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A strategy to enhance the global research effort in maternal and child health : the Mother-Child International Research Network

HAMILTON, Richard
March 2006

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This article presents the mission and objectives of the Mother-Child International Research Network. The network aims to support and bring together researchers and research institutions working in the field of mother and child health in low-income countries, facilitating access to scientific debate and opportunities for collaboration. The network's website www.mother-child.org holds scientific updates, distance-learning activities and weblog facilities and is designed to support health communication and exchange and increase exposure to a wide international audience

The participation scale : measuring a key concept in public health v4.1

VAN BRAKEL, Wim H.
et al
February 2006

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This is a report of a study, carried out in Nepal, India and Brazil, to develop a scale to measure (social) participation for use in rehabilitation, stigma reduction and social integration programmes. The report concludes that the Participation Scale is reliable and valid to measure client-perceived participation in people affected by leprosy or disability

Best practices in scaling up case study : Uganda, using a simple survey method for evidence-based decision making at the district level

NSABAGASANI, Xavier
et al
2006

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This document provides a case study of the Uganda Program for Human and Holistic Development (UPHOLD), and its use of the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) survey method. LQAS is used to collect district and sub-district data. This document highlights its importance, the country context before LQAS, the methodology behind it, results, steps in the scale-up process, best practice, lessons learned and challenges. The Ugandan government is currently considering expanding use of the LQAS into every district

The employment of persons with disabilities : evidence from national sample survey

MITRA, Sophie
SAMBAMOORTHI, Usha
December 2005

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"This paper reports on the employment of persons with disabilities in India based on recent data from the National Sample Survey. The study shows that the employment rate of persons with disabilities is relatively low compared to that of the all India working age population, with great variations across gender, urban/rural sectors and state. A multivariate analysis suggests that employment among persons with disabilities is influenced more by individual and household characteristics than human capital"

Successful communication : a toolkit for researchers and civil society organisations

HOVLAND, Ingie
October 2005

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From the introduction: "This toolkit is for researchers and practitioners who wish to communicate to policymakers. The tools are therefore specifically geared towards the needs of researchers and practitioners in civil society organisations (CSOs), including development NGOs, research institutes, think tanks, universities and networks. The toolkit addresses the questions of how researchers and CSOs can best communicate evidence in order to inform or influence policy, to achieve their own stated development objectives, or simply to make their own knowledge accessible and understandable to a wider audience." After a brief but useful introduction, tools are presented in four sections: planning, packaging, targeting and monitoring

The WHO Reproductive Health Library

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO). Special Programme of Research, Development & Research Training in Human Reproduction
2005

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This CD-ROM is targetted at health care professionals and assists them in understanding research evidence, making decisions about best practice, and establishing implementation procedures to assure the change. It contains editorials, articles on research, research synthesis and methodology, summaries of beneficial and harmful forms of care, systematic reviews and commentaries, implementation aids, registers of funding agencies and NGOs involved in reproductive health, and links to websites about research and research synthesis. This edition includes 13 new Cochrane Reviews (bringing the total to 101), and corresponding commentaries and practical recommendations. This issue includes a new video on 'Vacuum extraction for assisted vaginal delivery'.

Tools for policy impact : a handbook for researchers

START, Daniel
HOVLAND, Ingie
October 2004

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"This handbook presents work in progress on tools for policy impact, specifically geared towards the needs of researchers. "The handbook is particularly targeted at civil society organisations, or the parts of them, whose activities involve gathering evidence, doing research, learning lessons or advising on strategy for social, environmental and economic development in the North and South"

Human subject regulations decision charts

OFFICE FOR HUMAN RESEARCH PROTECTIONS (OHRP)
September 2004

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These graphic aids are a guide to help decide if a research activity involving human subjects needs to be reviewed by an institutional review board (IRB) under the requirements of the US Department of Health and Human Services. The charts specify the following: whether an activity is research that must be reviewed by an IRB, whether the review may be performed by expedited procedures, and whether informed consent or its documentation may be waived. This document is useful for institutional review boards (IRBs), investigators, and others who are conducting research with human subjects

Report of PLACE assessments in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, Central Asia : 2002 and 2003

ABDULLAEV, Shukharat
et al
July 2004

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This is a report on two PLACE assessments conducted in Tashkent in 2002 and 2003. The aim was to investigate whether there was an overlap in drug use and sexual networks, and to identify the implications for HIV prevention. The findings suggest that there is a significant overlap among youth, drug users and sex workers, and that the rate of new partnership formation remains high, while condom availability has decreased. It suggests that interventions need to focus on the sites where youth and drug users socialise and where sex workers solicit clients

Understanding the needs of orphans and other children affected by HIV and AIDS in Africa : the state of the science

BIRDTHISTLE, Isolde
April 2004

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To date, responses to the needs of orphans and vulnerable children have not typically been guided by research, though a body of empirical evidence related to the impact of HIV and AIDS on children is growing. USAID/AFR/SD and the SARA project commissioned a review of 48 selected studies to summarize the findings that represent the most current understanding of children's vulnerability due to AIDS. The review captures what is known and not yet known about the impact of HIV and AIDS on the survival, health, education, social, and emotional needs of children; identifies the content gaps and methodological limitations of existing research; suggests priorities for future research; and informs programmatic and political responses

