This position paper presents information to support that "chronic eye conditions which can lead to visual impairment and blindness should be included within prevention, treatment and control strategies for non-communicable, chronic diseases. These include diabetic retinopathy, cataract, glaucoma and age related macular degeneration (AMD). The prevalence and impact of these conditions are rising with changing lifestyles, an ageing population and increased exposure to risk factors such as obesity and hypertension. Governments should act now to include eye health within non-communicable disease (NCD) control and ensure the development of systems which can realistically address these challenges"
"This report sets out the statistics, evidence and experiences needed to launch a more forceful response to the growing threat posed by noncommunicable diseases. While advice and recommendations are universally relevant, the report gives particular attention to conditions in low- and middle-income countries, which now bear nearly 80% of the burden from diseases like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases. The health consequences of the worldwide epidemic of obesity are also addressed"
"This report reviews the effectiveness of early childhood stimulation interventions in developing countries. The report aims to answer the questions: What works in terms of early stimulation for young children in developing countries? For whom and under what conditions do these programs work and why do they work. The report is divided into several sections. Firstly, a brief discussion of the importance of early stimulation for young children in developing countries is provided. Secondly, the methods used to identify and characterize studies are provided and a review of randomized or quasi-experimental trials is presented. Thirdly, a review of the evidence for who benefits most from early interventions is presented followed by a review of program characteristics that affect the success of interventions and an examination of potential mechanisms through which interventions achieve their effects. Finally, recommendations for practice and future research are provided"
IDB working paper series
This article presents the results of a literature review about the relationship between disability and obesity in childhood and adolescence. "A total of 38 relevant articles were identified. All studies agreed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children with disabilities was almost twice that in their non-disabled peers. No effective, long-lasting interventions for obesity in disabled children and adolescents have been published. Conclusion: Since a high proportion of disabled children and adolescents are overweight or obese, effective strategies for preventing and managing excess weight need to be developed so as not to further endanger their social participation. Moreover, risk factors for overweight in disabled children and adolescents should be identified and their weight status carefully monitored"
Deutsche Arzteblatt International Journal, Vol 107, Issue 15
This annual compilation of health-related data for the World Health Organization's 193 member states, includes a summary of the progress made towards achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and associated targets
This video features HIV and AIDS prevention and education initiatives in Kenya. It particularly targets the youth population due to a lack of available information and risk behaviours, such as sexuality, drug use and alcohol use. In order to prevent risks and present treatment options for the youth who are AIDS-carriers, several youth groups organized the following activities to prevent and fight the disease: street theatre for awareness-raising, group education sessions, and promotion of VCT services for communication and information. This video contains several testimonies and one features Mercy, a young girl who has AIDS after working as prostitute to feed her two children and is now involved in a support group
This report presents evidence that diabetes is a global epidemic. It contains comprehensive information in the following sections: What is diabetes?; The Global Burden; Regional Overviews; Diabetes and Development; Linking Local to Global; Resources and Solutions; References; Additional Resources. This report is useful for health professionals, scientists, economists, policy-makers, and national and international agencies
"The aim of this paper is to present the current situation in sub-Saharan Africa for mothers, newborns, and children under age 5 years—including the progress towards the MDGs for maternal and child health, why and where deaths occur, what known interventions can be employed to prevent these deaths, and current coverage of these interventions. All data used in this review are from the most recent UN databases, national household surveys, and peer-reviewed papers where appropriate, which are referenced accordingly"
PLoS Medicine, 7(6)
"This document aims to provide sufficient information for policy-makers and planners to develop data-driven and evidence-based programmes for preventing intimate partner and sexual violence against women. Chapter 1 outlines the nature, magnitude and consequences of intimate partner and sexual violence within the broader typology of violence. Chapter 2 identifies the risk and protective factors for such violence and the importance of addressing both risk and protective factors in prevention efforts. Chapter 3 summarizes the scientific evidence base for primary prevention strategies, and describes programmes of known effectiveness, those supported by emerging evi-dence and those that could potentially be effective but have yet to be sufficiently evaluated for their impact. Chapter 4 presents a six-step framework for taking action, generating evidence and sharing results. In the closing section, several future research priorities are outlined and a number of key conclusions drawn"
This article examines the inclusion of people with disabilities in situations of risk, including armed conflict. It highlights that a combination of mainstreaming disability and specifically targeting groups within humanitarian work is most likely to lead to greater inclusion and long-term benefits for the whole community. This article is useful to people interested in disability, conflict and emergencies
