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Mobilising children & youth into their own child- & youth-led organisations

MADOERIN, Kurt
May 2008

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This publication explores child- and youth-led organisations from many different angles, amongst others, HIV and AIDS prevention, the critical role of adults within these organisations, and economic strengthening. What is also perhaps distinctive about the approach outlined in this booklet is the fact that organisation of children into their own child- and youth-led organisations is considered primarily from a psychosocial wellbeing perspective

Transcending boundaries to improve the food security of HIV-affected households in rural Uganda : a case study

COON, Katharine
et al
July 2007

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This report provides a case study of a process to bring key technical sectors together with communities in a partnership for reducing food insecurity among HIV-affected households in Tororo, Uganda. Food security is the ability of individuals to consume sufficient quantity and quality of food to meet their daily needs. Food security depends on the availability of food, physical and economic access to it, and the physiological utilisation of nutrients. The case study is based on project documents and qualitative interviews and focus group discussions conducted with participants in the Partners for Food Security PAFOSE project

Getting started! : running a junior farmer field and life school|Empowering orphans and vulnerable children living in a world with HIV and AIDS

WIEGERS, Esther
HILL, Catherine
COLBERT, Patricia
2007

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This manual was developed from the experiences of a number of communities and organisations in southern and eastern Africa in creating Junior Farmer Field and Life Schools as a response to the growing number of orphans and vulnerable children. For many reasons these children more likely than other orphans to be at risk from malnutrition, disease, abuse, stigmatisation and sexual exploitation. The risk of sexual exploitation is particularly significant for those left alone to cope with poverty and who are forced to adopt adult roles and ensure food for the rest of the family. As parents and family members become ill, children take on greater domestic, agricultural and income generating responsibilities. HIV and AIDS has a particular impact on girls who are left to care for ailing parents, or who have to become the heads of households upon the death of caregivers. Also, as many parents are dying at a young age orphaned children are growing up without the necessary knowledge and skills for their future livelihood

FAO working in support of persons with disabilities

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Ed
August 2006

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The aim of this paper is to highlight some of the key linkages between poverty, disability, nutrition and agricultural production. The paper also reports on some of the FAO's work on disability and disability rights and highlights 5 FAO projects / pilot models - ranging from mushroom production to blacksmithing - that target rural people living with disabilities. It would be useful for anyone with an interest in mainstreaming disability in development policy and practice

Understanding the links between agriculture and health

HAWKES, Corinna
RUEL, Marie T
May 2006

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This is a collection of briefs on the relationship between agricultural systems and outputs and health. Provides a conceptual framework of the linkage between agriculture and health and looks in some detail at some key aspects, including food safety, agricultural technology, nutrition, foodbourne diseases, malaria and water-associated diseases, HIV and AIDS, occupational health hazards, livestock, fisheries, agroforestry, agrobiodiversity, urban agriculture, sustainability, policymaking and synergies between agriculture and health

Addressing HIV/AIDS through agriculture and natural resource sectors : a guide for extension workers

BISHOP-SAMBROOK, Clare
2004

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This guide aims to help extension workers and development agents combat HIV and AIDS through agriculture and natural resources sector initiatives. In predominantly rural economies the epidemic has a particularly negative impact on the labour force, undermining their ability to earn an income and to maintain acceptable levels of nutrition: it is predicted that at least one quarter of productive adults in Southern Africa will die within the next five to ten years. The adoption of a new approach by the extension services could make a considerable difference. Part 1 presents some key facts about the disease and the risks of infection in rural settings. Part 2 details participatory tools which enable extension workers to understand the disease. Part 3 describes the contribution of the agriculture and natural resources sectors in the response to HIV/AIDS challenges

Effects of the HIV/AIDS pandemic on rural communities in ACP countries : a reader

BOTO, Isolina
WESSELER, Gesa
BERKHOF, Irene Prins
Eds
2004

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This reader synthesises information from a number of sources on the impact of HIV on rural communities. It focuses the effects in the agricultural sector, and the implications of 'crusscutting issues' of gender and youth. It explores possible mitigation strategies, and information and communication strategies; and identifies 'urgent actions' which include improving the use of and access to ICT

Health : an ecosystem approach

LEBEL, Jean
2003

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Can people remain healthy in a world that is sick? Many ecological disasters can be directly traced to careless exploitation of the environment, with human beings as first perpetrator and then victim. Our health closely mirrors the health of our surroundings: this is the basis of the Ecohealth approach. It recognizes the links between humans and their biophysical, social, and economic environments, and that these links are reflected in the population's state of health. This is a new area of research, requiring input from scientists, community and interest groups, and decision-makers. This book describes this new approach, providing lessons and recommendations from various IDRC-supported research activities. It demonstrates how decision-makers, in particular, can use the ecohealth approach to formulate policies and solutions that are both immediately visible and sustainable over the long term

Addressing the impact of HIV/AIDS on ministries of agriculture : focus on eastern and southern Africa

TOPOUZIS, Daphne
2003

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This joint FAO/UNAIDS study is the first to examine the full range of implications of HIV/AIDS for Ministries of Agriculture (MoAs) in eastern and southern Africa. It describes structural changes in the smallholder agriculture sector including changing farming systems (as household cultivation shifts from cash crops to subsistence crops and from labour-intensive to labour-extensive crops); and changes in the age structure and quality of the agricultural labour force as more elderly people and children assume a greater role in farming. Four areas of HIV/AIDS impact are analysed in detail: (1) MoA staff vulnerability to HIV infection and AIDS impact; (2) the disruption of MoA operations and the erosion of capacity to respond to the challenges being posed by the HIV epidemic; (3) the increased vulnerability of MoA clients to food and livelihood insecurity; (4) the relevance of certain MoA policies, strategies and programmes in view of the conditions being created by HIV/AIDS

