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Human rights of refugee-survivors of sexual and gender-based violence with communication disability

MARSHALL, Julie
BARRETT, Helen
November 2017

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The main aims of this project were to document current knowledge about the intersectionality between sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), communication disability and refugees, to identify any reported good practice, and to begin to understand and describe the challenges to supporting refugee-survivors of SGBV with communication disability, in Rwanda. The project involved 54 participants, including 50 humanitarian and partner organisation staff and four carers of refugees with communication disabilities, from two locations (camp-based and urban refugees).

 

International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology,  20:1, 44-49,

DOI: 10.1080/17549507.2017.1392608

Estimation of Zika virus prevalence by appearance of microcephaly

SAAD-ROY, C M
van den DRIESSCHE, P
MA, J L
December 2016

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There currently is a severe Zika Virus (ZIKV) epidemic in Brazil and other South American countries. Due to international travel, this poses severe public health risk of ZIKV importation to other countries. We estimate the prevalence of ZIKV in an import region by the time a microcephaly case is detected, since microcephaly is presently the most significant indication of ZIKV presence. A mathematical model to describe ZIKV spread from a source region to an import region was established. This model incorporates both vector transmission (between humans and mosquitoes) and sexual transmission (from males to females). Account was taken of population structure through a contact network for sexually active individuals. Parameter values of the model are either taken from the literature or estimated from travel data

BMC Infectious Diseases (2016) 16:754 DOI 10.1186/s12879-016-2076-z

Evaluation of the feasibility and acceptability of the ‘Care for Stroke’ intervention in India, a smartphone-enabled, carer-supported, educational intervention for management of disability following stroke

SURESHKUMAR, K
MURTHY, G V S
NATARAJAN, S
GOENKA, S
KUPER, H
February 2016

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This study aimed to identify operational issues encountered by study participants in using the ‘Care for Stroke’ intervention and to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. ‘Care for Stroke’ is a smartphone-enabled, educational intervention for management of physical disabilities following stroke. It is delivered through a web-based, smartphone enabled application (app). It includes inputs from stroke rehabilitation experts in a digitised format. Sixty stroke survivors discharged from hospital in Chennai, South India, and their caregivers participated in the study. The preliminary intervention was field-tested with 30 stroke survivors for 2 weeks. The finalised intervention was provided to a further 30 stroke survivors to be used in their homes with support from their carers for 4 weeks. Field-testing identified operational difficulties related to connectivity, video-streaming, picture clarity, quality of videos, and functionality of the application. Assessment was carried out by direct observation and short interview questionnaires. 

 

 

Knowledge and perceptions of HIV-infected patients regarding HIV transmission and treatment in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Hoang, Dong
Dinh, An T
Groce, Nora
Sullivan, Lynn
March 2015

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Patient education concerning HIV and antiretroviral (ARV) medications is important for optimal outcomes. The authors assessed the knowledge and perceptions of HIV-infected patients in an ARV education program in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study population’s knowledge of HIV/AIDS and ARV medications, perceived stigmatization, and areas of knowledge deficits underscore the need for effective patient education programs addressing poorly understood issues around HIV/AIDS.

Surviving spinal cord injury in low income countries

ODEROD, Tone
August 2014

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Life expectancy and the situation of persons living with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) in low income settings was explored. Mortality rates from injuries and challenges in daily lives of people with injuries from poorer economic backgrounds are were investigated and are compared with those with higher incomes. Literature studies and qualitative methods were used. Qualitative data was collected through semi-structured interviews with 23 informants from four study sites in Zimbabwe representing persons with SCI, their relatives and rehabilitation professionals.

There are few publications available about life expectancy and the daily life of persons with SCI in low income countries. Those few publications identified and the study findings confirm that individuals with SCI are experiencing a high occurrence of pressure sores and urinary tract infections leading to unnecessary suffering, often causing premature death. Pain and depression are frequently reported and stigma and negative attitudes are experienced in society. Lack of appropriate wheelchairs and services, limited knowledge about SCI amongst health care staff, limited access to health care and rehabilitation services, loss of employment and lack of financial resources worsen the daily challenges.

Conclusion: The study indicates that life expectancy for individuals with SCI in low income settings is shorter than for the average population and also with respect to individuals with SCI in high income countries. Poverty worsened the situation for individuals with SCI, creating barriers that increase the risk of contracting harmful pressure sores and infections leading to premature death. Further explorations on mortality and how individuals with SCI and their families in low income settings are coping in their daily life are required to provide comprehensive evidences.

