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Standard school eye health guidelines for low and middle-income countries

GILBERT, Clare
MINTO, Hasan
MORJARIA, Priya
KHAN, Imran
February 2018

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The purpose of these best practice guidelines is to provide direction to those planning and implementing eye health initiatives for schools, including policy makers, health care and educational authorities, health planners, eye care delivery organizations and professionals, in partnership with teachers, parents and children. In situations where resources for eye health are limited, decisions need to be made to ensure that programs not only address public health problems but are also implemented in a way that is effective, efficient and, wherever possible, sustainable. Systems for monitoring and plans for evaluation should also be developed at the outset. These practice guidelines provide an excellent learning resource for a module on school eye health that can be incorporated in optometry and ophthalmology residency curricula.  A section highlights some of the challenges in current school eye health initiatives and provides a framework in which school eye health is integrated into school health programs. Case studies are provided to emphasise the integrated approach and a 15-step approach, from situation analysis to monitoring and evaluation, is suggested. Practical recommendations for implementation are provided, including information on the equipment and technology required

 

This evidence-based document is based on best practice guidelines initially developed through a joint collaboration between Sightsavers International, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the Brien Holden Vision Institute

Visual health screening by schoolteachers in remote communities of Peru : implementation research.

LATORE-ARTEARRGA, Sergio
et al
September 2016

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An assessment was carried out of the adaptation and scaling-up of an intervention to improve the visual health of children by training teachers in screening in the Apurimac region, Peru. In a pilot screening programme in 2009–2010, 26 schoolteachers were trained to detect and refer visual acuity problems in schoolchildren in one district in Apurimac. To scale-up the intervention, lessons learnt from the pilot were used to design strategies for: (i) strengthening multisector partnerships; (ii) promoting the engagement and participation of teachers and (iii) increasing children’s attendance at referral eye clinics. Implementation began in February 2015 in two out of eight provinces of Apurimac, including hard-to-reach communities. An observational study of the processes and outcomes of adapting and scaling-up the intervention was made. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were made of data collected from March 2015 to January 2016 from programme documents, routine reports and structured evaluation questionnaires completed by teachers. Partnerships were expanded after sharing the results of the pilot phase. Training was completed by 355 teachers and directors in both provinces, belonging to 315 schools distributed in 24 districts. Teachers’ appraisal of the training achieved high positive scores. Outreach eye clinics and subsidies for glasses were provided for poorer families. 

 

Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Volume 94, Number 9, September 2016, 633-708

http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.15.163634

Why do women not use antenatal services in low- and middle-Income countries? a meta-synthesis of qualitative studies

FINLAYSON, Kenneth
DOWNE, Soo
January 2013

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This article aims to inform the development of future antenatal care programmes through a synthesis of findings in all relevant qualitative studies. The findings suggest that there may be a misalignment between current antenatal care provision and the social and cultural context of some women in low and middle income countries
PLoS Med, Vol 10, Issue 1

Manual for the professional in adapted physical activity

PEYNOT, Lucile
CHANTEREAULT, Thomas
BOUZID, Ezzedine
June 2011

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The focus of this manual is to increase participation of people with disabilities in physical activities and sport. Detailed adapted physical activities are provided with practical guides, group sport guides and assessment tools in order to promote a more inclusive society and enable educators to enrich their creativity and ideas for mentoring any person interested in participating in, advancing through and gaining enjoyment from the practice of a physical activity This guide to useful to all actors such as physical education and sports teachers in all types of schools, sports club coaches, recreational centre educators and facilitators, and even workers in rehabilitation centres or medical and social services centres

Risk factors for participation restriction in leprosy and development of a screening tool to identify individuals at risk

NICHOLLS, PG
et al
December 2005

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This paper explores risk factors for participation restrictions experienced by people affected by leprosy. The objective was to develop a screening tool to identify individuals at risk. An initial round of qualitative fieldwork in eight centres in Nepal, India and Brazil identified 35 potential risk factors for participation restriction. This was further assessed through quantitative fieldwork in six centres in India and Brazil. In all, 264 individuals receiving leprosy treatment or rehabilitation services made a retrospective assessment of their status at time of diagnosis. Their level of participation restriction was assessed using the Participation Scale, and regression analysis identified risk factors for participation restriction. Four consolidated items were identified as the basis for a simple screening tool to identify individuals at risk: physical impact of leprosy, an emotional response to the diagnosis, female gender and having little or no education. Such a tool may form the basis for a screening and referral procedure to identify newly diagnosed individuals at risk of participation restrictions and the need of actions that may prevent such restrictions
Leprosy Review, Vol 76, Issue 4

