Diabetes is the 9th most common cause of years lived with disability. Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. This causes an increased concentration of glucose in the blood (hyper glycaemia). There are three types - Type 1, Type 2 and gestational. Common impairments and activity limitations are reported including: neuropathy; peripheral vascular disease; retinopathy; kidney complications; stroke and depression. Different examples of rehabilitation in the care continuum are provided. A case study of diabetes in the Philippines is cited.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) refers to conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels. Most commonly this includes coronary heart disease (heart attacks), cerebrovascular disease (stroke) or raised blood pressure (hypertension). A stroke occurs when a blood clot (ischaemia) or a bleed (haemorrhage) disrupts the blood supply to part of the brain, starving that area of oxygen. Stroke is a leading cause of serious long-term disability. Common impairments and activity limitations from cardiovascular diseases are hemiplegia, word forming difficulties and slurring of speech, cognitive function, depression, sensory loss and shortness of breath. Different examples of rehabilitation in the care continuum are given. A case study of stroke in Nepal is provided.
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a virus that makes the immune system collapse, making a person totally defenceless to infections. A person living with HIV may experience episodic and/or chronic impairments. These may result from illness and/or from treatment side effects, in particular: general fatigue and weight loss; neurological disorders; mental and cognitive disorders such as dementia; and joint and muscle problems. Different examples of rehabilitation across the care cycle are given. A case study in India is provided.
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