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The value of powered mobility scooters from the perspective of elderly spouses of the users – a qualitative study

FREDRIKSSON, Carin
PETTERSSON, Ingvor
HAGBERG, Lars
HERMANSSON, Liselotte
English
2020

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Purpose

To explore spouses’ experiences of the value of mobility scooters prescribed to their partner.

 

Material and Methods

A descriptive design with a qualitative approach was used. Thirteen spouses (11 females) aged 65–86 years participated. Semi-structured interviews were conducted when the spouse’s partner had had the mobility scooter for 4–6 months. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

 

Results

The interviews showed primarily that the spouses experienced that their everyday lives and life situation had improved since their partner had received a mobility scooter. They reported that they could engage in activities of their own choice to a greater extent. The prescription of a mobility scooter to their partner had also yielded a sense of freedom related to shared activities. On the other hand, the spouses described some of the scooter’s limitations. Three categories emerged: a sense of freedom related to the spouse’s own activities, a sense of freedom related to shared activities and a somewhat restricted freedom.

 

Conclusion

Prescription of a powered mobility scooter was of value to the users’ spouses because it facilitated independent and shared activities and participation in the community. The value was mainly expressed as a sense of freedom when doing things on their own or together with their partner. Spouses are key persons in the rehabilitation of people with mobility restrictions. Their views on the assistive device may influence the rehabilitation process. Knowledge of spouses’ experiences is thus crucial, as this may influence the future rehabilitation outcome.

“You have to argue the right way”: user involvement in the service delivery process for assistive activity technology

PEDERSEN, Heidi
KERMIT, Patrick S
SÖDERSTRÖM, Sylvia
English
2020

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Purpose: 

This article critically examines user-involvement in the service delivery process for assistive activity technology.

 

Methodology:

Data were collected in semi-structured interviews with 44 end users of assistive activity technology and in focus group interviews with 11 professionals at Norway’s Assistive Technology Centre. Data was analysed according to a stepwise deductive–inductive approach.

 

Findings: 

Flawed organisational principles like division of responsibility, unclear regulations, and a lack of competence with assistive activity technology among service professionals have hindered user involvement in the service delivery process.

 

Conclusion:

 A missing knowledge of assistive activity technology among professionals and the current organisation of services creates barriers for a positive collaboration with users in the service delivery process of assistive activity technology.

Associations between occupational and social interaction factors and well-being among people with psychiatric disabilities living in supported housing in Sweden

EKLUND, Mona
TJÖRNSTRAND, Carina
English
2019

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Research indicates that occupation is important for well-being in people with mental illness, but this has not been extensively studied among those with severe psychiatric disabilities. Social contacts may possibly play a more vital role for them. This study aimed to explore how aspects of occupation and social interaction were related with well-being factors in that group, while controlling for the influence of clinical factors. People with psychiatric disabilities living in congregate supported housing (CSH; N = 155) responded to questionnaires addressing occupation, social contacts and well-being aspects, such as subjective health, quality of life, self-mastery, and personal recovery. A comparison group with psychiatric disabilities who lived in an ordinary flat or house and received outreach housing support (N=111) completed the same instruments. The two groups were compared regarding their pattern of associations between occupation, social contacts, and well-being. Associations between occupation and well-being in the CSH group showed that general satisfaction with everyday occupations in particular was related to all aspects of well-being, whereas activity level and occupational balance were not related to well-being. The relationships were fewer and weaker, in comparison to the group in ordinary housing with outreach support. Indicators of social contacts were basically unrelated to well-being. The study contributes to occupational science by showing that the role of a high activity level for well-being, although important, should not be overemphasized. Future research should focus on narratives to get the voices of people residing in CSH and on exploration of how individually/socially performed occupations are associated with well-being.

The Effect of Age, Gender and Socioeconomic Status on Self-esteem, Body Image and Quality of Life of Amputees: An Evaluation Seven Years after the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake

LAM, Tin-Wai J
TANG, Long-Ching L
CHAU, WW
LAW, SW
CHAN, KM
English
2019

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Purpose: Psychological well-being is a growing concern in society. It is starting to play a pivotal role in the treatment and care of clients. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of age, sex and socioeconomic status on the self-esteem, body image and quality of life of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake amputees. Many of them are at a significant stage in their lives, especially those who are making the transition from childhood and adolescence into adulthood.

