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Inter- and intra-household perceived relative inequality among disabled and non-disabled people in Liberia

CAREW, Mark T.
COLBOURN, Tim
COLE, Ellie
NGAFUAN, Richard
GROCE, Nora
KETT, Maria
July 2019

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Evidence suggests that people with disabilities are the most marginalised and vulnerable group within any population. However, little is known about the extent of inequality between people with and without disabilities in contexts where the majority of persons experience extreme poverty and hardship. This includes in Liberia, where very little is understood about the lives of disabled people in general. This study uses a multidimensional wellbeing framework to understand perceived relative inequality associated with disability by assessing several facets of wellbeing across and within households containing disabled members (N = 485) or households with no disabled members (N = 538) in Liberian communities (Total individuals surveyed, N = 2020). Statistical comparisons (adjusted for age, sex, education and wealth differences and clustered at the household, village and county level) reveal that disabled Liberians are managing similarly to non-disabled Liberians in terms of income and education, but experience many perceived relative inequalities including in life satisfaction, transport access, political participation and social inclusion.

 

PLoS ONE 14(7)

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217873

Adding meaning to physical fitness test results in individuals with intellectual disabilities

OPPEWAL, Alyt
HILGENKAMP, Thessa I M
February 2019

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Purpose: Evaluating physical fitness in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) is challenging, and a multitude of different versions of tests exist. However, psychometric properties of these tests are mostly unknown, and both researchers as clinical practitioners struggle with selecting appropriate tests for individuals with ID. We aim to present a selection of field tests with satisfactory feasibility, reliability, and validity, and of which reference data are available.

 

Methods: Tests were selected based on (1) literature review on psychometric properties, (2) expert meetings with physiotherapists and movement experts, (3) studies on population specific psychometric properties, and (3) availability of reference data. Tests were selected if they had demonstrated sufficient feasibility, reliability, validity, and possibilities for interpretation of results.

 

Results: We present a basic set of physical fitness tests, the ID-fitscan, to be used in (older) adults with mild to moderate ID and some walking ability. The ID-fitscan includes tests for body composition (BMI, waist circumference), muscular strength (grip strength), muscular endurance (30 second and five times chair stand), and balance (static balance stances, comfortable gait speed).

 

Conclusions: The ID-fitscan can be used by researchers, physiotherapists, and other clinical practitioners to evaluate physical fitness in adults with ID. Recommendations for future research include expansion of research into psychometric properties of more fitness tests and combining physical fitness data on this population in larger datasets.

The Arabic version of Trinity Amputation and Prosthetic Experience Scale - Revised (TAPES-R) for lower limb amputees: Reliability and validity

MASSARWEH, Reem
SOBUH, Mohammad
2019

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Purpose: Despite the importance of the evaluation process in lower limb prosthetic rehabilitation, prostheses are rarely evaluated properly in the Arab world. This is partly due to the absence of any suitable Arabic evaluative tool. The aim of this study is to translate TAPES-R (a standardised evaluative questionnaire) into Arabic and to investigate its psychometric properties on lower limb amputees. Such a tool would ultimately be of benefit for clinical follow-up and research purposes.

 

Method: International standards were followed for the forward- and back-translation of the TAPES-R questionnaire. A sample of 111 Arabic-speaking volunteers with lower limb amputation completed the translated version of the questionnaire. The responses were then statistically analysed using factor analysis and Cronbach’s α to assess the content and construct validity, and internal consistency (reliability) respectively.

 

Results: Factor analysis showed that the questionnaire’s items (included in the analysis) can be divided into three distinct dimensions as was originally suggested. The distribution of the items within the three dimensions is comparable with the original questionnaire. All three parts of TAPES-R showed high reliability; where Cronbach’s α were .892, .894, and .873 respectively.

 

Conclusion: This study found that the Arabic version of TAPES-R represents a valid and reliable tool.

 

Limitations: The questionnaire is designed to be emailed or posted, but the majority of the amputee population in Jordan did not have these services, so direct contact with each participant was necessary.

 

 

Disability, CBR and Inclusive Development, Vol 30, No 1 (2019)

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