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Inclusive design and accessibility of the built environment in Varanasi, India: AT2030 Inclusive Infrastructure Case Studies

PATRICK, Michaela
MCKINNON, Iain
MISHRA, Satish
GUPTA, Shivani
ROY, Prabha
CHOUDHURY, Utsav
MURUGHAR, Kavita
RAHEJA, Gaurav
October 2021

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This is the second of six case studies analysing the state of accessibility and inclusive design in low-resource contexts around the world. The six independent case studies will be analysed to develop a comparison report and finally a global action report that will offer evidence and recommendations that support making infrastructure, the built environment and urban development in low-resource settings more accessible and inclusive.

This purpose of this case study is to explore the state of inclusive and accessible environments for persons with disabilities in Varanasi, India, through engagement with policy, industry and community stakeholders (policy, practice and people). Through this engagement, the case study is developing evidence on the challenges and opportunities for implementing inclusive and accessible design in Varanasi and makes recommendations on local actions towards becoming a more inclusive city.

Traffic crash injuries and disabilities : The burden on Indian society

WORLD BANK
February 2021

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Road crashes endanger the lives and livelihoods of millions of road users globally and in India.  The risk of a road crash in low-income countries is three times higher than compared to that in high-income countries. Not only does it lead to untold and unaccounted for suffering and loss for victims and their families, but also, it drains the GDP of countries by claiming millions of economically productive young lives6. While it is recognized that RTIs affect the developed and developing world in different ways, it also impacts poor households and disadvantaged sections of the population within developing countries differently. World Bank commissioned a survey-based assessment study in association with the Save LIFE Foundation (SLF) to determine such differential impacts more objectively in India. This study aims to capture the socioeconomic realities and nuances of road crashes at the sub-national level in India. It seeks to document inter-linkages between poverty, inequalities, road users, and road crash outcomes by analyzing data from four States in India, i.e., Uttar Pradesh, Bihar ,Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. The four states have been selected on the basis of several criteria including demographic and geographical representation, magnitude of fatality burden and socio-economic parameters such as economic growth, poverty rate and social welfare. 

Global leaders renew commitments on road safety

HUMANITY & INCLUSION (HI)
September 2020

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On 1st September 2020, the UN adopted a new Resolution on Road Safety to extend until 2030 the global commitments to improve road safety and launched the Second Decade of Action for Road Safety (2021-2030), thus encouraging greater efforts worldwide.  This builds on the Ministerial Declaration adopted in Stockholm in February 2020 and integrates the joint key asks of the many civil society organisations that have been advocating, over the past years, for stronger global leadership on road safety.

The Global Alliance of NGOs for Road Safety, of which Humanity & Inclusion (HI) is a member, has convened and leveraged the diverse voices of road users, road crashes victims’ associations, local organisations and international NGOs. This Resolution represents a great achievement for the global road safety community.

Building the inclusive city - Governance, access, and the urban transformation of Dubai

SANTIAGO PINEDA, Victor
2020

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This book is an anthropological urban study of the Emirate of Dubai, its institutions, and their evolution. It provides a contemporary history of disability in city planning from a non-Western perspective and explores the cultural context for its positioning. Three insights inform the author’s approach. First, disability research, much like other urban or social issues, must be situated in a particular place. Second, access and inclusion forms a key part of both local and global planning issues. Third, a 21st century planning education should take access and inclusion into consideration by applying a disability lens to the empirical, methodological, and theoretical advances of the field

Disability, mobility and transport in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A thematic review

KETT, Maria
COLE, Ellie
TURNER, Jeff
January 2020

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This paper discusses issues affecting the transport and mobility needs of people with disabilities in middle- and low-income countries and how disability intersects with a range of other factors to impact on transport needs, use and engagement. The paper is intended to stimulate discussion and identify areas for further research, and identifies a number of key issues that are salient to discussions around equitable and inclusive transport provision, including patterns of transport use, behaviour and experiences, solutions and policy directions, measuring access and inclusion, policies and intersectionality. The paper also identifies gaps in knowledge and provision, barriers to addressing these gaps, and some possible solutions to overcoming these barriers. These include shifting the focus from access to inclusion, reconceptualising how ‘special’ transport might be provided, and most importantly listening to the voices and experiences of adults and children with disabilities. Despite lack of transport often being cited as a reason for lack of inclusion of people with disabilities, there is surprisingly little evidence which either quantifies this or translates what this lack of access means to people with disabilities in their daily lives in low- and middle-income countries.

 

Sustainability 2020, 12(2), 589

https://doi.org/10.3390/su12020589

Accessibility of Public Buildings in Khulna, Bangladesh, for Wheelchair Users

FARZANA, Fawzia
2019

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Purpose: Physical accessibility is one of the fundamental rights of wheelchair users in order to ensure their integration into society. After Bangladesh ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on November 30, 2007, there has been a paradigm shift in the government’s approach to ensure the welfare and rights of persons with disabilities through legislative and policy actions. This study assesses how accommodative the public buildings are for wheelchair users in Khulna, Bangladesh.