 

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2015. Forty-five participants were recruited from clinic sessions in Sichuan. The main outcome measures were Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), Chinese Amputee Body Image Scale (CABIS), and WHO Quality of Life-Bref Instrument (WHO-QOL-Bref). Results were analysed using Student’s T-test and Chi-square test where appropriate, and ANOVA for multi-group comparisons.

 

Results: Participants under 18 years of age scored higher in RSE (p=0.05), and lower in CABIS (p<0.005). They also scored higher in various QOL domains (D3: p<0.08, D4: p=0.06) and WHOQOL-Bref question 2 (p=0.06). Participants of different SES did not show any significant differences in the outcome measures. Female subjects scored higher in WHOQOL-Bref Question 1 (p=0.03).

 

Conclusion and Implication: Younger amputees have less body image distortion, higher quality of life and self-esteem compared to older amputees. Female amputees also appear to have a higher quality of life compared to male amputees. Socioeconomic status does not affect rehabilitation outcome and psychological well-being of amputees. However, the main factors affecting psychological well-being appear to be predominantly age and, possibly, gender.

Psychological well-being of adolescents with physical disabilities in Zimbabwean inclusive community settings: An exploratory study

MPOFU, Jabulani
SEFOTHO, Maximus M.
MAREE, Jacobus G.
English
2017

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Background: The purpose of this study was to explore the psychological well-being of adolescents with physical disabilities living in inclusive community settings of Makonde Urban in Zimbabwe. An inclusive community is one that aims to remove exclusionary practices within the community and promote community systems that accept all people irrespective of their difference. Inclusive communities on their own are not uniquely designed for people with disabilities, but most developing countries have adopted them as a basic strategy to influence and enhance psychological well-being of people with disabilities.


Methods: A constructivist lived experience perspective underpinned this research, in which multiple case studies were used to interact with the participants on inclusion and psychological well-being of adolescents with physical disabilities. Purposive sampling was used to select 14 participants (9 males and 5 females). Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and transcribed verbatim. Four themes emerged from the thematic analysis of data sources.


Results: It was found that participants who were adolescents with physical disabilities living in inclusive community settings of Makonde Urban in Zimbabwe were having high levels of autonomy and choice, purpose in life, positive relations with others and good personal growth and self-acceptance.


Conclusion: The findings of this study should enable inclusive communities’ policy-makers and researchers to better understand the psychological well-being of adolescents with physical disabilities living in inclusive communities.

The grace of motherhood: disabled women contending with societal denial of intimacy, pregnancy, and motherhood in Ethiopia

TEFERA, Belaynesh
VAN ENGEN, Marloes
VAN DER KLINK, Jac
SCHIPPERS, Alice
English
2017

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This study aimed to provide better understanding of intimacy and marriage, pregnancy, birth, and motherhood experiences of women with disability in Ethiopia. Qualitative, in-depth, and semi-structured interviews along with personal observations were used to explore the full experiences of participants, as told in their own words. The result of the interviews indicated that relationships and motherhood proved a very rewarding option for women with disabilities. They also expressed their need for intimacy regardless of society’s denial. Challenges identified include negative societal attitudes toward women with disabilities regarding relationship, pregnancy, and child-rearing. Accessibility of health centers in addition to the ignorance and negative attitudes of the physicians are also reported to be major challenges for the interviewees. This study highlights how rewarding the experience of motherhood was for the interviewees and also shows that women with disabilities face challenges at every step of their experiences, because of society’s prejudices toward disability.

Precarious lives and resistant possibilities: the labour of people with learning disabilities in times of austerity

BATES, Keith
GOODLEY, Dan
RUNSWICK-COLE, Katherine
English
2017

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This paper draws on feminist and queer philosophers? discussions of precarity and employment, too often absent from disability studies, to explore the working lives of people with learning disabilities in England in a time of austerity. Recent policy shifts from welfare to work welcome more disabled people into the job market. The reality is that disabled people remain under-represented in labour statistics and are conspicuously absent in cultures of work. We live in neoliberal- able times where we all find ourselves precarious. But, people with learning disabilities experience high levels of uncertainty in every aspect of their lives, including work, relationships and community living. Our research reveals an important analytical finding: that when people with learning disabilities are supported in imaginative and novel ways they are able to work effectively and cohesively participate in their local communities (even in a time of cuts to welfare). We conclude by acknowledging that we are witnessing a global politics of precarity and austerity. Our urgent task is to redress the unequal spread of precaritization across our society that risks leaving people with learning disabilities experiencing disproportionately perilous lives. One of our key recommendations is that it makes no economic sense (never mind moral sense) to pull funding from organisations that support people with intellectual disabilities to work.