Disability and HIV : a systematic review and a meta-analysis of the risk of HIV infection among adults with disabilities in Sub-Saharan Africa

DE BEAUDRAP, Pierre
MAC-SEING, Muriel
PASQUIER, Estelle
July 2014

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"More than one billion people worldwide are estimated to be living with a disability. A significant proportion of them lives in Sub-Saharan Africa where they are reported to be at increased risk of HIV. However, quantitative evidence on this remains scarce. A systematic review and a meta-analysis of the risk of HIV infection among people with disabilities living in Sub-Saharan Africa were undertaken. We searched all published or unpublished studies and national surveys reporting HIV prevalence among adults with disabilities living in Sub-Saharan Africa between 2000 and 2013. The risk ratio (RR) of HIV infection in people with disabilities versus people without disabilities was estimated through a random-effects meta-analysis. Of the 12,252 references screened, 13 studies were selected. HIV prevalence varied widely across studies from 1.1% to 29%. Pooled RRs of HIV infection in people with disabilities compared to the general population were 1.31 (1.02–1.69) overall; 1.16 (0.71–1.87) among people with mental illness or intellectual disabilities and 1.07 (0.58–1.95) among people with hearing disabilities. This meta-analysis provides evidence that people with disabilities do not have a lower risk of HIV when compared to the general population, and that women with disabilities are especially affected. A clear increasing gradient in the risk of HIV according to gender and disability status was also observed. The important heterogeneity across studies and their varying quality warrant a closer look at the intersection between disability and HIV. Additional studies with more systematic approaches and with higher-quality methodologies are required to further address this knowledge gap"

 

AIDS Care : Psychological and Socio-medical Aspects of HIV/AIDS, Volume 26, Issue 12

DOI: 10.1080/09540121.2014.936820

 

Malnutrition and disability: unexplored opportunities for collaboration

GROCE, Nora
CHALLENGER, E
BERMAN-BIELER, R
FARKAS, A
YILMAZ, N
SCHUTLINK, W
CLARK, D
KAPLAN, C
KERAC, M
2014

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There is increasing international interest in the links between malnutrition and disability: both are major global public health problems, both are key human rights concerns, and both are currently prominent within the global health agenda. In this review, interactions between the two fields are explored and it is argued that strengthening links would lead to important mutual benefits and synergies. At numerous points throughout the life-cycle, malnutrition can cause or contribute to an individual's physical, sensory, intellectual or mental health disability. By working more closely together, these problems can be transformed into opportunities: nutrition services and programmes for children and adults can act as entry points to address and, in some cases, avoid or mitigate disability; disability programmes can improve nutrition for the children and adults they serve. For this to happen, however, political commitment and resources are needed, as are better data.



Paediatrics and International Child Health
Volume 34, 2014 - Issue 4: Nutrition and malnutrition in low- and middle-income countries
https://doi.org/10.1179/2046905514Y.0000000156

The interaction of malnutrition and neurologic disability in Africa

KERAC, Marko
et al
March 2014

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Malnutrition and neurodisability are both major public health problems in Africa. This review highlights key areas where they interact. These areas of interaction include maternal malnutrition, toxin ingestion, macronutrient malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies - all of which cause or are caused by neurodisability, The article concludes that there is an urgent need for nutrition and disability programmes to work more closely together

Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, Volume 21, Issue 1

Gender equality and women’s empowerment : women and girls with disabilities

CHRISTOFFEL BLINDENMISSION (CBM)
2014

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This policy brief highlights the intersectionality between gender and disability and advocates that the unique situation of women and girls with disabilities be considered in the provision of protection for women and girls. It outlines the following five key issues for women and girls with disabilities: participation in political and public life, control over their own bodies and family planning, access to justice, education/employment and protection from gender based violence

These issues resonate with the current narrative for crosscutting goals on gender equality and the need for the post-2015 framework to be underpinned by human rights. The recommendations are both overarching (relating to gender equality and human rights) and are also specific to women and girls with disabilities

Post-2015 sustainable development goals : policy brief

Evacuation of people with visual impairments

Sørensen, Janne Gress
2014

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This Study aimed to increase knowledge and data on evacuation characteristics of vulnerable people and with a special focus on blind and visually impaired people.

 

An experimental program designed to obtain data on walking speeds horizontally and descending stairs, interaction between participants and their interaction with the building environment. Experiments were conducted in different buildings including office buildings, an institutional building and a tunnel. In total 148 people have participated in the experiments. Parallel to the evacuation experiments participants were interviewed not only about their experience with the experiments but also their use of different building types and the difficulties they meet.