 

Method: All the public buildings in Khulna city - including government offices, public schools, colleges and universities, hospitals, libraries, post offices and court buildings -  were visited to assess the presence and suitability of facilities for wheelchair users, such as accessible parking, ramps, elevators, doors, and essential interior facilities like water closets and drinking-water fountains.  Bangladesh has no specific accessibility guidelines document, but accessibility requirements have been included in the Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) 2008. The study made its assessment using an abridged form of the Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) and BNBC 2008.

 

Results: Only 6.7% (5) of the 75 public buildings were found suitable for wheelchair users. There is scope for modifications to be made in 28% (21) of the buildings which are currently unsuitable for wheelchair users.

 

Conclusion: The study revealed that public buildings are, in general, not very accommodative of wheelchair users. There is a need for modifications in infrastructure to ensure inclusive development of these individuals.

Report on accessibility audit in Kathmandu, Nepal

December 2018

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In Nepal, the Accessible Physical Infrastructure and Communication Services directive for People with Disability 2013, is a key legal measure taken by the government for promoting accessibility. To supplement the government’s initiation in achieving the goal of making inclusive society for all, National Federation of the Disabled – Nepal (NFDN), in partnership with CBM, carried out accessibility audit of 150 public infrastructures as a model initiative. This included government buildings, public parks and open spaces, roads and streets, corporate sectors, commercial sectors and other infrastructures within Kathmandu valley and identified the remedial actions needed to make these sectors accessible for all including Persons with disabilities. To achieve this, a set of comprehensive audit tools and checklists were developed. The Kathmandu district, Lalitpur District and Bhaktapur District were assessed.

Making cities inclusive: safe mobility for persons with disabilities in developing countries

HUMANITY & INCLUSION (HI)
June 2018

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A policy brief concerning safe and inclusive urban mobility is presented. Safe and inclusive mobility is not currently a universally recognised concept in international human rights instruments and development framework. The relationship of various global legal & policy frameworks with safe and inclusive urban mobility is discussed including:

  • The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
  • The 2030 Sustainable Development Goals
  • The New Urban Agenda
  • The UN Road Safety Decade of Action

Recommendations for improved policies and actions are made:

  • Recommendation 1: Recognise safe and inclusive mobility as a transversal issue for realising the Sustainable Development Goals and human rights
  • Recommendation 2: Agree strong political and financial commitments to improve the safety of roads with a focus on vulnerable road users
  • Recommendation 3: Provide safe and accessible urban mobility infrastructures applying universal design approach, all along the mobility chain
  • Recommendation 4: Enhance participatory and evidence-based policy-making for a better governance of road safety, mobility management and urban planning

Inclusive urban mobility and road safety in developing countries

HUMANITY & INCLUSION (HI)
June 2018

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Between 20 to 50 million people worldwide suffer non-fatal injuries in road crashes every year; around 1.25 million are killed. Unsafe roads also represent a major factor of social exclusion, especially for ‘vulnerable road users’. These include notably pedestrians, persons with disabilities, cyclists and children. They represent 46% of road casualties. Persons with disabilities are at higher risk of sustaining injuries from road crashes.

In this thematic brief, the importance of inclusive urban planning is emphasised. Urban mobility and road safety challenges discussed include: safe crossing points over roads; signage and information; collective transport (particularly buses); road design and layout, poor road markings or signposts and the lack of street lighting.

 

Case histories provided are: Engaging government and DPOs to improve safe and inclusive mobility in Burkina Faso; and  Data, road safety and urban mobility in Vientiane, Laos

 

Recommendations for improvements in policies and actions are given under the headings: 

1. Strengthening the policy and financial framework for safe and inclusive mobility action, based on evidence and through participative processes

2. Removing the barriers to safe and accessible mobility, focusing on: the built environment; transport and vehicles; people

Inclusive urban mobility and getting to school safely in developing countries

HUMANITY & INCLUSION (HI)
June 2018

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For teenagers in developing countries, there is no greater threat to life than road traffic crashes: road crashes are the leading cause of preventable death of youth aged 15 to 29 years, and the second cause for those aged 5 to 14 years.(6) The risks are even higher for children with disabilities, who are also more exposed to non-fatal injuries from road crashes.

In this thematic brief, the importance of inclusive urban planning is emphasised. Urban mobility and road safety challenges discussed include: safe crossing points over roads and collective transport (particularly buses). 

 

Two case studies are provided: Safer access to school for disabled students in Kenya; and School access and pedestrian safety improvements in Democratic Republic of Congo

 

Recommendations for improvements in policies and actions are given under the headings:

  • 1. Strengthening the policy and financial framework for safe and inclusive mobility, based on evidence and through participative processes
  • 2. Removing the barriers to safe and accessible mobility, focusing on: the built environment; transport and vehicles; people

Inclusive urban mobility and getting to work safely in developing countries

HUMANITY & INCLUSION (HI)
June 2018

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The lack of safe and accessible roads in many cities in developing countries impacts negatively on employment opportunities for persons with disabilities. Between 20 to 50 million people worldwide suffer non-fatal injuries in road crashes every year; around 1.25 million are killed. Unsafe roads also represent a major factor of social exclusion, especially for ‘vulnerable road users’. These include notably pedestrians, persons with disabilities, cyclists and children. They represent 46% of road casualties. Persons with disabilities are at higher risk of sustaining injuries from road crashes.