Quality of Life among Persons with Paraplegic Spinal Cord Injury

JAHAN, Humayra
ISLAM, Md. Shofiqul
HOSSAIN, Mohammad Sohrab
PATWARY, Md. Fazlul Karim
English
2016

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Purpose: This article aimed to examine quality of life (QoL) among persons with paraplegic spinal cord injury (SCI), to determine their socio-demographic details, and to measure the different levels of performance in correlation with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

 

Method: A descriptive cross–sectional study was conducted with a structured questionnaire to collect information from 45 persons with paraplegic SCI. Data was collected by purposive sampling technique and face-to-face interviews.

 

Results: Most of the participants (47%, n=21) were in the age group of 20-30 years, with a mean age of 33.53 (± 11.14) years. There were more men (89%, n=40) than  women (11%, n=5) and the ratio was 8:1. The most common occupation was farming (27%, n=12), followed by daily labour (22%, n=10). Fall from a height (58%, n=26) was the most common cause of injury. A high percentage of participants (36%, n=16) rated their quality of life (QoL) as poor. Depression was felt very often (44%, n=20), where as happiness lasted for only a little while (38%, n=17).Older participants faced problems at work more often than younger persons. Males and those who worked in public places faced problems in dressing or bathing independently. Married participants were more dissatisfied regarding income and the amount of work they were able to do. Those who had met with road accidents had more emotional problems than others. Association analysis showed that by increasing happiness and decreasing depression participants’ quality of life could improve.

 

Conclusion: The study demonstrated that spinal cord injury greatly affects quality of life (QoL) and gives rise to more problems, especially in the areas of physical and mental health. It is necessary to take steps to improve the physical and emotional status of paraplegic spinal cord injury clients, as this will eventually lead to improvement in their quality of life

Surviving spinal cord injury in low income countries

ØDERUD, Tone
English
2014

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Background: Mortality rates from injuries are higher for people from poorer economic backgrounds than those with higher incomes (according to the World Health Organization [WHO]), and health care professionals and organisations dealing with people with disabilities experience that individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) in low income countries face serious challenges in their daily lives.

 

Objectives: The aims of this study were to explore life expectancy (life expectancy is the average remaining years of life of an individual) and the situation of persons living with SCI in low income settings.

 

Method: Literature studies and qualitative methods were used. Qualitative data was collected through semi-structured interviews with 23 informants from four study sites in Zimbabwe representing persons with SCI, their relatives and rehabilitation professionals.

 

Results: There are few publications available about life expectancy and the daily life of persons with SCI in low income countries. Those few publications identified and the study findings confirm that individuals with SCI are experiencing a high occurrence of pressure sores and urinary tract infections leading to unnecessary suffering, often causing premature death. Pain and depression are frequently reported and stigma and negative attitudes are experienced in society. Lack of appropriate wheelchairs and services, limited knowledge about SCI amongst health care staff, limited access to health care and rehabilitation services, loss of employment and lack of financial resources worsen the daily challenges.

 

Conclusion: The study indicates that life expectancy for individuals with SCI in low income settings is shorter than for the average population and also with respect to individuals with SCI in high income countries. Poverty worsened the situation for individuals with SCI, creating barriers that increase the risk of contracting harmful pressure sores and infections leading to premature death. Further explorations on mortality and how individuals with SCI and their families in low income settings are coping in their daily life are required to provide comprehensive evidences.

Children with Disability in Nepal: New Hope Through CBR?

MOL, Tanja Ingeborg
BRAKEL, Wim Van
SCHREURS, Merel
English
2014

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Purpose: This study assesses the impact of a community-based rehabilitation (CBR) programme on the quality of life (QoL) of children with disability and their families.