Understanding the indigenous knowledge and information systems of pastoralists in Eritrea

DINUCCI, Alessandro
FRE, Zeremariam
2003

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This case study explores pastoralists' traditional natural resources mangement practices and their sources and channels of information. It aims to contribute to the development of demand-led extension and advisory services for nomadic herders in Eritrea, on the premise that sustainable development programming builds on indigenous systems of communication and information diffusion

Addressing extension and training needs of farmers with physical disabilities : a case study of the Islamic Republic of Iran

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS (FAO), Extension, Education and Communication Service, Research, Extension and Trainig Division, Sustainable Development Department
2003

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This study assesses extension and training needs of farmers with physical disabilities in Iran. A significant number of people with physical disabilities are engaged in agricultural activities, but in many cases they are denied access to special training schools that would provide them with appropriate technical knowledge. The study makes a number of critical recommendations to improve training accessibility

Ancient roots, new shoots : endogenous development in practice

HAVERKORT, Bertus
VAN T' HOOFT, Katrien
HIEMSTRA, Wim
Eds
2003

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This book describes the approach of COMPAS, a network of partners that supports 'development from within', based on local knowledge and practices. The body of the book consists of case studies which illustrate how development can be based on locally available resources, knowledge, values and leadership institutions; how there can be genuinely local determination of development options; and how the benefits of development within local areas and communities can be fostered

Labour savings technologies and practices for farming and household in eastern and southern Africa|Labour constraints and the impact of HIV/AIDS on rural livelihoods in Bondo and Busia districts western Kenya

BISHOP-SAMBROOK, Clare
2003

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This report presents the difficulties of, and threats to, rural livelihoods in western Kenya. The information is one component of a joint IFAD/FAO study entitled ‘Improving Women’s Access to Labour Saving Technologies and Practices in Sub-Saharan Africa’. It is divided into six related topics, which include tables, charts, diagrams and illustrations. This would be useful for stakeholders and policy makers interested in agricultural and rural development in western Kenya

Meeting the HIV/AIDS challenge to food secutiry : the role of labour saving technologies in farm-households

DU GUERNAY, Jacques
December 2002

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The paper focuses on the various types and levels of constraints faced by farm-households as a production and reproduction system within a farming system. These constraints include time and energy limitations created by HIV/AIDS provoked shortages. The paper highlights the contributions various labour saving technologies (LSTs) could provide while also stressing the conditions, including gender ones, which have to be met in order to introduce LSTs successfully. LSTs are a partial solution to HIV/AIDS problems, but also represent a challenge to the way agriculture is practiced and to common policies in both agriculture and HIV/AIDS. The focus on LSTs is a fertile field for cooperation between sectors, between public and private institutions, North-South and South-South

Integrating intellectual property rights and development policy : report of the commission on intellectual property rights

COMMISSION ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS (CIPR)
September 2002

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This detailed and thorough report considers whether and how intellectual property rights (IPRs) can play a role in achieving the Millenium Development Goals. It explores the potential benefits of IPRs in stimulating economic growth, and the associated benefits in terms of productivity and reduced poverty. It considers also the barriers that IPRs may present to developing economies, including discouraging invention, research, technology transfer, domestic production and driving up the costs of medicines and agricultural inputs. Key issues covered in successive chapters include: current evidence about the impact of IPRs in developing countries; development of and access to medicines; protection of plants and genetic resources; the Convention on Biological Diversity, traditional knowledge, cultural expressions and geographic indicators; copyright and patents; IPR legislation for developing countries; international and national institutional framework for IPRs

Forgotten villages : struggling to survive under closure in the West Bank

O'BRIEN, Lee
PICKUP, Francine
September 2002

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This briefing paper describes the humanitarian impact of the Israeli government's policy of closure and restriction in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Closure policies have undermined or even broken links to markets, services and jobs, leaving rural communities facing impoverishment and unemployment, lack of access to services, a weakened agricultural sector, and increased vulnerability to Israeli settler violence. The recommendations in this paper focus particularly on the social and economic impact of closure on those living in Palestinian villages across the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The most urgent of these call for an immediate end to the Government of Israel's policy of closure of Palestinian civilian areas

Are we not peasants too? Land rights and women's claims in India

AGARWAL, Bina
2002

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Explores the barriers and challenges to securing effective, enforceable land rights for women -- even in countries with progressive social movements and the appropriate legal reforms, such as India. Shows how this issue is central to improving rural women's economic status. Presents a range of strategies (eg re-directing micro-credit) to tackle these problems, and closes with a summary of how women are organising around this issue

The impact of HIV/AIDS on agricultural production and mainstreaming HIV/AIDS messages into agricultural extension in Uganda

MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, ANIMAL INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES [UGANDA]
2002

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This report analyses the impact of HIV and AIDS on agricultural production in Uganda. Extension workers interact regularly with the crop farmers, livestock farmers and the fishing folk. Despite this regular interaction, the study has revealed that extension workers are not involved in HIV and AIDS work, as it does not fall within their mandate. Also the extension workers at present lack the knowledge and skills of addressing HIV and AIDS issues since it had long been perceived as a health matter. To mainstream HIV and AIDS messages into agricultural extension, the agricultural sector must recognise that the epidemic is not only a health issue, but a development issue as well. The report concludes with recommendations for sensitising key ministry staff, designing appropriate HIV and AIDS messages to increase agricultural production, building the capacity of extension workers, and networking and collaboration

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