 

In this thematic brief, the importance of inclusive urban planning is emphasised. Urban mobility and road safety challenges discussed include: safe crossing points over roads; signage and information; collective transport (particularly buses); accessing buildings such as offices or retail and driving with a disability.

 

Case histories provided are: Accessible transport as part of an inclusive jobs program in Senegal; and Modified vehicles and driving licenses for drivers with disabilities in Vietnam

 

Recommendations for improvements in policies and actions are given under the headings: 

1. Strengthening the policy and financial framework for safe and inclusive mobility action, based on evidence and through participative processes

2. Removing the barriers to safe and accessible mobility, focusing on: the built environment; transport and vehicles; people

Road traffic injuries and rehabiliation. Factsheet.

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL
March 2017

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The rate of road accidents is increasing globally and the resulting deaths, injuries, physical disabilities and psychological distress are creating a tremendous negative economic impact on victims, their families and society in general, especially in low and middle income countries. Common impairments and activity limitations from road traffic injuries are musculo-skeletal injuries, spinal cord injuries (SCI), traumatic brain injury and psychological distress and depression. Different examples of rehabilitation across the care cycle are provided. A case study of brain injury in Laos is provided. 

Road safety : focus on vulnerable users

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL
November 2015

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This advocacy briefing paper shows the challenges to implementing road safety, the benefits of safe roads for communities, the international legal framework that discusses road safety in policy, suggestions for what individual actors can do to increase mobility and vehicle safety, and finally how to measure the progress of road safety programmes

 

Policy paper

Spinal cord injury

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
November 2013

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WHO factsheet on spinal cord Injury (SCI) presents key facts related to spinal cord injury (SCI).  It includes the following details: background information; prevalence; demographic trends; mortality; the health, economic and social consequences of SCI; prevention; improving care and overcoming barriers; and WHO response

Fact sheet N°384

The global status report on road safety 2013 : supporting a decade of action

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2013

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"This report presents information on road safety from 182 countries, accounting for almost 99% of the world’s population. The report indicates that worldwide the total number of road traffic deaths remains unacceptably high at 1.24 million per year. Only 28 countries, covering 7% of the world’s population, have comprehensive road safety laws on five key risk factors: drinking and driving, speeding, and failing to use motorcycle helmets, seat-belts, and child restraints. This report serves as a baseline for the Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-2020, declared by the UN General Assembly. This is the second in a Global status report series"

Helmet use among motorcyclists in Cambodia : a survey of use, knowledge, attitudes, and practices

BACHANI, Abdulgafoor M
et al
2012

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"Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a leading cause of disability and fatality globally. Motorcycle-related injuries, mainly head injuries, and related deaths and disabilities are a significant contributor to the burden of disease in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Helmets have been proven to be an effective way to reduce the risk of head injury. As motorcycle use continually increases in Cambodia, head injuries and related deaths and disabilities are expected to rise. This article aims to assess the current status of helmet use in Cambodia, as well as the knowledge, attitudes, and practices among motorcyclists, in order to assist with better planning and implementation of injury prevention strategies"
Traffic Injury Prevention, Vol 13, Supplement 1

Moscow declaration

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
November 2009

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This declaration from the first global ministerial conference on road safety acknowledges the global road safety crisis and recognises current initiatives. It highlights 11 resolutions and invites the UN to establish a Decade of Action for Road Safety from 2011-2020. This declaration is useful to those interested in road safety
First Global Ministerial Conference on Road Safety : Time for Action
Moscow, Russia
19-20 November 2009

Road safety : call for action

LAUTREDOU, Gérard
October 2009

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This report presents details about global road safety initiatives. It provides background information on the call for action, outlines the global recognition of the road safety crisis and highlights the actions taken by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies by presenting related figures, case studies and recommendations. This report is useful for anyone interested in road safety initiatives

NGO ‘Brussels declaration’ : recommendations to governments from NGOs advocating for road victims and road safety for the ‘Decade of Action for road safety

SMINKEY, Laura
CHAUDHRY, Brigitte
2009

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This report contains recommendations to Governments from NGOs advocating for road victims and road safety. 33 recommendations are provided to improve road safety in the following five topics: general approach, prevention, post crash response, worldwide learning and joint initiatives and action. This report is useful to anyone interested in advocacy for road victims and road safety
Global Meeting of NGOs Advocating for Road Safety and Road Victims
Brussels, Belgium
7-8 May 2009

Improving global road safety

UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY
April 2008

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This resolution adopted by the General Assembly highlights the importance of improving global road safety. It recognises recent global initiatives and concludes by outlining eight points to further strengthen international cooperation and knowledge-sharing in road safety taking into account the needs of developing countries. This paper is useful for anyone interested in improving global road safety
87th plenary meeting on 31 March 2008
A/RES/62/244

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