 

Methods: A qualitative approach was applied, using two techniques - a ranking line and semi-structured interviews. Nineteen children (ranging from 4 –18 years of age) were interviewed in their homes located in three villages - Chapakhori, Bokraha and Madesha - in Nepal.

 

Results: Children with disability and their families ranked physical health, psychological health, empowerment and level of independence as the most important factors for their QoL. Of the 19 children, 13 had experienced positive changes in their life and 1 child reported a negative change. The positive changes related mainly to their physical health and functioning. The impact of these changes was felt in the ‘social’, ‘level of independence’ and ‘empowerment’ outcome categories. The children mentioned that they had more friends, experienced less stigma, could go to school and were more hopeful about the future.

 

Conclusions: This CBR programme has brought about changes in the QoL of all children with disability and their families. The majority of them reported a positive impact.

 

 

Disability, CBR and Inclusive Development, Vol 25, No 1

Policy implementation in wheelchair service delivery in a rural South African setting

VISAGIE, Surona
SCHEFFLER, Elsje
SCHNEIDER, Marguerite
English
2013

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Background: Wheelchairs allow users to realise basic human rights and improved quality of life. South African and international documents guide rehabilitation service delivery and thus the provision of wheelchairs. Evidence indicates that rehabilitation policy implementation gaps exist in rural South Africa.

 

Objectives: The aim of this article was to explore the extent to which wheelchair service delivery in a rural, remote area of South Africa was aligned with the South African National Guidelines on Provision of Assistive Devices, The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and The World Health Organization Guidelines on Provision of Wheelchairs in Less-Resourced Settings.

 

Method: Qualitative methods were used. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 22 participants who were identified through purposive sampling. Content analysis of data was preformed around the construct of wheelchair service delivery.

 

Results: Study findings identified gaps between the guiding documents and wheelchair service delivery. Areas where gaps were identified included service aspects such as referral, assessment, prescription, user and provider training, follow up, maintenance and repair as well as management aspects such as staff support, budget and monitoring. Positive findings related to individual assessments, enthusiastic and caring staff and the provision of wheelchairs at no cost.

 

Conclusion: The gaps in policy implementation can have a negative impact on users and the service provider. Inappropriate or no wheelchairs limit user function, participation and quality of life. In addition, an inappropriate wheelchair will have a shorter lifespan, requiring frequent repairs and replacements with cost implications for the service provider.

How musical engagement promotes well-being in education contexts: The case of a young man with profound and multiple disabilities

MCFERRAN, Katrina S
SHOEMARK, Helen
English
2013

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Students with profound intellectual disabilities disorders (IDDs) have the right to participate in educational opportunities that recognize their unique resources and needs, as do all children. Because of their specific communication challenges, positive relationships with attentive communication partners are critical for success. In fact, the power of positive relationships in schools is recognized to be connected to student well-being more broadly. This article examines the case of one young man with profound IDD and his relationship with his music therapist using a duo-ethnographic informed paradigmatic case study. Video analysis based on multi-voice perspectives is used to generate hermeneutic phenome- nological findings to closely examine the relationship between a young man with profound IDD and a music therapist. The voices of four allied health researchers were also gathered to inform the authors’ construction of an informed commentary on the phenomenon. The results suggest that the essence lay in a combination of attentive, responsive and creative being with the other person over time. Four principles of musical engagement were identified in the video footage as critical to the meaningful relationships through music: the music therapist listens; the music therapist takes responsibility for structure; spontaneous initiation is sought from the young person; and the relationship is built over time. These concepts are contextualized within a discussion of student well-being that is underpinned by positive relationships and leads to students achieving their full potential within diverse school contexts.

Cost-effectiveness analysis in health. A practical approach (2nd edition)

MUENNIG, Peter
BOUNTHAVONG, Mark
English
2008

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Cost-effectiveness analysis is used to evaluate medical interventions worldwide, in both developed and developing countries. This book provides process-specific instruction in a concise, structured format to provide a robust working knowledge of common methods and techniques. Each chapter includes real-world examples and tips that highlight key information. Calculations concerning disability life adjusted years are covered. The third edition contains new discussion on meta-analysis and advanced modelling techniques and a long worked example.

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