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The Lancet, Vol 374, Issue 9704
This report presents the findings of a review of the grey literature on the epidemiology of the unimmunized child
The Priorities for Local AIDS Control Efforts (PLACE) method is a tool to identify areas where HIV transmission is most likely to occur, and within these areas, to identify gaps in prevention programmes. In Zimbabwe, the PLACE method was used to understand what risk factors are putting adolescent girls (orphans and non-orphans) and young women 18-24 years of age at risk of acquiring HIV. Because there is an indication that men may sexually abuse adolescent girls in their homes and because it was believed that some adolescent girls may not frequent public places, a household survey was added to the PLACE method
This report explores the potential impact of climate change and natural disasters on children’s health, nutrition, protection and education. The report also raises concerns about how vulnerable households will cope and adapt to these changes, and what this might mean for children’s survival. It focuses on improving disaster risk reduction, including the use of child-centred approaches, and improving humanitarian response
This practical guide "is intended as a summary of road safety problems and solutions worldwide. It also describes the activities of National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies in the field of road safety and suggests possible improvements. In addition, the toolkit includes 20 recommendations that can be undertaken by the National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies"
"It is acknowledged that longer delays between first symptoms and diagnosis result in increased impairment in newly detected leprosy patients. However, it is unclear whether detection delay in relation to impairment can be used as a general or absolute performance indicator of leprosy control programmes. It is unknown whether similar delays always result in similar proportions of impairment. Therefore, the present study examined the quantitative relationship between delay and impairment in two different patient populations"
Leprosy Review, Vol 77, Issue 4
This paper explores risk factors for participation restrictions experienced by people affected by leprosy. The objective was to develop a screening tool to identify individuals at risk. An initial round of qualitative fieldwork in eight centres in Nepal, India and Brazil identified 35 potential risk factors for participation restriction. This was further assessed through quantitative fieldwork in six centres in India and Brazil. In all, 264 individuals receiving leprosy treatment or rehabilitation services made a retrospective assessment of their status at time of diagnosis. Their level of participation restriction was assessed using the Participation Scale, and regression analysis identified risk factors for participation restriction. Four consolidated items were identified as the basis for a simple screening tool to identify individuals at risk: physical impact of leprosy, an emotional response to the diagnosis, female gender and having little or no education. Such a tool may form the basis for a screening and referral procedure to identify newly diagnosed individuals at risk of participation restrictions and the need of actions that may prevent such restrictions
Leprosy Review, Vol 76, Issue 4
This issue brings together experiences and examples of successful projects and programmes in communication and information sharing in the area of household energy and appropriate technology. Examples include building networks, using the internet and producing and disseminating information materials
This concise article critically reviews the concept of behaviour change as it has been applied to individual behaviour in relation to HIV/AIDS. It notes the limits of cognitive approaches to behaviour change when applied within complex contexts and variations of risk to HIV infection. With regard to communication there is a need to move beyond top-down approaches and to incorporate horizontal and participatory approaches. These include recognising and resourcing the role of civil society responses to HIV/AIDS
This valuable new report looks at the levels of infection of HIV and AIDS, the levels of orphaning and child headed households, sexual debut and sexual experiences and risk factors and risk environments for children aged 2-14 in South Africa. This has been investigated as the HSRC recognizes that there is very little known about HIV prevalence rates among children or about the risk factors that predispose them to becoming infected. The study looks at the social and community risk factors that predispose children to HIV infection as well as the impact of the epidemic on children in terms of orphan status and child headed households. It examines children’s knowledge of HIV and AIDS prevention, their knowledge about sexual behaviour and HIV as well as their own patterns of sexual behaviour and changes in that behaviour. This study is interesting as it explicitly includes young children
This study assesses the vulnerability, impact and coping mechanisms of disabled people on HIV and AIDS, and suggests strategies for developing an HIV and AIDS programme for disabled people’s organisations. Using participatory methodologies of inquiry, the study found that disabled people perceive themselves to be at higher risk of HIV infection due to their disability, regardless of their awareness levels. Their social exclusion from the mainstream HIV/AIDS services makes the situation worse. The study revealed that the many myths and misconceptions around HIV and disability increase the vulnerability of disabled people to HIV/AIDS, such as the belief that sex with a disabled person cleanses a person of HIV/AIDS. It also revealed that disabled people have limited access to HIV/AIDS information and limited use of HIV/AIDS services mainly because of the nature of their disability, the location of the facilities and the attitudes of service providers. In conclusion, the study revealed that disabled people are at a higher risk of infection by sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS due to their exclusion from mainstream HIV interventions. This situation is further exacerbated by the lack of policy framework on disability and HIV and AIDS
Source e-bulletin on Disability and Inclusion