Debunking the myths in the US global AIDS strategy : an evidence-based analysis

CENTER FOR HEALTH AND GENDER EQUITY (CHANGE)
March 2004

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This key report takes a critical look at the US Global AIDS Strategy. It argues that responses to the crisis are not based upon evidence, but rather upon political and fundamentalist religious ideologies. The US AIDS strategy is critically reviewed section by section and evaluated according to evidence. The core assumptions in the strategy around prevention, treatment and funding mechanisms are challenged by the authors, who draw on evidence and data from a range of scientific and public health literature. The evidence overwhelmingly contradicts the assumptions on which the PEPFAR strategy is based, raising serious questions for those working those working to tackle the crisis

Empowered to differ : stakeholders' influences in community-based rehabilitation

FINKENFLÜGEL, Harry
2004

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'Empowered to differ' equally addresses researchers and CBR professionals. The book gives an overview about the developments in the field of community-based rehabilitation since 1978, using the examples of CBR projects in Southern Africa. Finkenflügel asks for the knowledge and the evidence for CBR and to what extent the roles, interests and powers of stakeholders can contribute to this knowledge and evidence

National household HIV prevalence and risk survey of South African children

BROOKS, Heather
SHISANA, Olive
RICHTER, Linda
2004

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This valuable new report looks at the levels of infection of HIV and AIDS, the levels of orphaning and child headed households, sexual debut and sexual experiences and risk factors and risk environments for children aged 2-14 in South Africa. This has been investigated as the HSRC recognizes that there is very little known about HIV prevalence rates among children or about the risk factors that predispose them to becoming infected. The study looks at the social and community risk factors that predispose children to HIV infection as well as the impact of the epidemic on children in terms of orphan status and child headed households. It examines children’s knowledge of HIV and AIDS prevention, their knowledge about sexual behaviour and HIV as well as their own patterns of sexual behaviour and changes in that behaviour. This study is interesting as it explicitly includes young children

Palliative care in Sub-Saharan Africa : an appraisal

HARDING, Richard
HIGGINSON, Irene
2004

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This report was written from the belief that palliative care is, and will be for the forseeable future, an essential component in the continuum of managing HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. There is now a wealth of experience in sub-Saharan Africa about the ways in which palliative care can be delivered both affordably and effectively. However, there remains a lack of properly documented evidence and research to demonstrate the importance of this work and promote its development. This report provides a review of existing evaluations of palliative care projects in sub-Saharan Africa with an emphasis on isolating the factors that lead to sustainability, local ownership and scaling up; the role of palliative care in the management of HIV/AIDS and how to integrate palliative care and Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART); primary health based care projects in two countries, Kenya and Malawi, that could provide lessons for the implementation of palliative care; lessons from other parallel programmes which mirror palliative care delivery, for example, tuberculosis programmes, and primary care programmes with good links to local clinics and hospitals, and community mobilization and empowerment projects linked to health facilities. In this way it contributes to the effort of providing an evidence base to demonstrate the importance of palliative care and provides a source of reference for policy makers, practitioners, donors and researchers

Persons with disability : study commissioned by the Corporate Planning Unit of the City of Joburg as a component of the human development agenda

WHITEHEAD, Melissa
2004

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The aim of this research is to highlight problems with, and identify gaps in, the human development agenda as they relate to persons with disability in the City of Johannesburg. The research report also gives an overview of the methodologies applied.
The report is useful for organisations and persons who want to learn more about the situation of disabled persons in Johannesburg. Also it is of interest for researchers and organisations that are developing research methodology and policy

The effectiveness of web-based vs non-web-based interventions : a meta-analysis of behavioural change outcomes

WANTLAND, D J
et al
2004

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The use of the Internet to deliver web-based interventions to patients is increasing rapidly. The use and effectiveness of web-based interventions to encourage an individual's change in behaviour compared to non-web-based interventions have not been substantially reviewed; hence this meta-analysis was undertaken. This article presents a systematic review of web-based therapies intended to encourage an individual's behaviour change. Sixteen of seventeen included studies revealed the outcomes of improved knowledge and/or improved behavioural outcomes for participants using web-based interventions. Outcomes included increased exercise time, knowledge of nutritional status, slower health decline

Family and community practices that promote child survival, growth and development : a review of the evidence

HILL, Zelee
KIRKWOOD, Betty
EDMOND, Karen
2004

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This technical review paper presents the evidence for twelve key practices, identified by UNICEF and WHO to be of key importance in providing good home-care for the child to prevent or treat the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness conditions, in order to ensure survival, reduce morbidity, and promote healthy growth and development. The twelve key practices are: immunisation, breastfeeding, complementary feeding, micronutrients, hygiene, treated bed nets, food and fluids, home treatment, care-seeking, adherence, stimulation, and antenatal care. The paper has 3 objectives: 1. To summarise the available evidence 2. to identify gaps in knowledge 3. To make recommendations concerning next steps and priority-setting for both programme action and research

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