Child Development

NATIONAL CENTRE ON BIRTH DEFECTS AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES (NCBDDD)
September 2005

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This website summarises the milestones of child development containing simple and essential information about the development of infants (aged 0-1), toddlers (aged 1-3) and pre-school children (aged 3-5). The site also holds information about attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Women's stories, women's lives : experiences with cervical cancer screening and treatment

BOYD, Anne R
BURNS, Michele
Eds
2004

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This publication is a collection of stories based on interviews with women in developing countries who participated in ACCP programmes. These women's stories illustrate the unnecessary suffering cervical cancer can cause women and their families and how prevention programs can save women's lives. ACCP projects have focused on regions in which cervical cancer incidence and mortality are highest: sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and South Asia, and have also focused on reaching women in their 30s and 40s

ACCP strategies for supporting women with cervical cancer

WHITE, Sarah C
WINKLER, Jennifer L
2004

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This report provides an overview of current issues relating to cancer treatment in developing countries and describes the support provided to cancer patients in countries where Alliance for Cervical Cancer Prevention (ACCP) has worked. The report outlines recommendations, based on ACCP experiences, for the provision of basic assistance at the national or local level to women with cervical cancer, within the context of a prevention-based intervention in low-resource settings

Monitoring motor nerve function in leprosy patients

BRANDSMA, JW
September 2000

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"Manual muscle strength testing has an important function in the management of leprosy patients. Its importance was first recognized in the 1960s, especially when following patients who were started on steroid treatment to monitor the nerve function and the effect of treatment. In those days, and still in many centres today, many or all muscles were tested that are innervated by the nerves that can be at risk in leprosy. The author argues that not all muscles innervated by the nerves at risk need to be tested and also that many muscles cannot be tested in isolation. A muscle charting form is presented which is suitable for screening purposes, and that also allows for more detail when motor function is impaired"
Leprosy Review, Vol 71, Issue 3

Management of the child with a serious infection or severe malnutrition : guidelines for care at the first-referral level in developing countries

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO). Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development
2000

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A manual for use by doctors, senior nurses and other senior health workers who are responsible for the care of young children at the first referral level in developing countries. It presents up-to-date clinical guidelines, prepared by experts, for both inpatient and outpatient care in small hospitals where basic laboratory facilities and essential drugs and inexpensive medicines are available. The manual focuses on the inpatient management of the major causes of childhood mortality, such as pneumonia, diarrhoea, severe malnutrition, malaria, meningitis, measles, and related conditions. It is part of a series of documents and tools that support the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI)

Management of the child with a serious infection or severe malnutrition : guidelines for care at the first-referral level in developing countries

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development (CAH)
2000

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A manual for use by doctors, senior nurses and other senior health workers who are responsible for the care of young children at the first referral level in developing countries. It presents up-to-date clinical guidelines, prepared by experts, for both inpatient and outpatient care in small hospitals where basic laboratory facilities and essential drugs and inexpensive medicines are available. The manual focuses on the inpatient management of the major causes of childhood mortality, such as pneumonia, diarrhoea, severe malnutrition, malaria, meningitis, measles, and related conditions. It is part of a series of documents and tools that support the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI)

Predicting postnatal mental disorder with a screening questionnaire : a prospective cohort study from Zimbabwe

NHIWATIWA, Sekai
PATEL, Vikram
ACUDA, Wilson
1998

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Post-natal mental disorders are common causes of morbidity but are rarely diagnosed or treated in busy primary care clinics in developing countries. This study aimed to determine whether a brief psychiatric screening questionnaire used in the eighth month of pregnancy could predict post-natal mental disorder. It was concluded that such a brief method of detecting women at high risk of developing a post-natal mental disorder can be used with reasonable accuracy

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