Disability associated with exposure to traumatic events : results from a cross-sectional community survey in South Sudan

AYAZI, Touraj
et al
May 2013

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"There is a general lack of knowledge regarding disability and especially factors that are associated with disability in low-income countries. We aimed to study the overall and gender-specific prevalence of disability, and the association between exposure to traumatic events and disability in a post-conflict setting. We conducted a cross-sectional community based study of four Greater Bahr el Ghazal States, South Sudan (n = 1200). The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) was applied to investigate exposure to trauma events. Disability was measured using the Washington Group Short Measurement Set on Disability, which is an activity based scale derived from the WHO’s International Classification of Disability, Functioning and Health. The estimated prevalence of disability (with severe difficulty) was 3.6% and 13.4% for disability with moderate difficulties. No gender differences were found in disability prevalence. Almost all participants reported exposure to at least one war-related traumatic event. The result of a hierarchical regression analysis showed that, for both men and women, exposure to traumatic events, older age and living in a polygamous marriage increased the likelihood of having a disability. The finding of association between traumatic experience and disability underlines the precariousness of the human rights situation for individuals with disability in low-income countries. It also has possible implications for the construction of disability services and for the provision of health services to individuals exposed to traumatic events"
BMC Public Health, 13:469

Differences in HIV knowledge and sexual practices of learners with intellectual disabilities and non-disabled learners in Nigeria

ADEEMI, Toyin
PILLAY, Basil
ESTERRHUIZEN, Tonya
February 2013

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"This study sought to compare the HIV knowledge and sexual practices of learners with mild/moderate intellectual disabilities and non-disabled learners (NDL) in Nigeria. Findings could help in the development of HIV interventions that are accessible to Nigerian learners with intellectual impairments"
Journal of the International AIDS Society, Vol 16

Stronger together : nutrition-disability links and synergies|Briefing note

GROCE, Nora
CHALLENGER, Eleanor
KERAC, Marko
2013

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Malnutrition can lead to disability, and disability can also lead to malnutrition. This paper will focus mainly on under-nutrition causing disability and disability causing or contributing to under-nutrition. Both nutrition and disability are key human rights issues. There is increasing knowledge about optimal nutrition-related practices and implementation of often low cost interventions to tackle issues of malnutrition in children. It is essential that governments, international actors and service providers consider and include the needs of children with disabilities in these efforts to ensure that children with disabilities have equitable access to nutrition in order to allow them to grow and thrive

Diabetes and cardiovascular disease policy brief

OLCHINI, Davide
PASQUIER, Estelle
GUIMET, Pauline
September 2012

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"This policy brief is an introduction to Handicap International’s 2012 policy paper on diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors. It provides an overview of Handicap International's activities in this sector"
Policy brief 6

Diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors

GUIMET, Pauline
PASQUIER, Estelle
OLCHINI, Davide
July 2012

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"This document is an operational guideline produced specifically for Handicap International’s programmes. It is intended to provide them with guidance and a framework for each stage of the project cycle (project development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation) for projects tackling the theme of diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF)"
Policy paper 6

Infertility : why can’t we classify this inability as disability?

KHETARPAL, Abha
SINGH, Satendra
2012

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"Disability is a complex phenomenon. It reflects an interaction between features of a person's body and features of the society in which he or she lives. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), lays stress on the functional as well as the structural problem of a person. All the definitions of disability also include the disorders of the reproductive and endocrine system. So infertility and impotency should also be included in the category of disability. It affects the participation in areas of life and can have a disabling affect on an individual"
Australian Medical Journal, Vol 5, No 6

Early childhood development and disability : a discussion paper

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
2012

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"This discussion paper provides a brief overview of issues pertaining to early childhood development (ECD) and disability. It lays the foundation for a long-term strategic and collaborative process aimed at improving the developmental outcomes, participation and protection of young children with disabilities. Essential to this effort is dialogue between United Nations agencies and relevant stakeholders to identify sustainable strategies which build on existing efforts, and expand on multisectoral approaches to guarantee the rights of young children with disabilities and their families"

Losing sight : eye health and NCDS

PATEL, Archana
IRELAND, Elaine
2011

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This position paper presents information to support that "chronic eye conditions which can lead to visual impairment and blindness should be included within prevention, treatment and control strategies for non-communicable, chronic diseases. These include diabetic retinopathy, cataract, glaucoma and age related macular degeneration (AMD). The prevalence and impact of these conditions are rising with changing lifestyles, an ageing population and increased exposure to risk factors such as obesity and hypertension. Governments should act now to include eye health within non-communicable disease (NCD) control and ensure the development of systems which can realistically address these challenges"

Obesity in disabled children and adolescents : an overlooked group of patients

REINEHR , Thomas
et al
April 2010

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This article presents the results of a literature review about the relationship between disability and obesity in childhood and adolescence. "A total of 38 relevant articles were identified. All studies agreed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children with disabilities was almost twice that in their non-disabled peers. No effective, long-lasting interventions for obesity in disabled children and adolescents have been published. Conclusion: Since a high proportion of disabled children and adolescents are overweight or obese, effective strategies for preventing and managing excess weight need to be developed so as not to further endanger their social participation. Moreover, risk factors for overweight in disabled children and adolescents should be identified and their weight status carefully monitored"
Deutsche Arzteblatt International Journal, Vol 107, Issue 15

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