities and participation in empowerment schemes by people with disabilities in Amravati district of Maharashtra State, India.

 

Method: Sixty villages from two blocks in Amravati district were randomly selected for the survey. From these villages, 522 households were sampled and 3056 individuals were surveyed. Interviews were conducted with 590 individuals with disability from among the surveyed population. The structured interview schedule consisted of demographic data, access to social organisations, utilisation of civil services, and participation in empowerment schemes. 

 

Results: Locomotor disability was the most prevalent (44.6%) type of disability in the study area. Disabilities were more often present among male adolescents and young adults than among the older population and females. Over 50% of the study participants had no occupation (including children and students) and had not been to school. Only 48% had achieved secondary education and more. The proportion of disability among people belonging to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes was considerably higher than among the general population. Access to social institutions was less than 50% for most of the items, and was even lower among females. Except for the ration card and Aadhar card, civil services were generally under-utilised by people with disability. Only 3.2% of the participants were members of self-help groups, and not a single person was a member of the Disabled People’s Organisation.

 

Conclusions:  In the study area access to social institutions, utilisation of civil services and participation in empowerment schemes was very low.

 

Limitations: Data, including general socio-demographic, access and utility data, was not collected for the general population but was limited to people with disabilities. This restricted the scope for comparison between people with and without disabilities.

 

 

Disability, CBR and Inclusive Development, Vol 30, No 1 (2019)

Saving lives and leaving no one behind - The Gaibandha Model for disability-inclusive disaster risk reduction

ROTHE, Manuel
BROWN, David
NEUSCHAFER, Oliver
October 2018

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"The Gaibandha Model" good practices guide outlines a framework for successful disability-inclusive disaster risk reduction programming. It is based on the experience of CBM and its partners in implementing community-based disaster risk reduction programs in some of the most flood-affected communities in Bangladesh. The model puts people with disabilities at the center of disaster risk reduction. They are the agents for change, working with the community to improve local systems of disaster prevention, preparedness and response to become more accessible and inclusive.

Stigma, disability and development

BOND DISABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT (DDG)
November 2017

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This briefing considers how stigma affects people with disabilities and why challenging stigma is a critical issue for development.

 

Examples of successful efforts by UK non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to reduce and eliminate stigma are briefly outlined including: self help groups; alliances between groups (including DPOs); staff training; skills training and wider awareness raising.

How CBM Australia supports engagement with government for disability inclusion and prevention

CBM AUSTRALIA
March 2016

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CBM Australia engages both directly and indirectly with governments. Indirectly, CBM Australia supports other organisations, for instance disabled people’s organisations or civil society organisations to engage with governments. This report looks at the different ways that CBM partners seek influence government and promote sustainability. It considers the different roles and relevance of activism, advocacy, service delivery and advisory approaches.

 

The cases in this report were identified and gathered through semi-structured interviews with CBM’s Program Officers, Technical Advisors, regional/country office and project staff in-country, as well as drawing on reports and evaluations. The report starts with a section explaining the four different approaches to working with government, followed by a brief introduction to each approach, highlighting what CBM are doing and the key lessons learned. Each section is followed by case studies giving more detailed insight into how CBM are engaging, key achievements, challenges and the lessons learned. Fifteen case studies covering key projects from CBM Australia’s International Programs and the Inclusive Development Team are described in this report.

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